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• Sed non in Cfletare tantum 

Nomfffl erat, nee fkma ducis ; Bed nesda Tlrtua 
Stare looo ; solusque pudor non yinoera bdlo. 
Aeer et indomitiu ; quo spes qnoqne Irm vocaMOt, 
Vem manum, et nnnquam temeraodo paroere ferro ; 
SttocesBiu urgere suos ; inalvre lavorl 
Numtnis ; impellens quioquid sibi summa petenti 
ObBtaret : gaudensque viam f^cisie ruina. 

LU.CANI PkanaUa, Lib. 1. 

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1827. n I 

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Pketauatiohs of Napoleon againit #ke BiTMioR of PMoe...- 
Terais of Peftce oflfered by the Allies, through the Baran dfs' 
St Aignan.— Bawm of the Txeatlea--CknigTC88 held at Mati- 
heim-i ■ Iioid Caatlereagh— Manifesto of the Allies.— .Bttona- 
parte*8 Reply— Its Insineerity—JState of Parties in Pranee— 

1. The Adheioits of the Bourbons— ihar diief Partiians.-* 

2. The old Repfiiblicans.^Tbe I\»p«luthm W Hhmamj in gv. 
neral, wearied of the War, and desiroos of the Deposition of 
Bnooaparte— His unsnpeeisfiil attemptrto arouse the Nation- 
al Spirit — Council of State Extraordinary, held on November 
1 1th, when new Taxes are imposed, and a new ConsoiplStt of 
900,000 men decreed— Oloom of the Ooundl, and TioUnoeoT 
Buonaparte.— Report of the State of the NaMon piesented to 
Napoleon by the Xjegidative Body—His indignation 0k le- 
eeiTuig it.— The LeglslatiTe Body is prorogued.— X!onun!s- 
•ioners sent to tihe Departments to rouse the People-^bttt in 
viSn.— Uneeashig aetiyity of the Smperor^^Nationai CKiaid 
called out — ^Napoleon, presenting to them his Empress and 
Child, takes leave of the People.«^He leaves Paris for ^ Ar* 
miea <m 2&th January ltn4, ftill of mebncfaoly presages, S 

VOI-. viir." 

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Declaration of the Views of the Allies in entering France-* 
They enter Switzerland, and take possession of Geneva— 
Prince Schwartzenberg crosses the Rhine. — Apathy of the 
French— Junction of Blucher with the Grand Army — Pro- 
ceedings of the €rown Prince of Sweden-^Xaidiness of the 
Allies. — Inferiority gf Napoleon's numerical Force. — Battles 
of Brience — and La Rothiere — Difficulties of Baonaparte, 
during which he meditates to resign the Crown— He makes a 
successful Attack on the Silesian Army at Champeaubert.— 
Blucher ia>compel]ed to retreat—The Grand Army of the Al- 
lies carries Nugent and Montereau— .attacked by Napoleon, 
and Schwartzenberg sends^ him a Letter of Remonstrance.— ^ 
Montereau is taken by Storm. — Buonaparte's violence to his 
Generals.— The Austrians resolve on a general Retieat, as far 
as Nancy and Langres — Their Motives..— Consequent Indig- 

-. nation and Excesses of the Austrian 7^roop8.-^nswer of Na- 
poleon t» the Letter of Pil»ee Schwartzenbeig.— 'Prince Weu- 
eeslaus sent to Buonaparte's Head-quarters, to treat for aa 
Aimistioe.— .The French bombard and enter Troyes on 23d 
February.— Execution of Goualt, a Royalist — A Decree of 
Death is denounced against all wearing the Bourbon Emblems, 
and all Emigrants who should jpin the Allies. — Retrospect of 
Movements upon .the Frontiera, . . • . , 36* 


RetKM^»c|4»f Military Events on the French Frontiers..— Defec- 
tion of Muiat« who dedaces in favour of the Allies—Its . 
Consequences.— Augereau is compelled to abandon Gex and 
Franflbe Compt^— The North of Germany and Flanders lost 
to France.— Camot intrusted with the command of Antwerp, 
...IBerg^-op-Zoom nearly taken by Sir Thomas Graham, but 
lost by the disorder of the Tioops in the moment of success.— 
The Allies take and evacuate Soissons.— Bulow and Winzeo- 
gerode umte with Blucher.— .The Duke of Wellington forcea 
his way through the Pays des Gaves.— State of the Royalists 
in the West of France. — ^Discontent of the old Republicans 
wiKh Napoleon's Govemment^Views of the different Mem- 
bers of the Alliance as to the Dynasties of the Bourbons and 

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;t:OMT£NTS. m 

of Napdleon.— Pmceediagi of A* Diikm of Bmi aod Ai^M- 
leme» andMonsicui^ tfa« two Utter of whom entv Afmee.*- 
The French defeated bj WeUington at Orthei—^Bomdeauz la 
voluntarUy Burrendeied to Marshal Beresford by the InhabU 
tants, who mount the White Cockade. — Details of the Nego- 
tiations of ChatiUon. — Treaty of Chaumont, by which the Al- 
■ Ucs bind themseUes of new to cairy oo the war with vigoax.—. 
NapokoB presents a siiigalarly unreasonable Contre-proget at 
Xbatilloni— CoDgy^ at ChatiUon broken up, • • ^ 7S 


PttMulties of Buonaparte M He marches upon Blnchcr, who ia 
IB pessesHon of Soiiw s ■. Attacks the phce without suocea*. 
.Battle «f OaowMt on 7th March, attended by no decisive 
HBsnlr.^Blnchet retreats on ]rfaon..*J3att]e of Laon on the 9th. 
— ^apolewi is eompelled to withdraw on the 11th, with great 
. loBa-.^e attacks Rheuns, which is evacuated by th^ Russiani. 
-.Defeat at Bar^ur-Aube of the French divisions under Ou« 
dioQt and Gerard, who, with Macdonald, are forced to retreat 
upon the great road to Paris..-.Schwartsenberg wishes to retreat 
hehind the Aube^but, the Emperor Alexander and Lord Cm- 
llwwa^ orooiring the measme, it is determined to proceed 
upon ParisMi^Napoleon occupies Arcis.. .Battle of Arcls on the 
20th..— Napoleon is Jo>iMd« m the ni^ht after the battle, by 
Jkf acdonald, Oudinot, and Gerard — Neyertbeledl, he retreats 
along both Mdea of the Aube, with little Ion, • .113 


Phaa of BuoB«p«rte in.his preasnt difficulties ooofeideted,— JUifi* 
taiy and Political Qnestiona rqpoding Paris.— iNapoleon deter. 
D)iiiea to pass to the rear of the Eastern Frontier, and cresset 
the Mame on 22d March.— Retrospect of Bvoits m the vid* 
nity of Lyons* &c..-T|ie Allies advance upon Paris..— Defeats 
of Ae French in vaiiods quttters.— JIfarmont and Mortier, with 
their discoangsd^md broken Forces, retreat under the. walls of 
Paiss-.rParis, how far ^efeniAble.— Exertions of Joseph Bvlo-k 
naparte.».The Empress Maria Louisa, with the Civil Autho- 
litiQ» of QoTfnuaiBnt, kaw the city.«^tlfick of Paris on the 

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^MlUt WtMen the Fitendi ttc defeaMd «n all iMm A liiice » 
«]^f4d fdir, And acconkd..^<)8epli BuonpiHe-fliM, wMi all 
-hit MtondaniS) « 134 


State of Parties in Pari8.«^Royali8t8— RevQlutiotiistB^Buoiia- 
]Mnrd8tt.~TaUeyratid-Jii8 Plans and View8.«-Cll»C«uibiiaDd 
— inflaence of his. Eloquence in- favour of the. Royati<tB..M. Mis» 
tion to the Allied Sovereigns from the Boyalists.— Their An- 
swer — EflTorts of the Bumuq^iartistSi^-JPeduigs of the lowest 
Classes in Paris — of th^ middle Ranks.— Neutzality of the Na. 
ifional Ouard.— Growing strength and eonMsniBe of the Roy- 
alists— .They issue ProdamatioM, and White Coshadss 
Crowds assemhle at the Boolovards to witasss the eslcaaoa of 
the Allies— .MutahiUty of the Fnnsfa OMDaclab^Tho Allifli 
are received with shonts of welcemfc.. .Thrir Mmynttet to 
<tuarters,a&dtheG06taclahivoiiacmdioChampi£]^rs*s, 170 


Fears of the Parisians.— Proceedings of Niqpoleolu— He is in*, 
formed of the dissolution of the Congress at ChatiBon— ^^Oji^ 
Yations of the Frendi Cavalry in rear of the AIIiph ..Ca^twe 
of the Austrian Bamn '«r«Snwmi>arg£^The Emperor Fzands is 
nearly 8urprised..-.NapoleDn hastens on to P^iris, and reaches 
Troyes on the nightof ^ 29Ch Blaxch.— Ophiion of Miedo- 
aald as to the possibility of relieving Paris.— Napoleon leaves 
Troyeson the 90th, and meets Billiard, a few miles from Pa- 
ris, in full retreat— ^Conversation betwixt them.-JEie delei- 
irines to proceed to Paris, but is at kngth dissiwdsd and dii- 
patches Caulainconrt to the Bfotropoilis, to jeosiva tentaa frott 
the APicd SoveielgiB.-«>ge himsetf liftiins to FcntiiiiMww, 186 


The Allied Sovereigns issue a Prodamation that itey will JMt 
treat with Buonaparte.— A Prov'isiottal Government is niined 
by the Conservative Senate, who also decree the forfrftttre of 
j^apoIeon.^Thi8 decree te sftnctkmed by deetorthws frmft «U 

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the Public Bodies in PM».<^Xb« legality ^ these Praoeedingp 
diactt wc d. FeeUngs towards Napoleon, of the Lower dasars, 
and of the-MiltUry.— -On 4th April, Buonaparte issan a Do- 
cument, abdicatSng die throne of Francei — ^Hia subaeqttent agi« 
tation, and wish to conthrae the waT.«-.The deed is finally dis- 
patched, 197 


Vklor, and others of the French Mareschals, give in their adhe- 
sion to ibe Provisional Govemment^Maxmont enters into a 
separate Convention ; but assists at the Conferences held at Pa- 
lis, karaig Sonham saoond in command of his Armj— The 
I ha^e an interview with the Emperor Akzander. 
I eaten, with his Army, into the lines of the Allies; 
in eoBseqnenoe, the ^MbA JSoreieigna insist upon the uncon- 
ditional aubmiasioQ of Napokon.^-His behaviour on learning 
thi8ieSult.^i«nd rfehictant acquiescence— .The tems granted to 
him— Gonsidemtians as to their polic7.«-J)isapprobation of 
Lord Gastlereagh..— General desertion of Napofeon-— The Em- 
press Maria Louisa returns to her Father's Protection.— Death 
of Josephine*— Singular Statement made by Baron Fain, Na- 
poieQa*a Secretary, of the Emperor's attempt to commit Sui- 
cide.— After this he becomes mote resigned— His Views re- 
specting die best Policy of the Bourbons, as his successors..* 
Leanres Fotttainblean, on his journey to Elba, on 28th April, 222 


CommiseuNien vppmniied to eacott Napoleon.— He leaves Fon- 
tainblean on the 20di April.— His interview widi Augereau at 
Valenee*— £zpre8si<»is ^ popular disfike towards Ni^leon in 
the Sottdi of Firance— Fears for his personal safety— Jlis own 
alarm, agitadon, and precaudons.— He arrives at Frejus— and 
embarks on board die Undaunted, with die British atid Aus- 
4rian Commissiotten— Arrives atlftba on 4th MaysMl&dhmds 
at Porto Feriaio, 249 

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Elba-^NapoIeon'ft mode of life and occupadoDs there— Kfl^to 
produced by hit letidenoe at Elba upon the adjoining Kingdom 
of Italy—He is visited by his Mother and the Princess Pauline 
—and by a Polish Ladjr.— Sir Niel Campbell the only Commis* 
sioner left at £lba.^Napoleon*8 Conversations on the State of 
Europe— His pecuniary Difficulties— and fears of Assassina- 
tioa— His impatience under these causes of complaint Mot- 
ley nature of his Court — He withdraws himself within Court, 
forms from intercourse with Sir Niel Campbell— JSymptoms of 
some approaching Crisis— .A part of the Old Guard disbanded^ 
)vho return to France—Napoleon escapes from Elba— .Fruit- 
less pursuit by Sir Niel Campbell^ .... 262 


Retrospect.— .Restoration of the Bourbons displeasing to the Sol- 
diery, but satisfactory to the People.— Terms favourable to 
France granted by the Allies. — Discontents about the mannei: 
of conceding the Charter — Other grounds of dissatisfaction.— 
Apprehensions lest the Church and Crown Lands should be re- 
sumed. — Resuscitation of the Jacobin faction— Increased Dis- 
satisfactions in the Army»— The Claims of the Emigrants moot- 
ed in the Chamber of Delegates— Marshal Macdonald*s Pro- 
posal—Financial Difficulties.— Restrictions on the Press — Re- 
flections on this Subject, ...... 290 


Camoi*s Memorial on Public Affiurs.— J*ouch^ fails to obtain the 
fiivour of the King, and joins the Jacobins— .Various Projects 
of that Party ; which finally joins the Buonapartists— .Active 
Intrigues commenced— Congress of Vienna. — Murat, alarmed 
at its proceedings, opens an Intercourse with Napoleon— Plans 
of the Conspirators— Buonaparte's Esctpe from Elba— He lands 
at Cannes, and advances through France— Is joined, at Gre- 
noble, by 3000 Troops— Halts at Lyons, appoints a Ministry, 
and issues several Decrees— Dismay of the Royal Government. 
—Intrigues of Fouch^.— Treache^ of Ney^^Revolt of the 

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Bourbon Anny at Melmk— The KittglesTes FMit, sad Buona^ 
parte •Trivcs iheie— Hit wcg ptf op, « ^ , « 338 


Various attempts to organise a defence for the Bourbons faiL— . 
Buonaparte, again reivstated on the throne of France, is desi- 
rous of continuing the peace with the Allies — but no answer is 
returned to Iris Iietters...Treat7ofVienna.-.OrieTances alleged 
by Buonaparte in justification of the step he had tafcen.— De* 
bates in the British House of Gommons, on ihd renewal of War^ ' 
— Murat occupies Rome with 50,000 mei^— his proclamation 
summoiiing all Italians to arms-^-He advances against the 
Austtian8«-is repulsed at Occhio-Bella— defeated at Tolentino 
—flies to Naples, and thenee, in disguise to France.— where 
NapoleoftieftiiettoreodTebini, . . • • 39t 


Bttonspsrte's attempts to conciliate Britain^-^Plbt to carry off 
Maria Louisa fiuls.^State of feeling in France with regard to 
Buonaparte's return— the Army — ^the Jacobins— the Constitu- 
tionalists.- Fouch^ and Siejes made Peers. — Freedom of the 
Press granted, and outraged.— ^Independent conduct of he- 
..compte, editor of Le Censeur.— .Disafiecttons among the lower 
Orders.— Part of ihem attached to BuonapartOi— .These assemble 
before the Tuilerles, and applaud the Emperor.— -Festival of 
the Federates— New ConstitutioiwJt is received with dissatis* 
faction — Meeting of the Champ de Mai to ratify it— JBuona- 
pane*s Address to the Chambers of Peers and Oeputies. — The 
spirit of Jacobinism predominant in the latter, • 41 S^ 


Preparations to renew the War— Positions of the Allied Forces, 
amonnting in whole to One Million of Men.— BuonapaTte*sForce , 
net more than 300,000 — Conscription not ventured upon,—* 
National GiiaTd-.«thehr reluctance to serve— Many Provinces . 
hiMtile to Napoleon's Cause.— Toudi€*s Report makes known 
^e wide-spread Disaffection— Insurrection in liS Vend& quelU 

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td^imMmimf RoHMiMaief Fra»ce..*^a90l0im'i Ph»t of Cmq- 
lAigii.— .Paris plaoed in a oompkl^ttele of 4KfiNiee««4«.Thfr Fton* < 
tier-Passes and Towns fortified alsa^Generals who accept 
Command under NapoleoD.-«>He annoances his purpose to 
measure himself with Wellington, .... 440 


Army ol^ Wvllingtoa co««n BniiS9h«>«faat 9i Blneher eODoen- 
trated -on tfaeSsnybm ai41fau8e.^Nap(deoii invieva hisChea^ 
Amy on I4tfa: Jiiiie...^dfaiioe»Mpan GkMle8Qi..«Jiia pkttk to 
sepastfto the A^nuM of the tvo opposing Ckfisieih fta8.^In< 
tenrlew of WtXHbaguin and Bhicher at Biie.^fiBitisli Amy 
eoBcenifatsd at Quatn Biai.— N^polecn^i plip of BUmik.^ 
Battle of I^y, and deAnt of Blaehv im IMi Jane.i*^e«ioti 

*'MQua4reBiasonthesameday*-i<ibeSUfefahfelafai pciMMiinn 
of the Field— Blucher eludes the French pursuit— Napc^eon 
joins Ney^-Jtetreat of the British upon M^aterko, where the 
Duke of Wellington resolves to make a statid..^IiOcalities of 
that eelehrated Field, 4&9i 


Napoleot^^s expectation thftt the AUiance would be biokcft up m 
case of his defeating the Eagliflh m Bel|^uDi.^The English 
anny take up their ground on 17th JFmw, and die French neiiLt 
morning.— Strength <^ the two airm]es.-^P]aite of fttbt Gene- 
rahu— The Battlk of WATSAi.oocomBi6iioed:OBlh6ftiw< 
noon of the I8th Jnnoi— *Fieneh attack disected agMBSt thoBri* 
tish Centre— shifted to tfidr Bl^t— €haiget of tfaa CftitswifTS 

' —and thehr rec^tkm.— Advanee of the PnitelKBS-^Ncy V 
Charge at the head of the Guards— His repulse— and Napo- 
leon^s orders for retreat— .The Tictorious Oenerals meet at La 
Belk AlMance.— Behaviour ot Napoleon during the Engage- 
ment— Bliidier*8 punittit of the Frendi— .Less of the Britiidi 
..of tiie FiokIi— NapdboB^s subsequent atten^ts to waAer* 
value the nilitMy Skill of the Bake of WeUingtoii tntwciBd. 
««.Hm unjust Ccnsiifei of €hDoadiy— .The notion that the Bri" . 
tfsh weie on the point of losing tht BoMte when the Prnqiiiiins.. 
came up ^hown^to be eiHWio ous ^ ..... 476 

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▼OI.. Till. 

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OF X ^HIgj ^ 



Preparations qf Napoleon against the Lwasian of JVonce.^— 
Terms of Peace offered by the AJlies, through the Baron de 
St Aignan, — Bases of the Treaty. — Congress held at Man* 
heim.-^Lord Castlereagh. — Manifesto of the Allies. — Bmo- 
napart^s M^ly. — Its vmncerity, — ^ate of Parties in 
France. — 1. The Adherents of the Bourbons-^^heir chief 
Partizans.-^2. The old Republicans, — The p'optdaHon of 
France, in genered, wearied qfthe War, and desirous of the 
Deposition of Buonaparte, — His unsuccessful cOttfiqits to 
arouse the national spirit. — Council of State Extraordinary 
held on Notemher 1 \thy when new taxes are imposed, and 
a new Conscr^fftkm of 300,000 wen decreedr^Ghom of the 
Council, and violence of Buonaparte. — Report of the State 
of the Nation presented to Napoleon by the Legislative Body. 
^^Mis indignation on receiving it. — 17^ Legislative Boify 
is prorogued. — Commissioners sent to the d^Mrtments to 
rouse the people — but in vain,-^ Unceasing activity qfthe 
Enq>eror.'^National Guard called out.^-Napoleon, pre- 
sentiug to them bis JBn^ress and Child, takes leave qfthe 
People. — He leaves Paris for the Armifis on 25thJamtary 
18 lis, full of melancholy presages. 

WHIX.E these scenes were patssing in the nchiitj 
of FnuiGe, the Emperor was using every eflbrt to 

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% • LIFE OF 

bring fcrw»rd, in defence of her territory, a force 
in some degree corresponding to the ideas which be 
desired men should entertain of the Great Nation. 
He distributed the seventy or eighty thousand men 
whom he had brought bade with him, ledong the 
line of the Rhine, unmoved by die oian^Hs of tbo«e 
who deemed them insufficient in munber lo defend 
«o wide a stretch of frontier; Allowing the truth of 
their reasoning, he denied its efficacy in the present 
instance. Policy now demanded, he said, that there 
should be no voluntary abatement of the lofty pre- 
tensions to which France laid claim. The Auslrians 
and Prussians still remembered the campaigns of the 
Revolution, and dreaded to encounter France once 
"^'more in the character of an armed nation. This ap- 
prehension was to be kept up as long as posAble, and 
almost at all risks. To concentrate his forces would 
be to acknowledge his weakness, to confess thai he 
was devoid of means to supply the •exhausted batta- 
lions ; and, what might be still more imprudent, it 
was making the nation itself sensible of the same me- 
lancholy truth ; so that, according to this reasoning, 
it was necessary to keep up appearances, however 
ill seconded by realities. The allied sovereigns, on 
the other hand, were gradually approaching to the 
right bank of the Rhine their immense masses, which, 
including the reserves, did not, perhaps,' amomit to 
less than half a million of men. "'^ 

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. Thescruideiof the Empemr of Austria, JMii«d to 
the respectentertaiiied for the oourage <^the Fnnebt 
and the tftients of their, leader, by ihe ooaUtion at 
hrge, iiifliieaQfeed their eoimcUs at this period, and 
before miiihig a train of hoatUities which must ii^ 
Tolve aotto extreme condufiion, they reiolved once 
more to o£fer terms of peace to the Emperor of 

• The agent aele<^ed on this occasion was the Baron 
de St Aignan, a French diplomatist of reputation, re- 
siding at one of die German courts, who, falling mto 
the hands of the allies, was set at liberty, with a com- 
mmon to assure the French Emperor of their will- 
ingness to enter into a treaty on equal terms. 1'he 
Ei^Hsh government also publicly announced their 
readiness to n^;ociate for a peace, and that they would 
make oonriderabie concessions to obtain so great a 
blessing. NapoIeon,dieref<nre, had another opportuni- 
ty for negotiating, upon such, terms as must indeed de- 
jHriTe him of the unjust supremacy among European 
ceinicils which he had attempted to secure, but would 
have left him a high and honourable seat ametig the 
soTereigns of Europe. But the pertinacity of Niqpo- 
leon^s disposition qualified him ill for a negotiator, 
sinless when he had the full power in his own hand 
io Rotate the terms. His determined firmness of pur- 
pose, in many cas^s a great advantage, proved now 
the very reverse, as it prevented him from anticipa- 
ting absolute necessity, by sacrificing, for the sake 

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6 LIFX 0^ 

of peace, something yAnch it was aeliiftUy iii his 
power to give or retain. This tenacity was a peca«» 
fiar feature of his character. He might, indeed, be 
brought to giVe up his dainis to kitigdoms atid^pfo* 
Vinces which w^ abeady put beyond his power to 
recover ; but when the question r^arded tihie cession 
of anything which was still in his posftesnon, the 
grasp of the lion itself could scarce be more unrebuc* 
ing; Hence^ as his misfortunes accumulated, th? 
negotiations between him and the aUies came to rei- 
semUe the batgain driven with the King of Rome, 
according to ancient history, fer the books of the 
Sbjls. The price of peace, like that x£ liiese tnys-r 
torious volumes, was raised against him upon every 
'renewal of the conferences. This cannot surprise 
any one who' ik>nsiders, that in proportion to the 
number of d^eats sustained a»d power ifiminisli^ 
^e demands 6f the paity gaining the advantage must 
D[4turaIIy be heightened. 

This will appear from a retrospect to former ne« 
gotiations. Before the wair with Russia, Napoletai 
might 'l»ve made peace upon nearly his own tarms, 
providing ihey had been accompanied with' a dis- 
avowal of that species of superior authority, which, 
by die display of his armies on the frontiers of Po- 
land, he seemed disposed to exercise over an inde- 
pendent and powerftd empire. There was noAing 
left to be disputed between the two Emperors, ex- 
cepting the point of equality, which it was impossi- 

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ble for Akmnder to yield up, m jiiitioe to hinatlf 

Mad to hi8*6«ll»)^Ct8. 

TJi«^ CoQ0r€to8 at Prague waa-of )i ditfS^i?t co»)h- 
plosion* ^Ke fate of war, or rather the copsequen^fe 
of^N^^UM^^to^n rashness, bad lost him an immeiase 
^usmj, ai^^had deUvered fihom faia predptniDaot in- 
jSiieiioai^^th Prussia- and Austria % i^od ihese ppyrerl, 
united in aUiance with RusiBia aiid Englandv had k 
>lifk*lo -demand, as tbey had the means of eoforeing, 
snelf a 4Koaty4&shonld secure Prufeda^om* 
aeenAii^ intaa stale vhich way. be eotisparedto thai 
oi Helots or Gibeonites ; and Austria from one leoKi 
diiectly dependent, but by the continuance of Whteh 
'She>%a8 stripped of many fair provinces, and qx- 
posod afas^ her frontier to suffer turmoil from all 
4be wars which the too well-known ambition of thb 
French, empire night awaken in Germany, Yet 
even then the terms profk}sed I^ Prince Metteir* 
nich* stipulated (mly the liberation of Germany froifa 

• Fveooh influence, with the restoration of the Illy- 
*rian pvovinces. The fate .of Holland, and that of 

Spainvi^erc remitted tUl a general, peace, to which 
Sngtand should be a party. But Buonaparte, though 

• Poland and lUyria might be considered as lost, and 
the line of the Elbe and Oder a» indefensible i^ain^ 
tbo^ assembled armies of the allies^ refused to acce^k 

^ie«& terms, unless clogged with the condition that . 
the 'llaa^ clowns should temain under French in- 
6uence i and did not even transmit thU <^Hiij\ficd ae^ 

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Lin OF 

the purpose of the Congress had eqpbed* 

After gatning six battles, and after the allies had 
redeemed their pledge, thai they wmiU aeC bear <^ 
fiirther negoUatioii while there was a Fr^och aol£er 
in Germany, exc^ as a prisoner, or as bdoapBg to 
the garrison of a Jbloduided forlreaa, it was natural 
that the demands of the confedenited Sovereigpia 
should rise i more especially as England, at whose 
expense the war had been in a great measureearried 
on^ was become a party to the oonferenoes, and l^r 
particular objects must now be attended to in their 

The terms, therefore, proposed to Napcdeon, on 
which peace and the guarantee of his dynasty might 
be obtained, had risen in proportion to the success of 
his enemies. 

The Earl of Aberdeen, well known for his litera* 
ture and talents, attended, on the part of Great Bri« 
tain, the negociations held with the Baron St. Aignan. 
The basis of the treaty proposed by the allies- wer^. 
— *-That France^ diresting herself of all the uimatu- 
ral additions with which the conquests of Buonaparte 
had inrested her, should return to her natural Umi|i, 
the Rhine, the Alps, and the Pyrenees, which of 
course left her in possession of the rich provinces of 
Belgium, llie independence of Italy, GermiMQy> Md 
Holland, were absolutely stipulated. Spain> whom 
the power of Great Britain, seconded by her own rf« 

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^aMybaiiMHrlyireed oEihi^'EfmA yob, vMtoke 
in lite maimcgyeglored ta ijDdqpcpdeBce» unAer Fer« 

SttdbiNare the outlines of the tenn«propo6ecL But 
U is gmerdly ^mhted, that if Buonaparte had ahown 
a candid viah to doae with them, the st^uhitioDs 
au|^ have been modified, «o aa to be more iqjreeabk 
to him than they sounded in the abstract. Theie 
were ministers in the cabinet of the Allied Sovereigna 
who admed an aoquiesoenoe in Eugeoe Beaahar- 
noia) of whom a yeiy favourable opinion was enter- 
tamedy being receiyed as King of the upp^ part of 
Italy, while Murat retained the southern half of that 
peninaula. The same councillors would not have 
olgected to holding Holland as sufficiency independ^ 
ent» if the conscientious Louia Buonaparte were 
{daced at its head. Aa for Spain, its desttniea 
were now beyond the influence of Napoleon, even 
in his own opinion, since he was himself treativ^ 
with his ci^tive at Valenfay, for re^taUiahing him 
on the throne* A tr«^y, therefore, might poasi« 
Uy bare been achieved by help of skilfiil manage- 
SBent^irluch, while it affirmed the nominal independ- 
eaoe of Italy and Holland, would have left Napo- 
Icon in actual possession of all the real influence 
whidi 80 powerful a mind could have;ezercised over 
albvother, a istep-son, and a brother-in-law, all in- 
ddbi!bed to him for their rise to the rank they held. 
Ak fiowernught have been thus consolidated i|i 

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10 LIFE or 

the most ibrmtdaMe maimer, and Ub emfke placed 
in aacfa security, that be could fear no aggresaton on 
any quarter, and bad mfy to testify padfic intetitions 
toNvards other^natiotiSr to ensure the perfect tranquiU 
lity of France, and of the woiid. y 

But il did not suit tlie high-soaring ambition of 
*Napole0n to be-contented with such a degree of power 
as was to be obtained by negotiation. His favoiaite 
phrase on such occasions, which indeed he had put 
into the moudi of Maria Louisa upon a recast ocea- 
sion, waSs, that hecouM not occupy a throkie, theglo- 
'ry of which was tarnished. This was a strange abuse 
^ words ; for if his glory was at aH impaired, as ina 
military point of view it certainly was, the deprecia- 
tion arose from his hating lost many great battles, 
and could not be increailed by his acquiescing in such 
concessions as his defeat rendered necessary. The 
loss of a batde necessarily infers, more or less, some 
censure on the conduct of a defeated general ; but it 
can never dishonour a patriotic prince to make such 
sacrifices as may save his people from the gcourge df 
a protracted and lonng war&re. Yiet let us do jus- 
tice to the memory of a taan so distinguisheil. If a 
merited confidence in the seal and bravery of hfs. 
troops, or in his own transcendent abifities as a 
g^ieraU ^xnM justify him in committing a great po- 
litical errec, in neglecting the opportunity of se<niring 
peace on honourable terms, the events ofthestrange- 
ly varied campaign of 1814 show sufficiently the 

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aofie gBiwd tterei was for JMi ealerUaniig mch an 

At this period, Mareti Duke of Bassano, invkod 

l])e allies to hoid a coagress at ManhaiiB, finr oonrider- 

i&g the prelimuuqies of peace i uai, ea the part of 

•fittst Bntaia^ Lord Cntlerefgh, a cabmet mims^^ 

9iB scsnt over to represent her on. tbii important occa- 

-skwu Faction, which m owmtiies where free dkcua- 

jHon is permitted, often attaches its censure to the best 

jaA wortMest of these to whose pditical optniona it 

is oppoeed, has cakonnialed tins statesman during his 

jife, and f9»n sifter bis death* This is one of the erik 

at the es|»ense of which, freedom is purchased; and 

M b purchased the more cheaply, that the hour of 

conliilaiaon faib not to come* Now, when his powcv 

^cen «tttraet no flattery, and emUi noudimn, impar- 

,tild ListMsy muet writo on the tomb of Castlereagli, 

tthet his imdannted courage, manly steadiness, and 

. deep politic sagaeity, had the prindpal share in 

.linftiwg that spirit of omtiniied exertioB and un- 

.ahitfed pmevjoance into the oouncys of the affies, 

.pbMi supporied t&em thxox^h numy mter¥|da of 

Aiubt and indecision^ and finally. ccmdneted them to 

the triumphant condusioa. of the most cTentiul con* 

te$t which Euiyipe eyer. saw. 

In the meanwhile, both parties podaimedth^ 
javiu^y for peiw^e, well aware of the aivaatageou 
.f^mf^y which the French pubUc in particular couk^ 

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19 UFE or . 

Mt fail to enfertmi of tbiil party, mkkh seemed moat 
disposed to afford the world the hktssings of th«t 
htate.of rest and tranquilli^,^ which was now umyer- 
«^y fiighed for. 

A mflaifesto was poUMiod by the aUied mo* 
nwteha, in wineb ihey comf^iii, unreaRoiiably oer- 
laiidy, of the preparations which Buonaparte was 
making for recruiting his army, which augmenta* 
tion of the means of renstance, whether Napoleon 
was to look to peace or war, was eqoidly justifidsile^ 
when theftontiers of France were snrnranded by ihe 
allied armies. The rest of this state paper waa ki a 
better, because a truer tone. It stated that victory 
had brought the allies to the Rhine, but they meant 
to make no fartl]«r use of their advantages than to 
propose to Napoleon a peace^ founded on the inde- 
pendence of France, as well as upon that of e^ery 
odier country. ** They desbed^" as this document 
stated, ** that Fiance should be great, pow^rftil, and 
happyf because the power of France is one of the 
fundamental bases oi the social qratem in Europe. 
They wore willing to confirm to her an extait of tef- 
ritory, greater than she enjoyed under her ancient 
kings ; but th^ desired, at the same time, that Eu- 
rope should enjoy tranquillity. It was, in short, 
their object to arrange a pacification on such terms 
as might, by mutual guarantees^ and a well-arranged 
balance of power, preserve Europe in fhtwe fifom 

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de INiMbcriess calaanities, wbidi, ddiliig twenty 
yetfs, htA distracted tbe wo^d."" This pid^ de- 
claration seemed intended to intimate that ike war 
of the coalition was not as yet directed agmst ilir 
pcnon ei Napoteen, or his dynasly, bnt only q^ainst 
his systan of arbkasary stttnremacy. Tbe alUas fifir* 
ther dedtfed^ ^at tbey wotild not lay down their 
anDs mttil tbe poKtioil state of Europe sbeuld be 
£naHy arranged on unaltendble prindid^s, sftid re* 
cognised by tbe sanctity of treades. 

The reply of Buonaparte Is eontained in a letter 
Irom CaulaincoUrt to Mettemich, dated 8d Beotoi* 
ber. It declared that Buonaparte acquiesced In ibm 
principle which should rest the proposed pacification 
^on the absolute independence of the states of Eu- 
ropey so that neither ione nor another should in jfu- 
4nre arrogate sovereignty 'or -supremacy in vty form 
wlmtsoever^ <eitber «ipon land <»r sea. It was there- 
ftre declared, that bis Majesty ndberedto-^egiene- 
ral bases and abstracts communicated* by Monsieur 
St Aignan. *« They wiH invo!«,*' the letter add- 
eAj -^ great sacrifices on the pMt of Eraacfe, bat bta 
Migesty would make tliem without regret^ if, by Ifike 
sacrifices, England would give the means of aniving 
at a general peace, honourable for all concentod.*^ 

The slightest attention to this document shows 
that Napoleon, in his pretence of being desirous for 
peace on the t^tas held out in the proposids of 
.4be allies^ was totally insincere. His answer n 

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artfiilly catetdated lo mix up Irith the dimkkution of 
biis o#n exorbitant |K>wcry tli^ (Juestton of th^ mari- 
time bv, on which £ng}aTid and atl other nattons 
had acted fdr many centuries, and irhich gives 
to those natbns thatposaess powerful fteets> the 
sanfe adrantage which those that have great armies ' 
enjoj by the law martiaL The rights arising out 
of this la'w maritime, had been maintain^ fay £ng- 
landat the end of tke disasfeous American war* 
when the Armed Neutrality was formed for the ex- 
press purpose of depriving her, in her hour of weak- 
ness, of this bulwark of her naval power. It had 
been ddended during the present war against atl 
Europe, with' France and Napoleon at her head. It 
was impossible that Britain should permit any chal- 
lei^ 0f her maritime rights in the present moment 
of her prosperity, when not only her ships rode tri- 
umphant on every coast,' but her own victorious ar^ 
my was quartered on French ground, andthepotwer- ^ 
ful hosts of her allies, brought to the ^eld by her 
means, were arrayed along die whole fiwrnti^ of the 
Khine« The Emperor of the French might have 
as well proposed to make the peace. wiiich Europe- 
was offering to him, depend upon Great Britain V 
ceding Irriand or Scotland. 

Neither ean it be pretended that there was an in- 
lirect policy in* introducing this discussion as an 
apple of discord, which might give cause to dis- 
union among the allies. Far from lookuig on the 

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maritine.InWf as exemsed by Britain, wtlh the eyes 
of jea]i9ii«y>ivith whidi it might another times have 
been ii^garded^ the caatinental natbns raiaembered 
die &r ffreater grievsnoes which bed been entail-* 
edffl^ thmby Buenaparte'e. memorable attetnpt to 
put domn that law by his wti-commercial syalenl^ 
which had made Russia hasdf budile on her ar* 
iDOttr> and was a cause, and a prin^al one^ of the 
ffsasfti liQaUtaoii aga^^ France* As Bucnapavte, 
thenefgrcy €01^4 ht^re no hojie to 4>bt«n any advaii*. 
tag% direct or ibadiiect, "fiotn mixing up the questiim* 
* of OMiihime rights with that of thegeneral setdcmeiit 
of tlbe^ontin^ty and as mere spleen and hatrad to 
Gieat bitain would be scmrce an ade^mte mbtiTe 
i^ a loind ^ si^gacious, we must suppose this u»d-* 
mifigiUe stipulation to have been thrown in fi>r the. 
paipqfiie ef enabling l^U> Inreak ofiTthe negotiation 
when, he pleased, ^nd ca6t apoh the Epg^iA One. 
unpopularity attending the bleach Ofit^ It is very 
true, lliat E^^and had ofiS^red to itiake saaifices. for 
obtsiahag a;.g9neral p^ace ; but these sacrificea, as 
was-seem by the evi^t; regarded the rMomtion to 
Vnno^)o£'WD€pWfA colosies, not the cession of het 
ogm naval rights, which, on no occasion i^hatsoever^ 
a minister of Britain will, csp, €i dare, permit to be . 
houfbt into ehalkiige* Accordil^y, the aiMpt- . 
sBce by Buonaparte of the temis transmitted by 
St Ajffikfik bi^ng provided with a slip^knai^ as it. 

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16 LIFE Of 

wmcy by whkb he coald free himadf from the «»• 
gtgmmu at pleasare, was cioiisideted, both by the 
allies, ttd by a large proportioti of the pei^e oT 
Franee, as eloeeiy^ and indicatiiig no serious pur- 
pese of padfication. The tMi^ therefi>re langidah- 
ed, and ims not faiiiy set enlbot «Mtt the chance 
of war had'been again appealed to. 

In the meanwhile, the aH h a miM. Wftging up didr 
vesenres as fast as possible, and Buoniq[iarte on hia 
side was doing ail he coiikL to recrait his Arties. Hia 
measaxea for this purpose hud been adopted long be- 
foie the present emergency. As far back as the 9th 
October, the Empress Maria Louisa, in the charac* 
ter of R^(ent, prerfded in a meeting of the Senate, 
held for the purpose of calling for ftesh recruits to 
the armies. She was an object of interest and com*' 
pasnon to all, when announcing the war wMdi had 
bfoken «at betwixt her father and her husband; bat 
die foDowing injudidons censure upon her coun- 
try was put into the mouth of the young soTereigny 
without much regftrd-to delicacy. ** No due,'' she 
said, << can know so weDTaift I what the French wiU 
hare to dread, if they pennifi the allies to be con- 
qpierors.^ The closing p^agraph was also ttiidl 
criticised, as attaching more importance to the per* 
sonal Mings of the sovereign, than ought to hAve 
been exdurively ascribed to them in so great a puUic 
extremity. *< Having been acquninted for four yeata^ 

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whh the inmost thoughts of my husband, I ktiow witk 
what sentiments be would be afllcted if placed on a 
tarnished throne, aiid wearing a crown despoiled of 
gloty.** ^ The decree ofihe Senate, passive as usual^ 
sppdisfled a lery of two hundred and eighty tfadd*' 
fijiltd conscripts: '* 

When Buonaparte* arrirc^ at Saiift Gtoud, aft^* 

having brought the remains of kis once great army to 

Ifayence, Us aflkirs were even in a worse sti^ than 

had been anticipated. But befcnr^ we proceed to de« 

tail dKf measures which he took for redeeming them^ 

it Is Mecessary to take notiee of two pltrties in thi^ 

state, who, in consequence of the decay of the Im- 

penti power, were growing gradually into importancef. 

The first were the adherents of the Bourbons, 

Hh&y reduced to sUence by the kmg-centinued suc^ 

cesses of Buonapartey still continued to exist, aSid 

now resumed their consequence. They had nume^ 

tarn partizsns in the Wfest and south of France^and' 

maiqrofliiein still maintained conrespcmdenoe witb- 

lii^ exSed family* The old noUesse^ amongst whoRT' 

such as* dM' not attach themselves to the court ais& 

person 6t Napoleon^ ctmtinued to be stounch roy*^ 

afists,- had: acqmrc^f or rather regained, a consider*'' 

d>le influence in Parisian society. The superior' 

elegance of their mauners^ the sechidon^ and al^ 

most mystery of' their meetings, their courage and 

thrir misfortunes^ gave an interest to these relica 

VOL. Vlllrf B 

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q{ the history of France, which wA encreaaed by 
the historical remembrances connected with ancient 
muues and high descent Buonaparte himsdf, by 
the restoration of nobility as a rank, gave a fignity 
to those who had possessed it for centuries, which 
his own new creations could not impart. It is true, 
that in the eye of philosophy, the great man who 
first merits and wins a distinguished title, is in him-* 
self infinitely more valuable and respectable th^n 
the obscure individjoal who inherits his honours at 
the distance of centinries ; but then he is valued fior 
his. personal quaUtiea^ not for his noblesse. Np one 
thou^t of paying those maceschals, whose names 
apd actions shook the worlds i^. greater de^ee of re- 
spect when Napoleon gave them titles* On the con- 
trary, they wiU live in history, and be fiuniliac to 
the imaginati<m9 by their own names, rather than 
those ai^iig firom thw peerages. But the science 
of heraldry, when adn^itted as an arbUraiy rule of 
society, reverses the rule of philoiwphy, and ranks 
nobility, like medals, not aco^ng to the intrinsic 
value of the .metals but in proportion to its anti- 
quity. If ^s wail t^e casQ with o^^n the heroes 
who had, hewf4 a solder's ps^ to hpnours, it was 
8^ more 90 with ^e tM;les, sr«!Pto4 by Buonapar^^ 
'< upon cai^et consid^MiUHif'^ 4^ ^e knights whom 
be dubbed with mphaicj^rj^i^.. It might be trulyr 
said of thftf?, l^at 

Their fire-new stamp of h«noiir scarce was amtmU . . 

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and J^aoapftrte ^breqlecl tlie resf9€t ^ ib^ feopVs 
2rt I«ge tawiti48 title and nobility, a duMtoM m4 
si^ar influenza waa aoc]wed by thoEie wbp poa- 
sessed su^h haQoiiro by lii9i«dit«y daojoent Na|i9^ 
leoa kaaw this, mod courted, and in wme d^eefeam 
ed^ the itaaindfir of tlue nidiioblaMe, who, imbw be 
cqald deeidadly attach dkem to Ui own ifttes^rti, 
vera ^^Qsed to sunFeillanee and imprifloimieiit on 
circumstances of slight suspicion. They beoaa^ci» 
IioHeyer, do eticiuii^eet a«d aautious, thai iti %bb 
mffiml^ t» ifttrodnee t^ q[iie« of the paUoe uitfi^ 
theix Hoions aiwt private pavties. StbOl Napoleon waa 
^mlk of Aer existence of ibis partir,. and of the 
<^n9er wltiicA wi^t attend upon it, even irhiie lua 
Move»i hud fiffgoa peibquthat the Btafhona oetaf. 
tiniifid ti^Uve. '' I Aeu^ him nia«^" aaid Nay, 
(w^ head^ aoHHfdinjptD^Fowh^i could not efmhiaoe 
two pi^litioat ideaa,)' '^ when taking Imnpe of the a^iny: 
^^ Stoffl^gony,, hs used tfie etipiMskn^ ^ The- Scwfi 
hwitiiU nu^ their own of ihifr'^'t 

ThiapafetjK beganimoHi toibeaclun^andfairi^aliatt 
cQQfcdaiatisa organiaedlittt^ittdie.cen^roofi l^wmm 
a»wly9&theniaBAofiAfarck\^ld. TfaetQaitdiaf 
^iVndttQbineflBb^ aaeteaid.^ haivti fiaentk J^iJtm 
of Qury^^^iononflle, aiH[ Sitqaitiaa; Afafus d^'o^ 

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lignac, Feitand, Audrien de Montmorency, Sodihen^ 
de la' Bochefottcault, Sermaison, and La Rochejao 
qudem. Royalist commanders had been nominated in 
different quarters^-^-Count Siuannet in the Lower 
PoitoUy Daras in Orleans and Tours, and the Mar- 
quis de Riviere in the province of Berry. Bourdeaux 
was foil of Royalists, most of them of the mercantile 
class, who were ruined by the restrictions of the Con- 
tinental System, and all waited anxiously a signal for 

Another internal faction, noways desirous of the 
return of the Bourbons, yet equally inimical to the 
power of Napoleon, consisted of the old Repub- 
lican statesmen and leaders, with the more zealous 
part of their followers. These covdd not behold with 
indifference the whole fruits of the Revolution, for 
which so much misery had been endured, so much 
Hood spilled, so many crimes committed, swept 
away by the rude hand of a despotic soldier. They 
saw, with a mixture of shame and mortification, 
that the issue of all their toils and all their systems 
had been the monstrous concoction of a m^itary des- 
potism, compared with which every other govern- 
ment in Europe might be declared liberal, except 
perhaps that c^ Tui^ey. During the monardrjr, 
so long represented as a system of slavery, public 
opinion had in the parliaments zealous advocates, 
and an opportunity of making itself known ; but in 
Imperial France all was mute, except the voice of 

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hired fttnctionaries, mere trmnpets of 4he govern- 
ment, who breathed not a sound Imt what was sug- 
gested to them. A sense of this degraded condition 
united in «eeret all those who desired to see a free 
gDYemment in France, and especially such as had 
been active in the commencement of the Revolution* 

litis class of politicians could not desire the re- 
turn of the famfly in whose exile they had been ae- 
tive, and had therefore cause to fear the re-action with 
which such an event might be attended ; but they 
vished to get rid of Napoleon, whose government 
seemed to be alike inconsistent with peace and with 
liberty. The idea of a regency suggested itself to 
Fouch^ and others, as a plausible mode of attaining 
theirpnrpose. Austria, they thought, might be pro- 
pitiated by giving Maria Louisa the precedence in 
Ae council of regency as guardian of her son, who 
should succeed to the crown when he came to the age 
of majority. This expedient, it was thot^ht, would 
give an opportunity, in the meanwhile, to introduce 
free principles into the constitution. But, while it 
does not appear how these theorists intended to dis- 
pose of Napoleon, it is certain that nothing but his 
death, captivity, or perpetual exile, would have pre- 
vented such a man from obtaining the full manage- 
ment of a regency, in which his wife was to preside 
in the name of his son. 

A great part of the population of France, without 

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xis Live OF 

liaviBg any disttuct fiew9 m to its fittitre gcfrtm^ 

meat, wene ttiacotitented with lilmt o£ Buona^site, 

ifliiftii «fl>e^ Jba/vfng dtsuMd tUe CMUttty oF tmea 

-ubA weekh^ deemed about to terimmte, bjr stl^eet- 

Siig k to 4lie reveBge of uioeMed Enro^. When 

.Aeie vtBf^ told thai; B iwapacte odukL net bear t6 

4ai Hf^B « fcannhcd thimie, or vHear a orowii of 

whkh die glofj waB dimtniidied, i&ejr ^vcte apt to 

itomiAet how often it was aeeeaserj that the best 

Mdod lof Fhmoe sfaouUl be depen d e d in waahiag the 

!M» «Dd Testoring the btilfiaiicy of the other. They 

ilawih Napoleona bold and obstimte maa, toamooB 

isthmnfi oTereDme so many obstadfis, dmt he cooid 

Bol endciiie to admit the ektstenee of any wfatdi ndght 

be inaurtDoimtable. They beheld him obstinatdy 

detenained to retain everythtiig, defend ererythiag, 

venture everything, witboiit inakbq; the least eaoii*- 

fioe tb curettutttaacei^ as if he were in his ownpetsba 

independent of the Laws of Destity, to which the 

whdte universe is snbjected* Theie men fek the op^ 

prebaion of ^e new taates, the terntfs of the new Com- 

scnption,'* and widiont forming a wish aa to the mode 

* In hu been fprea m m suffideat answer to tkeie oomfibMIs, 
that Buonaparte » fahdj aociued of haTing drained Pxanoe «f lier 
youth, sinoe, upon the whole, the population is stated to have» on 
the contrary, increased. This may be the case ; but it is no less cer- 
tain that the wars of Buonaparte cousmned at least a tnilfion of 
GDiMfenpts, aod it does not oeeor te us that the pdpulati«A 6f a couo- 

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in whicb he was to be succeeded, devoutly desired the 
Emperor's deposition. But when an end is warmly 
desired, the means of attaining it soon come to oc- 
cupy the imagination ; and dius many of those who 
were at first a sort of general malcontents, came to 
attach themselves to the more decided faction eidier 
of the royalists or liberalists. 

These feelings, varying between absolute hostili- 
ty to Napoleon, and indifference to his fiite, threw a 
general chiUness Oyer the disposition to resist the in- 
vasion of the strangers, which Buonaparte had reckon- 
ed on as certain to render the war national amongst so 
high-spirited a people as the French. No effort was 
spared to dispel this apathy, and excite them to re- 
dstance ; the presses of the capital and the provinces, 
all adopted the tone suggested by the government, 
and called forth every one to rise in mass, for defence 
of the country. But although, in some ^aces, the 
peasants were induced to take arms, the nation at 
large showed a coldness, which can only be account- 
ed for by the general idea which prevailed, that the 

try hicreaies BJoSer nioh dieomttaiioeB, lik« the growth of a tree 
ni^eoted to maoh praning ; still lees that the general result would 
satisfy parents for the sUughter of their children, any more than 
the sorrow of a mother who had lost her infant would be assuaged 
by the information that her next-door neighbour had been safely 
deHvered of twins* 

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Emperor had an honourable peace within his pover, 
whenever he should be disposed to accept of it. 

^n the meantime^ new burdens were necessary 
to pay the expenses of the approaching campaign^ 
and recruit the diminished ranks of the army. Na* 
pdeon, indeed, supplied from hi9 own hoards a sum 
of thirty millions of francs ; but, ^t the same time, 
the public taxes of the subject were ii^creased by 
one moiety, without any appeal to, or consultation 
withy the Legislative Body, who, indeed, wer^ ^o| 
sitting at the time. In a Council of State extraor? 
dinary, held on the 11th November, two days a& 
ter his return to Paris, Napoleon vindicated the in? 
flictipn of this heavy augmentation on a discontent- 
ed and distressed country. ^^ In ordinary times,^ 
he said, ^' th^ contributions were calculated at one- 
fifth of the income of the individual ; but, according 
to the urgency of events, there was no reason why it 
should not rise to a fourth, a third, or a half of the 
whole income. In fact," he concluded, ** the con* 
tribution had no bounds ; and if there were any laws 
intimating the contrary, they were ill-consideredlaws, 
and undeserving of attention.*^^ 

There was then read to the Council a decree of 
the Senate for a new conscription of three hundred 
thousand men, to be levied upon those who had es- 
caped the conscription of former years, and who had 
been considered as exempted from theseryic^. There 

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was a deep snd meUuncholy silence. At length • 
coundllor qpoke, with some hedtatioYi, though it was 
only to blame the introductory clause of fhe 8en»» 
tonal decree, which stated the invasion of the fron- 
tiers as the cause of this large levy. It was, he sug* 
gested, a declaration too much calculated to spread 

. *^ And wherefore,^ said Napoleon, giving way to 
his natural vehemence, and indicating more strongly 
than prudence warranted, the warlike and vindictive 
porposes which exclusively occupied his breast, — 
'^wherefore should not the whole truth be told? Wel- 
lington has entered the south ; the Russians menace 
^he northern frontier ; the Prussians, Austrians, and 
Bavarians threaten the east. Shame ! — Wellington 
is in France, and we have not risen in mass to drive 
Mm back. All my allies have deserted me ; the Ba- 
varians have betrayed me — They direw themselves 
on my rear to cut off my retreat— *But diey have 
been slaughtered for their pains»^ No peace-^HQone till 
we have burned Munich. A triumvirate is formed 
in the north, the same which made a partition of 
Poland. I demand of Fiance three hundred thou« 
sand men— I will form a camp of a hundred thou- 
jBsnd at Bourdeaux — another at Metz — another at 
X«yon8. With the present levy, and what remains 
pf the last, I will have a million of men. But I 
jfinst have grown men«— not these boy-conscripts, to 

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26 LtFE OF 

encttttiber t^e hofipitah, aitd iKe of fatigue apon the 
hi^irayfi-^I enn redkon on no soldieis now save 
those of France itself."* 

** Ah, Sire,*^ said one of the assentafcors, glad to 
tli^ow in a suggedtion which he supposed would suit 
the mood t>f the time, *^ that anciettt France must 
remain to us inviolate.^ 

^f And Hollattdr answered Napokon, fiercely. 
** Alcandon Holland ? sooner yield it back to the 
sea. Councillors, there must be an impnlse giveih-^ 
aU must match^^Yoti are fkthers of femilies, the 
heftds of the nafcii>n ; it is for yon so set the exam- 
ple. They speak of peace ; I hear t>f nothing but 
peace, when «dl att^und should echo to the cry of 

This w«8 one ijt the occasions on which BuMa- 
patters constitutional t^hemenc^ overcame his poli- 
tical prudence. We might almost think we hear the 
voice of the Scandinavian deity Thor, or the war- 
god of Mexico, clamorous for his victims, and de- 
manding lifaat they be unblemished, and worthy 
of his bloody altar. But Buonaparte was unable to 
inspire others with his own martial zeal ; they only 
foresaw that the nation must, according to the sys- 
tem of its Toler, encounter a most perilous danger, 
and that, even in ease iof success, when Napoleon 
reaped lauttls, TPttmce would only gather cypress, 
^his feting was cfhiefty predominant in the Legis- 

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iative AsMMftbly; tm ev^ represetitaliv^ iMdy , winch 
wmtMtee hcmiMk tWiole^ ftMft 1^ people^ has a 

It 16 Orli^, ^duit thift Enpeh>r had 1^ ^vcry pre- 
ftjwih Mi W Ms ^^(^, «iidfefavtHttttd to -deprive tMs 
pm tf i^ «iifii^, the ««)iy «M ivMch had tetauttd 
die least «bad§w of po^pftilflbr ^(^MsehtbtiM, of erery^ 
M^ i^p^idUdlA^ tb ft&^am fif debati^ ot right <iF 
MioiiWiliid^^ illid %y fet iM^liI; tM^t tf despotic hi* 
^Wtibii^ had ^wen iMfhtMsd thett t!f ^tb ptm^v iX 
iChooM^ thisilr i^wn preddetttfc He is l^aSd i3so to 
have exerted his atttbofrity t»t«r indlvidnah by a 
ptwlice ^imflar to that practised by Jatnes the Se- 
txfad tpcftk lQli€»ilwrs of piftriiametLt, called dosetitig, 
tttbaittittg hftdividtiahi of the L^lative Body to pri- 
ttde int^^ews, and condescending to ttsetoiviird them 
llitft personal mteroession, which coming from a sore- 
reign, it is so diflteult to resist. Bnt these ffirts prored 
tmsttCoeMAd, and only tended to show to the woild 
diaa die Lc^slatite Body had independence enough 
to intimate thteir d^re fbr peace, while their sove- 
leign was still determined tm. war. A commission of 
t:9t of their membets, distinguished for wisdom and 
iDkodenrffon, were appointed to draw up a report upon 
^ atale of the taMiois, wttdi Aey did in terms re- 
spe^Hftd to >f apoleon, hut sttch as plainly indicated 
lfttart!on^libn that he would act wisely to discontinue 
ids sefaemes of external amintion, to purchase peace 

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28 x.iF£ or 

by cHschiming them, and at the same time to reatcwe 
to the subject some degree of internal liberty. They 
suggested, that, in order to silence the complaints of 
the allied monarcbs, which accused France of aiming 
at general sovereignty, the emperor diould make & 
solemn and specific declaration, abjuring all such pur« 
poses. They reminded him, that when Louis XIV. 
desired to restore energy to the nation, he acquainted 
them with the efforts he had made to obtian peace, and 
the effect answered his wishes* They recommend<- 
ed the example to Napoleon. It was imly neesssary 
they said, that the nation should be assured, that the 
war was to be continued for the sole object of the in<- 
dependence of the French people and territory, to re- 
animate public spirit, and induce all to concur in die 
general defence. After other arguments, tesiding to 
enforce tlie same advice, the report concluded with 
recommending that his Majesty should be supplicated 
. to maintain the active and constant execution of the 
laws, which preserve to Frenchmen the rights of liber- 
ty, and security both of person and property,* and to 
the nation the free exercise of its pditical privileges. 
Like the mute prince, who recovered his speech 
when his father's life was endangered, the extremity 
of the national distress thus gave the power of re«- 
monstrance to a public body, which had hitherto 
been only the passive agents of the will of a deepor 
tic severe^. Yet comparing the nature of the re^ 

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! vithtlie period of eitiemity at wkich it 
▼M made^ Napoleon must have, felt somewliat in the 
flituaticm of the patriarch of Uz, the firiends of whose 
liniBer prosperity came in the moment of his great* 
est distressies with reproaches instead of assistance. 
The Lii^idatiye Body bad been at least silent and 
acquieaoeiit during the wonderftd period of Buona- 
parte^s siiceess, and .they now chose that of his ad- 
Tersity to give him nnpalataUe advice, instead of 
aiding in this en^igency to inspire the nation with 
confidence* A philosophical monarch would never- 
theless have regarded the quality of the course re* 
commended more than the irritating circumstances 
ot time and; manner in whieh it was given ; and 
would have endeavoured, by frank confidence and 
coDcesaons, to reconcile himself with the L^slative 
Body. An artful and Machiavelian depost would 
have temporised with the deputies, and yielded for the 
time, with the purpose of afterwards recovering, at a 
fitting period, whiatever point he might at presait be 
obliged to cede. But Napdieon, too imjpetuous f<nr 
eidier policy or philosophy, gave way to the iUl 
vdhemenc^ of a r^entm^it, .which, though unrea* 
sonaUe and imprudent, wa& certainly, considering 
those to whom it was addressed, by no means un« 
naturaL He determined, instantly to prorogue the 
Assembly^ which^ had indicated such symptoms of 
oj^tioB. Their hall was, therefore, shii^ against 

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tfaemyandguiaMM! wkk soldkcp, wfailttlhvidipiilieB^ 
aiUBMoiied befoie the tbrbne af tke Empevor, noei- 
red the io3isming siqgulav admonition :-^^' I hwe- 
poahihitedtlieprmtiag^af your address, l^eeaosekia 
sedttioiuu £leye& parte of yvu ate goedctetsens, bat 
tke t velftih eoBsists o£ vebals, svd your oompiiMion- 
em ace of the number. "Lsame oeivespoBdis wi^ii tjie 
Frinee Begaitt of England ; the oth^w are hot- 
headad fiwl^ desirous of ai|«rcby^ like %h» Qiren- 
dim, whom sooh opiniom led ^9^ the soaffi^M^ I9 
it wbai. the en^ny are on ^e fro^itiers that you 
demand an alteratiop et the eonstttution ^ Radker 
felUnr the exam^te of Alsaee and Franehe Compt6, 
where ;the inhabitants ask for leaders and arms to 
driire the invaders back. You are not Ae represen- 
tatnres cf the people-«you^ are only the r^esenta^ 
tfares of liiQ individual departments .... Yet you 
seek in yxiuv i)[ddi»8s to dntw a cKstinetion betwi*xt 
the somsigifr uid'die people. I — ^I am the onfy real 
r^nssadafive o£ the people. Whickof you eovld 
mppsat saejii a burden ?-f The throne is merely a 
pieile o€ weodN eoveredi wil^ yelvel^ I< — I alone hold ' 
the place ef tlie people. • If Franoe desires another 
sgeeieaofrooQatatution) which- dbes not suit me, I w31* 
.teUiherto seek another monarch. It is at me the 
^jp^emifis aim, more' tlllm at Fmnoe; but are we, 
therc^^, to saoifieea part' eif Ftance ? Bb^ F not 
saorifiee my self-love, Md myibelings of supericnity^ ' 

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to obtain peaee ? Think you I speak proudly ^ HI 
do, I am proud because I h&ve Gousage» and beeaoM 
Fiance owes h^ giaudeur to. me, Yte-^your ad- 
dress is unworthy of the Legislative Body> and ef 
me« Begone to your homes* I will cause youK adt 
dress to be publkhed.ia the Moniteur>, with audi 
Doteaas I shall Aimish. £wen.if I had doee wrongs 
jott ofii^t not to have leproftched me with it tfamr 
puUidy. People do not wash their dirty linmi beh 
fore the winrld. To conelude^ France has more need 
of me thoa I haTe o£ France.'^ 

With thM phiUipic^ which we haTe but slight^ 
ly coqipNssed, he spumed the membem.of tlie Lft* 
gUati^e Body from hi9 presence. It diq^lqrs m 
a mnaxkable d^ee his natusal vehemence o£ tem-* 
per; his yiew of the oonstitution as a drama^ in 
which he filled up every part, and peefhrmed at oncer 
Ae part of .the prince and of the people ; his con«> 
sdousnese of his own extraordinary powens^ whick 
he boldly weighed in the bi&mce against all Eranee; 
and the coarse and mean taste of some of hia ei^nea-: 
sbns. The suspension of the LegialatiTe Body, the 
oaly part, we repeat, ql the Imperial oanstitutipn 
which had tl^ least pretence to a popular origin^ waa. 
not qualifi^ to increase the eS^^^^oe of the pidilie, 
who npw saw want of uni^^ between* the fimpenir and 
tkepopukr 'representatives, added to theothei^ threat*, 
ening dremnataiiGeaofithe time^iyAd became^yetmor^. 

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distracted in their opinions, and unwilling to exert 
themselves for the common defence. 

To gire a more favourable impulse to the mind 
ofthenation^ Napoleon had recourse to an expe- 
dient^ which, in the time of the Republic, bad been 
attended with universal effect. He sent special com- 
missioners, twenty-seven in number, into the di£^ 
rent departments, to arouse. the dormant energies of 
the inhabitants, and induce them to take up arms. 
But the senators and councillors, chosen for this 
purpose, were altogether void of the terrible ener- 
gies of the Republican proconsuls ; and, though en* 
dowed like them with the most arbitrary powers, they 
had neither the furious zeal, nor the contempt of ail 
the prejudices of humanity, which had been display^ 
ed by those ferocious demagogues. Their missionr 
therefore, produced but little eflect The conscript 
tioD, too, failed to be the .ready source of levies 
which it had so often proved. . The lancet had been, 
so often used, that the blood no longer followed it 
so readily. 

The unceasing activity of Napoleon laboured to;, 
supply these deficiencies. By day he was iooessaiit^> 
ly engaged, in actively reviewing troops, inspiectiiig^ 
stores, and all the preparations for a desperate rie- 
sistanee. By night, the lights were seen to glim« 
mer late and long in the windows of .his private 
apartment, in the upper story of the TuiUeries. He 
succeeded in levying twelve fresh regiments, and 

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fTcptaed to augmeiit his veteran force by withdraw- 
ing Suchet from Catalonia, and making draughts 
fiom Soult^s army on the frontiers^ which he design-^ 
ed to supply by fresh levies. 

The Moniteur^ and the other newspapers, magnU 
fied the success of the Emperor's exertions, described 
anoies in reserve which had no existence^ and dilated 
upon the beau dee^povr which was ^ving all France 
to arms, while, in fact, most of the provinces waited 
wiA apathy the events of the war. 

Oto of the strongest symptoms of Napcrfeon^s 
own consciousness of approaching danger, was his 
callmg out and arming the National Guard of Paris, 
a force to wideh he would not have appealed, save 
in the case * of the last necessity, but to which he 
now felt himsdf obliged to have recourse. Aware, 
however, that to mark any want of confidence in the 
ttiiied citizeiis at this moment, would be to give oc- 
ca8i<m to the disaffection which be dreaded, he so^ 
lemniaed his departure to the frontier by oonv(ddng 
s meeting of the officers of the National Guard 
St the Tnilleries* He appeared among tbem witli 
his Empress and his infant dxild, and in a tone wbich 
penetrated eveiy bosom, ankiotim»d that, being about 
to phiee himself a1^t£e head of his army, he cbminit- 
ted to the faith of the citizens of Paris, the security 
of his capital, his wife, and his child. Whatever 
complaints Aright Me justly entertained against^ Na« 


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poleon'8 pofidcal conduct, none were so nngeneroiu^ 
as to remember them st that moment. Many of de 
officers shared in the emotion which he testified, and 
some mingled their tears with duwe of the ahurmed 
and sorrowing Empress. 

This scene took phice on the 83d of January ; oft* 
the 25th Napoleon left that abode of royalty, to whidr 
he* was doomed not to return until he had undter- 
gone strange changes of fortune. His mind waa 
agitated with unusual i^prehennons and anticipa- 
tions of misfortune ; feeling also, what was unsus- 
pected by many, that the real danger of his situa- 
tion arose from the probability of the nation's wish- 
ing to recall the Bourbons. He had even, according 
to his own account, resolved to anrest ^* the person 
of a man of great influence,^* whom he supposed 
most likely to promote this design. His council^ 
lors persuaded him to fiirbear this arbitrary action 
at a moment when his power was becoming daily 
more obnoxious, and reminded him that the sua^ 
pected person had as much reason to fear the re- 
storation of the Bourbons as he himself had. The 
Emperor yielded the point, but not without strong- 
ly repeating his fears that his advisers and himself 
would both have to rqient of it ; and not without: 

* Talleyrand is intimated; for Foudi^, to whom the deieription 
might oth«rwifle have applied, was not at this time in or near Paris. 

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charging Cambaceres to make sure of that indiTi- 
dual^s person, in case any crisis should take place in 
the capital. 

Thus, fiiU of melancholy presages, he hastened to 
the field, where he had but inadequate means to op- 
pose to the accumulated force which was now preci- 
pitating itself upon France. 

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36 1IF£ QT 


Declaration of the Views of the Allies in entering France.'^ 
They enter Switzerland^ cdid take possession of Oenevd, — 
Prince Schwartzenberg crosses the Rhine, — Apathy of the 
French.-'^tinction of Blucher with the Grand Army, — 
Proceedings of the Crown Prince of Sweden. — Tardiness of 
the Allies, — Inferiority of NapoleorCs ^numerical Fo^xe,-^ 
Battles ofBrienne — and La Rothiere, — Difficulties ofBuo^ 
napartet during which he meditates to resign the Crown^-'^ 
He makes a successful Attack on the Silesian Army at 
Champeaubert, — Blucher is compelled to retreat* — Tlie 
Grand Am^ of the Allies carries Nogent and McntereaU'^ 
attached by Napoleony and Schwartzenberg sends him a 
Letter of Remonstrance. — Montereau is taken by Storm. — 
Buonaparte* s violence to his Generals.^— The Austrians re- 
sohe on a general Retreat y as far as Nancy and Langres, 
— Their mottoes. — Consequent indignation and excesses of 
the Austrian Troops. — Answer of Napoleon to the Letter of 
Prince Schwartzenberg. — Prince Wenceslaus sent to Buo^ 
naparte^s head-quarters^ to treat for an Armistice j-^Tfie 
French bombard and enter Troyes on 2Sd February. — Bxe* 
cution of Goualt, a Royalist. — A Decree of Death is de- 
nounced against all wearing the Bourbon emblems, and dU 
Emigrants who should join the Allies. — Retrospect of Move* 
ments upon tlie Frontiers. 

It was time that Buonaparte should appear in 
the field in person, for the eastern frontiers of his 
empire, assaulted on every point, were yielding an 
almost unresisted entrance to the invading armies. 

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The Allied Sovereigns had commenced their opera- 
tions upon a system^ as moderate and prudent in a 
political point of view, as it was bold and decbive 
consideied under a military aspect. 

They had not been too much elated by the suc- 
cesses of the late campaign. These had been bought 
at a high price, and evaits had shown, that if Napo- 
leon could be resisted and defeated, it could only be 
by outnumbering his veteran armies, and accumulat- 
ing such force against him as even his skill and ta- 
lents should find irredstible* They recollected, also, 
the desperate efforts of which France an4 French- 
men were capable, and were prudently desirous to 
apress the moderation of their purpose in .such a 
form as should have no chance of being mistaken^' 

Their manifestos disclaimed the intention of dic- 
tating to France any particular form of government. 
They only desired that she should remain within the 
limits of her ancient territory, a peaceful member of 
the European commonwealth, allowing to other states, 
as well as claiming for herself, the full immunities of 
freedom and independence. The Allied Sovereigns 
desired that there should be an end put to the sys- 
tem which decided the fate of kingdoms, not accord- 
ing to iJie better right, but the longest sword. They 
wished a total suppression of all domination of the 
powerful over the weak ; of all pretext of usurpation 
founded on aliege4 natural boundaries, or, in other 
imdsi, QD the claim of a powerful ?tate to rend ftonf 

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a weak one whatever unted its conyemence to piraseM. 
In a word, they aimed at the restoration of the Ba« 
knee of Power, which had been long the political 
object of the wisest statesmen in Europe. It is singu- 
lar, that the three nations who were now united to 
oppose die aggressions of Buonaparte, had them^ 
selves been the first to set the example of violent 
and unprincipled spoliation in the partition of Po- 
land ; and that they had reaped an abundant pu« 
nishment in the measure of retribution deiilt to them 
by the instrumenjlality of the very man, whose law- 
less outrages they, in their turn, w^e now ppmbine^ 
to chastise. 

With respiect to the nature of the dianges wliidi 
might take place in the internal arrangements of 
France, in order to bring about the restoration of the 
balance of power, the allied monardis pr^^ssed tt^m^ 
selves indifferent If Napoleon should reconcile him. 
self to. the general pacification they proposed, they 
did not pretend any right to state objections to his 
remaining in authority. It was the military system 
of usurpation, not the person of Buonaparte, against 
which they made war. If, on the other hand, France 
could not return to a state of peace without a change 
of her ruler, it was for France herself to consider 
what that change should be. The Allied Sovereigns 
were determined she diould no longer work her un-p 
controlled will upon other states ; but they left her 
at fiill liberty to adopt what government, and what 
sovereign she pleased, within her own territories. 

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At Ae mune time hftYing limited the ^upoie of 

their armament to auch a jiut and moderate ofcgeet^ 

the flSHes reabUned to pot such activity in dicir mea* 

sorea aatosatiafy tlie French that they had the powor 

^ enforcing tbeir demanda ; and Imr that pmpoae 

they detenUaed to enter the fimtier. From Baab 

to Ments/firom Menta to. the mouth of die Waal^ 

the frontier of France and Belgijom k defended by 

the Bfafne, a i^rcttig natural boundary in itadf, and 

eovered by a triple row of an hundred and forty 

fbrtreaaea, some of them of the very firat daaa. 

Above'Bade^ where the Rhine divides France fiom 

Switierland, the frontier ia more acceaaiUe. Butdien 

this upper line oould not be acted upon without vio* 

iating the neutrality windi Switaerland had aaaerted, 

which Buonaparte had admitted aa affording protec- 

timi for the weakeaC part of tbe threatened frontbr, 

and which, upon their* own principle of reapecting 

the righta of neutrab, the aUiea were under a aort 

of seceaaity of acknowledging. Nevertheleaa, the 

extfeme facility of entering France <ni this aide, led 

Austria and Pruada to fimn the wiah to set ande 

scnqpies, vad diaregard the neutrality of Switaer*- 


Theae two powers remembered how little respect 
Napdeon had shown to neutral righta in the cam-* 
paign of Ulnf, when he marched without hesitation 
dnoQ^ the Pruasian territories of Anspach and 
Bav^Q^ in order to accomplish the d^noBtion of 
the Auafrian army ; nor did they fail to quote hia 

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forciUe iaterfetence in the affairs of the Cantonii of 
Switzerlatid, at an earlier period of his history. Jlus- 
sia did not £6t some time acquiesce in this reasoning ; 
but when some plausible grounds were alleged of 
breach of neutrality on. the part of the Swiss, the 
scTOples of Alexander were removed ; and it was re- 
solved that the Austrian Grand Army should traverse 
the Swiss territory for the purpose of entering France. 
They halted before Geneya, and took possession of 
the town, or rather it was yielded to them by the 

The Canton of Bern, also, which resented soih<^ 
alterations made by Napoleon to the prejudice of 
their feudal claims iipon the Pays de Vaud, received 
the AustriMis not as intruderis but as friends. Buo- 
naparte, in his manifestoes, insisted vdemently upon 
the injustice of this aggression upon the territories 
of the Swiss. Undoubtedly the transaction was of 
a questionable character ; but it was inconsist^ht in 
Napoleot to declaim gainst it, since, in the case of 
the arre^ of the Duke d^Enghten, he had laid it 
down as national law, that the violation of the t«ad«- 
tory of Baden ^ras an offence pleadable by no other 
than the sovereign of that territory. On his own 
doctrine, tberefote, it was^incompetentin any other 
nation to red^t, on behalf of lk» Swi^s, that which 
thc^ Swiss did not jre&tent for tbtosdves. 

Upo^ the 21st Debemb^rj Matesebal Princes 
Schwa;rt2enb6rg Crossed the ]B.h^e with tl^ AjUstrian 
^my at four points; and advanced upon Langr^fd 

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fts had been pvsTioualy agreed. Moving with the 
extreme abwDess and- precitioii vhicfa eluinacteriie 
Austmn manoeuvres, 'paying always ibesame re- 
spect to. fortresses vitliout gamsons, and passes 
wkfaoat guards^ at. if they had be^i^in ,a posture of 
defence, the AuBtrians, instead of reaching Lfti^es 
oil 27tk December^ did not anive till the 1 7A Janu- 
ary 1 814. A serious intention had been Sht sofioe time 
isani&eted to deftmd the plaecf^ And it was evi^n gar- 
risoned by a ^acbment of Buonapi^ct^'s OldOuttod. 
The iqpproaeh of the :i(kumeroiiS' Austrian reinforce* 
D3ent8, however, rendered the pr^arations for de- 
fence fit the town unavailing,, and Langres was 
evacuated by all the French troops, ilaving about 
(hree hundred men, who surrendered to General 
Giulay on the 17th. A division of the Austrians 
svas immediately advanced to Dijon. 

The apathy of the French at this period, may be 
estimated from tho following circumstance : — ^Dij<MB, 
summoned by a flying party of cavalry, returned for 
answer, that a town containing thirty thousand in- 
hattttants, could not with honour surt^nder to fif- 
teen hussars, but that if a respectable force appear- 
ed before its walls, they weife ready to give up the 
keys of their city. This reasonable revest was 
complied with, and Dijou surrendered on 19th Ja. 

The city : of Lyons,: the Sjecond in the enipire, 
bad i^^£ nearly fallen into the hands of the Aus- 

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trums ; but the inhatntants sUowed a dupottdim t^ 
defend the town, and being reinforced with troopv 
sent to secure a place of mich importance, the Aus- 
trian g^ieral ftibna retired ftom under its walk. 
It is allowed, that more activity on the part of the 
allies might hare saved this repulse, which was of 
considerable importance. It was the only one whidi 
they had yet sustained. 

While the Grand Army, under Schwartsenbeig, 
was thus advancing into France, the army of Si. 
lesia, which was the name given to that command- 
ed by the veteran Blncher, consbting, as formerly, 
of Prussians and Russians, had made equal pro« 
gress, though against greater resistance and more 
difficulties. His army advanced in four columns, 
or grand divisions, blockading the strong frontier 
fortresses of Mets, Sarre-Louis, Thionville, Luxem* 
bourg, and others, passing the defiles of the Yosges, 
and pushing forward to Joinville, Vitry, and Saint 
Dizier. The Army of Silesia was thus placed in com* 
munication with the Grand Army, the advanced di* 
visions of which had penetrated as far into France 
as Bar-sur-Aube. 

There was yet a third army of the allies, called 
that of the North of Europe. It was originally 
commanded by the Prince Royal of Sweden, and 
consisted of Swedes, Russians, and Germans. But 
ihe Crown Prince, whose assistance had been of 
such material consequence during the campaign of 

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1813, did not, it appears, Uke an active abare in 
that of 1814. There may have been tvo reasons, 
and weighty ones, for this inactivity. To assist in 
driviDg the French out of G^many, seemed a duty 
vhich the Prince of Sweden could not, as such, de^ 
dine, when the welfare of Sweden demanded it^ But 
an invasion of his native soil might seem to Beraa- 
dotte a service unpleasing and unpopular in itself, 
and in which he could not be so rightftdly engaged, 
at least while the freedom of Germany and the north 
opoied another field of exertions, where his military 
effinrts could be attended with no injury to his per* 
sonal fedUngs. Denmark was still in arms, and Da- 
voBst still held out at Hamburg ; and the presenoe 
of the Swedish army and its leader was necessary 
to subdue the one, and dear the north from the 
other. It must also be remembered, that Sweden, 
a poor kingdom, was not in a condition to sustain a 
war at a great distance from its frontier, and arising 
out of causes in which it was more remotely concern- 
ed; Her armies could not be recruited with the same 
ease as those of the greater powers ; and Bemadotte, 
therefore, rather chose to incur the censure of be- 
ing supposed cold in the cause of his confederates, 
than the risk of losing the only body of tro<^ which 
Sweden had been able to fit out, and upon preser- 
^ng which his throne probably depoided The AU 
lied Sovereigns, however, directed, that while the 
Crown Prince remained in the north, a part of the 

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44 LIFE or 

Russian and Prussian corps^ who were placed under 
bist command, should be ordered to march towards 
France, for the purfxrae of augmenting the force 
which they already possessed in Holland and Bel<- 
giiim. The Crown Prince hanng, by a short war 
with Denmaric, compelled that power to yield up 
her ancient possession of Norway, left Bennigseii to 
continue! the siege of. Hamburg, and advanoed in 
person to Cologne, to assist in the complele Uborar 
tion of Belgium. 

The Frendi troops, which had been drawn toge- 
ther^ had been defeiated at Merxem by General Bulow 
and Sir Thomas Graham ; and although the French 
flag was still flying at Antwerp and Beigen-op-Zoom, 
Hdiland might be considered as liberated. General 
Winzengerode, at the bead of the Buksian troops^ 
and the SAKons^ under Thielman, being the joorp» 
detached, as abdve'-mentioned, from the army of the 
North of Germany, soon reached the Low Coun* 
tries, and entered into communication with Bulow. 
General Sir Thomas Graham, with the English and 
Saxons, and with such Dutch and Flemish traq)a aa 
could be collected, was left to blockade B^gen-op« 
Zoom and Antwerp, whilst Bulow and Winaenge- 
rode were at liberty to enter France on the northern 
fiointier : And thus, in the hour of need, (which 
sodn afterwards arrived,) they were to act as a reserve 
to 'the army of Silesia under Bhicber. They pusl^ 
ed on as &r as Laon. 

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These itdyances, which carried the armies of the 
«Uie8 so far into the bosoin of France, and surround- 
ed with blod^ades the frontier fiirtresses of that king- 
dom, were not made without an honourable tlu)ugh in- 
fiffisctoal opposition, on such points where the French 
isHitary eould make any stand against the preponde- 
rating numbers of the invaders. The people of the 
country in general neither: welcomed nor opposed the 
lilies. In some places they were reoeiyed with accla- 
mation— in' a few others some opposition was tendn^ 
ed--they encountered desperate resistance nowhere. 
Tke alfies did all that discipline could to maintaiA 
stdet order among their troops ; but where there were 
so many free corps, — Huhlans, Croats, md Cossacks, 
.•^whose only pay is what they can plunder, occa- 
sional trangressions necessarly took place. The 
'Services of these irreguliir troops were, however, n^ 
cSspensable. The Cossatks, in particular, might be 
termed the ey^s ofthearmy^ Accuistomed toaotia 
smsll parties when necessary, thej^ threaded woads, 
siram riversy and often presented themselves un* 
ei^ect^y in viUi^es' many miles distant frotn the 
iDsin army to which they belonged, thus impressing 
4he French with an idea of ihe numbers aodactivitir 
of the allies far beyond the truth. These Arabs ef 
the Ndttfa, as Napolepn termed thefm, always an* 
iiounoed d^eiir party as theadvanced guai^of a con- 
ttderablelorce, for whom they ordered ptov^lens ted 

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quarters to be prepared ; and thus awed the inhabi- 
tants into acquiescence in their demands. They are 
not reported to haTe been cruel, unless when pro«- 
Toked, but were not in general able to resist tempta- 
tions to plunder. The excnrsions of these and other 
light troops were of coure distressing to the French 

On the other hand, in two or three cases, armed 
citiiens in the towns, summoned by small parties of 
die allies, fired upon flags of truce, and thus justified 
severe reprisalsn It was said to be by Buonaparte^s 
strict orders that such actions were committed, the 
purpose being, if possible, to excite deadly hatred be* 
twixt the French andtheallies. Indeed, in thereverse 
of thedrcumstances, in which eachhad formerly stood^ 
Napoleon and the Austrian generals seemed to har^ 
exchange system and sentiments. He now, as the 
Archduke Charles did in 1809, called out every pea- 
sent to anns ; while Schwartsenberg, like Napoleon at 
that earlier period, denounced threats of military exe- 
cution, without mercy or quarter, to every rustic who 
should obey the summons. The impartial historian 
must proclaim, in the one case as in the other, thai 
the duty of resistance in the defence of our native 
eountry, does not depend on the character of aman% 
weapons, or the colour of his coat ; and that the 
armed dtiaen is entitled, equally with the regular 
soldier, to the benefit of the laws of war, so long as 
he does not himself violate them. But bom these 

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jwaooB causes, it was plaiii that the present apathy 
of the French people was only temporary^ and that 
some. sadden and unforse^i cause was not imlikely 
to rouse so sensitive and high-spirited a people into 
a state of g^ieral resistance, by which the allies 
oould not £nl to be great sufSsrers. Bapidity in thdr 
morements was the most obvious remedy against 
such a dang^ ; but this was the military quality 
least proper to ooaliti<msy where many people must 
be consulted ; and, besides, was inconsistent with the 
veil-known habits of the Germans, but especially of 
Ae Austrians. 

It seems also, that the allies, having safely form- 
ed an almost complete military line from Langres 
to Chalons, found themselves at some loss how 
to use their advantages. Nothing could be better 
otuated than their present position, for such a da- 
ting enterprise as was now termed a Hourra upon 
Paris ; and as all the hij^ roads, departing firom 
various points of the extensive line which they held, 
converged on the capital as a common centre, while 
the towns and villages, through which these roads 
passed, afforded an ample supply of provision^ 
this march might have been accomplished almost 
without ojqposition, but for the tardy movements of 
As Grand Army. The real weakness of Napoleon 
had been disguised by the noisy and exaggerated 
mmoursoonoeming his preparations; and now when 
^ alUes leanied that such an opportunity had ezisl- 


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4B tiFfi o^ 

cd, they learned) at the same Une, that it was wett^ 
nigh lost, -or at least that the road to Paris must 
first be> cleared by -a series of bloody actions. In 
these the allies could not disguise irsm thems^kea 
the possibility of their receiving sereee cheeks ; an4 
linder this apprehensioii they b^an to caloidate the 
consequences of such a defeat, received in the centre 
of Eranee, as that which they had suffered under the 
walls of Dresden. There was here "no- f^vouiable 
screen of mountains to secure their retreat^ no 4»tEeiig 
positions for checking a pursuing army, as in the case 
of Vandamme, and turning a defeat into a victory^ 
The firontier. which they had passed was penetrated^ 
not subduedr*-its foi^resses, so strong and numerous^ 
were in th& greater part masked, not taken--*8o that 
their >retreat upon the Rhine must. be exposed 40- all 
the dangers incident to passing in disorder thvoagb 
a <»>untry in complete possession of theenenvy. .^ •.- 
General councils of war seldom agree upon se- 
Gomm^miting^ld measures. In this sense Solomon 
says, that in the multitude of .counsellors, there is 
safety^ meaniBg^that the most cautious, if not the 
wisest measures, are sure to hare the approbation of 
the majority* 

Accordingly, this spirit. ptedominal^ng in .the 
councils of 4he allies, led. to a degree of uncertainty 
in their movements on this momentous occasion^ 
which, as is usual, endeaaroured to disguise itself 
under the guise of prudence. They resolvied .that 

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the GrMd Army shooM halt a 6hoH spiM^e at Latt- 
gres, in hopes either that Napoleon, renewing the 
negotiation^ the «cene of which was now to be trans- 
ferred to Ohatillon,' upon the' Sdn^^ would avert 
Ms present danger^ by acquiescing in the terms' of 
tbealHe^; or that the French nation, an event still 
less likely to happen, would become tired of the mi^ 
fitary mMarch, >vho8e ambition had brought sudi 
distre^ upon the country. In the meanwhile, the 
alUes declined the ofl^ of such Royalists as came 
forward in the name, and for the interest of the ex^ 
iled'&mily, uniformly replying, that they would give 
no w^ht to Any expression of the sentiments of the 
Freodk people, unless it was made in some quarter 
of ^ kingdom where it could not be supposed to be 
influenced by the presence of the allied amiy. They 
tmgted chiefly at that moment to the effibct of nego- 
tsttiontrith the present possessor of the throne. 

But'Napoleon, as firmly determtnedin his purftose 
as tbe filliies wet« doubtftil, knowing himselfto be the 
scMd-of his ar&^i and absolute lord of hisi own ao- 
tiMts^im all' Ae.advantage whidia bold, 4Mthre, and 
a^ st^dvdimafBr ha« ia'encMntering an. opponent, 
whode ddll is less di$littgttidied) and whose detemn- 
nation is more ftndMe than hft» own. The allies had 
pm^ited in the Gr^nd Army a fifont of 97^000 men, 
Msiesdiiiil Biucher one of 40,000, affittJUbD^ a dispo- 
nMe fttfc^:^ lar^OOO. To oppose tiiis die French 

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Emperor had only^of old troope^ iadepeiudait of those 
under Sudiet in Catalonia, under Soult near Bay* 
onne, ai;id also of garriflons, about £0,060 men i nor 
joould he hope to add to them more than 70>000 
conscripts. Nay, in fiu;t his levies, so far as thc^ 
could be brought into the field, fell greatly shiHrt 
of this number ; for the alli^ were in possession of 
a considerable part of the kingdom of France, and, 
in this moment of general confusion, it was im- 
possible to enforce the law of conscription, wfaiicb was 
at, all times obnoxious. It was soon prpved, that he 
who so lately had led half-a-million of men. to the 
Vistuhi, and 300,000 to the banks of die Elbe, 
could not now mustcar^ fw the protection (^ the cih 
•pital of his own empire, a disposable force of more 
than 70,000 men. 

The defensive war had no. doubt cQjm^MJ^ 4^ 
vantages to one who knew so well how to ns^.th^. 
The highways, hy which the allies must, adi^ce, 
formed a half cr quarter di^le. of. r^s, cwy^qg^ng, 
4w idready mentioned, pn Parii^ a^ a oppitre; .4 iwcsh 
flnaaBeraimy mighty therefore, Offff^ a V^S^ ¥it^9 
becau(|9, lyings hetytemJfmg apd tjhe fa|f^y» ^y 
must deciqpyf the samc.rdads hf a miiich; 4hsa^ J<i»e 
of comttnuu^tion , thatf .tb^. uofvad^^^whp if^iQi &r- 
thec ftrtn ,i^e centre,: wbeai^ tb^. road^ <tty^gp4 Mh^ .« 
greater ditihvts^ from WjH oOier?: MAtibft i^SW- 
fage of cdlloclKtioKi to blfltoceiii^g«^|it:M(|fi«)riQf:^ 
numerical force, Buonaparte advanced to play for the 

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most momenumi Mdce ever diqi^ted, wiih a degree 
of military skill which hia never been maiehed. 

Arrived at Chaloiifi on the 88th Janiiaiy, Baoiia*. 
parte took the ootaimaiid of such an aitny as he had 
been able to assemble^ by the concentration of the 
tmaps nnder the Mareschab Victor, Marmmt, Ma&. 
donald^ and Ney, all of whom had retreated from 
die fimitien So mtuk were the Freneh coifpe d*ar^ 
m^ zedttced, that these great and dii^lingiii^hed 
generals, who, in former times, would have com- 
manded 60,000 or 70,000 men each, had imder 
them all, when concentrated, but a total of fi2,000» 
to which Nfltpole<^n was only able to add libout 
20,000 fardngfat-from Paris. Bat no one ever. u&- 
detstbod better than Buonaparte, the great military 
doetrine, that victory does not dep^d oH the coin- 
pacative result of iiuinerical su]^ri6rity in g^eral, 
but on ihe an of dbtiitiiAg suib a superiority CKb the 
field of ac&m itself. 

BHicher wai^ as usiuft, the fei^ettiost iii ad^imce^ 
andNap^kra retsdived to bet^w-^'ftiili active and 
inreieriite enemy^^ tM uinAhU Itodoiir of hiil firsts M-? 
tack^hofAg to stt#{8risc(^e SQeftiaai corps d'^mn^ be- 
fore it4»iild xe^Y^ fittfitidiir fr«b(^ fllmj^^f ^w'ar^l 
smbinrg. '^llaresi^lmlwasa^Jic^^^l^Em^i 
miF!s parpose, aiiift l^t 1^0 tim^ bciotJo^triitin^his 
Smm M% Afttniie, te the Aiibe • (b^&a miKs f£: 
low Bmt. Tlai^ is a small ^\^i seated on the 

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. fiS' lilFE OF 

aseent of a hiU. The place has bat two streets, one' 
of which ascends to the Chateau, occupied former-' 
ly as a Royal Atad^ny fbr young persons designed 
f^ the anny ^ the other conducts to Ardbs-sur-F Anbe. 
The Chateau is partly surrounded by a park or diasea 
It was at the military school of Brienne that Napokon 
acquired the rudiments of that skill in die military 
art with which he had almost prostrated the Vorld, and: 
had ended by jdacing it in array against him; and 
it^ was here he came to commence whet seemed his last 
series of efforts for victory ;>-<^like some animals of 
the chiise, who, when hard pressed by the hunters, 
are said to direct their final attempts at escape upon 
the point from which they haye fiittt started. 

The alert movements of Napokon surpassed the 
anticipation of Blucher. . He was at table with his 
staff in the Chateau. G^^al Alsufieff, a Russian, 
occupied the town of Brienne, and Gen^cal Backen's 
corps was drawn up in columns, on the road from Bbn^ 
enne to La Rothiere. At onoe a horryiile tumult was 
heard. The Russian cavalry, two tboiMand in mim^ 
ber, were completely driven in by these of NapoleoB, 
and at the same m<MnaEit Ney attadced the towu; 
v^ile a body of French grenadiers, who, favooredfay 
the wooded and broken character ol the ground, had 
been enabled to get into the. park, tteeatoied to make 
prisoners all who were in.the Chjsleau* Blucher, with 
his officers, had barely time to reach a posteiB> 

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where they were under the necessity ef leading their 
horses down a stair, and in that way made iheir 
esoape with fiffieulty. The bold resistance of Al- 
Rifieff defended the town against Ney,and Sacken 
advanced to AknfieflPs assistance. The Cossadcs 
also fell on the rear of (he French in the park, and 
Buonaparte's own safety was compromised in the me- 
lee. Men were killed by his side, and he was obliged 
to^diaw Mb sword in his own defence. At the very 
i&oment of atta<^, his attention was engaged by ^e 
oght of A tree, which he recdllected to be the 
same under which, during the hours of recreation 
at -Brienne, he used, when a school-boy, to peruse 
the Jerusalem Delivered of Tasso. If the curtain 
of fate had risen before the obscure youth, and dis« 
covered to him in the same spot, his own image as 
Eaopeior of -France, contending i^ainst the Scy- 
diians of the desert for life mid power, how wonder- 
M would have seemed the presage, when the mere 
odncurrence of circumstances strikes the mind of 
those who look baek upon it with awful veneration 
fot die Uidden ways of fHrovidence ! Lefebvre Des- 
Boo^teis fell, dangerously wounded, in charging at 
the head of the guards. The town caught fire, 
and was burned to the ground ; but it was not until 
eleven at night that the Silesian army ceased to 
roaile^effiHrts for recovering the place, and that Blu- 
<^^ retreal^g from Brienne, took up a position in 

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the rear of tbat fown, and upoa that of La Ro- 
tbiere. . 
.The result of the battle of Brienne witg iod^sive, 
^ an4 the jpore unsatisfiBictcwy to $ttemiiNirte» aa Ib^ 
part of ^lucher's force engaged diid not amount to 
W5OOQ men, and the sole ^raptage gained over 
theniy was that of keeping the fidd of battle. Napo- 
leon^s principal object, which was to divide Blucher 
fiK»tt the Grand Army* had altogeAer fisdled* It was 
neoewary, however, to proclainl the C9>gagenic»t aa 
a victo^, and much pains was taiken to represent it 
as sudi. But when it was afterwards discovered to 
be merely a smart skirmish, without any material re- 
sults, the temporary deception only served to injure 
the cause of Napoleon. 

On the first of Felvuary, Blucher, strongly r^n* 
forced from the Grand Army, prepared in his turn 
to assume the offensive. It would have been Na^ 
poleon^B wish to have avoided an engagement ; but a 
retreat across the Aube, by the bridge of LTEsmont, 
which was the only mode of passing that deep and 
scarce fordaUe river, would have exposed his lef^to 
destruction. He therefore risked a general 'action. 
Blucher attacked the line of the Fremh pa three 
points, assaulting at once the villages of La Ro- 
thiere, Dienville, and Chaumont The conflict, 
in which the Prince Royal of Wirtemberg distin- 
guished himself, was hard fought during the whole 

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day, but in the evemng the French were repulsed 
on all ix>mts^ and Buonaparte was compelled to 
retreat across the Aube, after lodng 4000 prisoners, 
and no less than sevenly-tbree giins. Ney, by the 
Emperor^s orders, destroyed the bridge at I'Es* 
mont. The alfies were not aware of the amount of 
their adyanti^, and suffered' the French to retire 

A general council of war, held at the castle of 
Brienne, now resdlved' that th^ two armies (although 
havbg so lately found the advantage of mutual sop- 
port) should separate from each other, and that Blu- 
cher, detaching himself to the northward, and uni*- 
ting under his command the division of Yorck and 
Kleist, both of whom had occupied St. Dialer and 
Vitry, should approach Paris by the Marne ; while 
Prince Schwartzenberg and the Grand Army should 
descend on the capital by the course of the Seine. 
The difficulty of finding provisions for such immense 
armies was doubtless in part the cause of this reso- 
lution. But it was likewise recommended by the 
success of a similar plan of operations at Dresden^ 
snd itf^wards at Leipsic, where the enemies of Buo 
naparte approached him from so many difierent quar- 
ters as to render it impossible for him to make head 
against one army without giving great opportunity 
of advantage to the others. 

Buonaparte reached Troyes, on which he retreat- 



5.6 LIFE OF 

ed after crossing the Aube, in a disastrous condi- 
tion ; but his junction with his Old Guard, whose 
appearance and high state of appointments restored 
courage to the dejected troops who had been beaten 
at La Bothiere^ gave a new impulse to the fedings 
of his axmy^ and restored the yoimg leries to con- 
fidence. He resolred, taking advantage of the divi- 
sionof the two armiesof the allies, to mardi upon that 
of Blucher. But, in order to disguise hb purpose, he 
first sent a small division upon Bar-la-Seine, to alarm 
the Austrians with an attack upon their right wing. 
Schwartxenberg. immediately .apprehended that Buo- 
naparte was about to move mih his whole force in 
that direction ; a movement which, in fact would have 
been most favourable for the allies, since it would 
have left the road to Paris undefended, and open. to 
the whole. But, terrified by the idea that his left 
fiank might be turned or forced, the Austrian general 
moved his chief strength in that direction ; thus at 
once suspending his meditated march on the Seine, 
and increasing the distance betwixt the Grand Army 
and that of Silesia. Buoni^rte having deceived 
Sciiwartiehberg by this successful feint, evacuated 
Troyes, leaving the Mareschals Victor and Oudinot 
to oppose the Austrians with very inadequate means, 
while he directed his own march against Blucher. 

Blucher, in the meanwhile, having left Napoleon 
in front of the Grand Army, and not doubting that 

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the Austrians would find him sufficient employ- 
menty hunied forward to the Mame, forced Macdo- 
said to retreat from Chateau Thierry, and advanced 
lib liead quarters to Vertus ; while Sacken^ who form* 
ed Ida Tangnard, pushed his light troops as far as 
Ferti la Jouarre, and was nearer to Paris than was 
the Emperor himsdf. Oeneral d^Yorek had advan- 
ced as far as Meaux, and Paris was in the last de- 
gree of alarm. 

Even Buonaparte himself was so much struck by 
the mextricable situation of his affairs after the de- 
feat of La Rotlnere, that a thought occurred to him, 
winch posterity, excepting on his own avowali would 
hardly give credit to. The plan which suggested 
iteelf, was that of sacrificing his own authority to the 
peace of France, and of abdicating the crown in 
favour of the Bourbons, while he had yet the means 
of resistance in his possession. He felt he had reign- 
ed and combated long enough tot his own glory, 
and justly thought that the measure of his renown 
would be filled up by such an act of generous self- 
denial. But a maxim occurred to him, (suggested, 
he says, by Mr. Fox,) that restored monarchs could 
nerer forgive those who had occupied their place. 
Probably his thoughts turned also to the murder of 
the Duke d'Enghien ; for there was no other point of 
posonal oSence betwixt Buonaparte and the exiled 
family, which their restoration, if the event took place 

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bj bin intervention^ might not have fully atoned for. 
If our cotyectnre be reid, it serves to show howaudt 
a crime operates in its oonsequenoes to abstract its 
perpetrator in fixture attempts to reoover the path of 
virtue and honour. Had Niipcileon been reaHjr cap* 
able of the generous act of sdf4enial which he medi- 
tated, he mUst have been hmked, in despite of the 
doubtfid points of his character, as one of the grei^ 
est men who ever lived. 

But the spirit of egotism and suspicion prevailed, 
and the hopes <^ accomplishing the duscomfiture and 
defeat of the Silesian aimy, iippeai^ preferable to 
meriting, by one act of disinterested devotion, the 
eternal gratitude of ilurope ; and th^ philosopher and 
friend of humanity relapsed into the warrior and 
conqueror. There is, no doubt, something merito* 
rious in the conceiving of great and nqble resohi* 
tion6, even although they remain unrealized. But this 
patriotism of the imagination does not rise to a higher 
scale of merit, than the sensibility of those who can- 
not hear a tale of sorrow without weeping, but whose 
s]rmpathy never assumes the expensive form of ac- 
tual charity* 

. The army of Napdeon was now to be transferred 
from the high road leading from Paris to Troyes, 
to .that, leading from Chalons to Paris, on wiiidi 
Blucher wads operating, and that by flank marches 
through an impracticable country; but which, if 

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thej oou^ be .aocx^ppUobjad^ wovM etfi^jl^ the French 
Empraipr to ajt^t^pk .ife^ SP^iriw «imy f^ i^nawnies 
in ^m^ and rear. Xbe.Jj»t$||4 ctpcis-^r^s, }9^|cU 
(XMUiect one highway wi|b aiM^et f^r^n^ Fjt^xice, 
are generally searoe p«88<^l^le in wjgBttc^, ^pn for the 
puipo^e of 4>Tfiin9^ ooinoau^jcajiQn> ipuob jtesB fi^ 
an amy ^ifeh Up oarriages an^ luttiUBiy. ]$a(9ia* 
parte . hjiid^ to trayerse a cputi|ry .intersected .iri^ 
tUckets, ipardies, cJrfu|n|i, ditQJh^ aifk^ impe^iinfnit^ 
ofejerj Jki^id ; the wealJi^ wa^ epM^craJI^ anjl but 
fast the extraordinary exertions of the Mayor of JSar- 
bsxme, who collected fi yi^ hundred horses to extri- 
cate tfa^ guns, they must have been abandoned on 
the road. But by dint of perseverance, Buonaparte 
accomplished this forced march, on 10th of FelnrU« 
ary, and the. flank of the Silesian army was in conse- 
quence placed at his mercy. They were moving on 
without the least suspicion of such an attack. 
Sacke^ led the advanpe, the Russian General Alsu* 
fiefffoUowedy and Bhicher himself brought up the 
rear with the main body. AJl intent upon the ad-» 
vance to Paris, l^hey were mard^ing with careless 
haste, and had suQ^cfied suah large intervals to take 
place betwixt their divisions, as to expose them to 
he attacked in detail. 

Buonaparte fell upon the central division of Al- 
sttfic^-at Cbampeaubert, surrounded, defeat^, and 

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totally diflporsed them, taking their artillery, and 
2000 prisoBers, while the remainder of the divinon 
fled into the wooda, and attempted to escape indivi- 
dually. The whole force of the Emperor was now 
interposed between the advanced-guard under Sack- 
en, and the main body under Blucher. It was 
first directed towards the former, whom Napoleon 
encountered sooner than he expected, for Sacken, 
on hearing of the action at Champeaubert, instant-, 
ly countermarched his division to assist AlsufiefP, 
or at least to rejoin Blucher; but he was over- 
whelmed by the superior force of the French, and 
having lost one-fourth of his division, «bout 5000 
men, was forced to leave the high-road, upon which 
Blucher was advancing, and retreat by that on Cha- 
teau Thierry. At this village Sacken was joined by 
General Yorck and Prince William of Prussia ; but, 
still unable to make a stand, they could oidy secure 
a retreat by destroying the bridge over the Marne. 
War began now to show itself in its most hideous 
forms. The stragglers and fugitives who could not 
cross the bridge before its destruction, were murder- 
ed by the peasantry, while the allied soldiers, in re- 
venge, plundered the village of Chateau Thierry, 
and practised every excess of violence. The defeat 
of Sacken took place on the 13th of February. 
Blucher, in themeanwhile, ignorant of the extent 

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of the fopoe I^ which his vwaguard had been attack- 
ed, ppe0sed forwaid to their suppoit^ and, in a wide 
and unindosed. countiy, suddenly found himself in 
ibe firont of the whole army of N«poleon, flushed 
vith the double victory which diey had already gain- 
ed, ai)d so numerous as to make a retreat indispen-* 
saUeonthepaitofthePmssiaBS. Blucher, if surpri- 
sed, remained undismayed. Haying oidy three regi-i 
meats of calvary, he had to trust for safety to the 
steadiness of his infantry. He formed them into 
squares, protected by artillery, and thus commenced' 
bis retreat by alternate divisions ; those battalions' 
winch were in motion to the rear, being protected 
by the fire of the others then standing fast, and co- 
vering them with thdrs while they retired in turn. 
The French cavahry, though so strong as to operate 
at once on the flanks and rear, failed in being able 
to break a single square. After the Prussians had 
retired sevopal leagues in this manner, fighting every 
fiN>t of their wqr^ ^y were nearly intercepted by a 
huge column of French horse, which, having made a 
circuit flo as to pass them, had drawn up on the cause* 
way to inteic^ their retreat. Without a nuMent's 
hesitation, Bhicher instantly attacked them with such 
ajnuiderauaflre of infantry and artillery, as fi>roed 
them ficom die high-road, and left the passage firee. 
The Prussians found the village of Etoges, through 
which they were obliged to pass, also occupied by the 

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enemy ; .butl]S»e also Ij^eydeirii ihe'^y^ 4^ ^itt 
of fighting. Tbb a^pediii<m <£ 4^ Mkrhe, as it is 
called, is always accounted one of NajKdeon's nnli- 
tary cbef-d'^oefairres ; for a flank mar^h, undertaken 
thzough 8n«ih a difficult coimtrf^ attd so coitf|>Ieteiy 
suooessfiil, is not pe^aps reeoxded in hisfioTy. On 
the odier hand, if Blacker lost any et^t by the too 
gr^t secoritf of his mardi, hd r^ilki^ it by the 
masterly manner ivL which he eltecutM hki retreat. 
Had the army which he cofidimand^ in person sha- 
red the fiite of his vanguard^ |t is probable there 
would have been no campaign of Paris. 

The Pai^sians^ in the meandme^ saw at length 
actual proofs that NiqK>fe(yn had been vi^t^us. 
Long 'columns of prisoners moved througlk thdr 
streets, baimers were displi^ed, the caunotf fhiindier- 
ed, the press replied, and the pulpit joined, in ez- 
didling and magmfying the dangm which the dtiEene 
had/es);aped^'and the merits of their preserrer. 

(n 4»he midst of the joy natural Ojtt such ai£ e^fis;- 
uoh; die Patiiiidis suddenly leatned Aat th^ Uim d 
Fontaincibleau.was ocbupi^ by.Huagaiian ^uk«tfi^ 
and tlntnot Cosdacks otljy but Tactadrs, IklMt^ ttd 
Kalmiduks, tribes of si wild and sava^aqpect, ia^klAd 
df Asiatic Ogres, to whom populai ct&3tui&tf iribpucbd 
a tsAte for thp ^esh of children, had'afq^ittfPed in tlfe 
ni^ighbbuarbMd of N^i^gls^ ThW renewed si|id»-c^ 
a{{|»roa€hix[g dangih, avose fifom the Orantf AdiSy of 
the allies having carried, at the point of the bayonet, 

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Nogent and Monteieau, and advanced the head- 
quarteis of the monarchs to F(«t-8iir-Seine. This 
alann to Fans was acocunpanied by another. Schwart- 
senbeigy learning the disasters on the Marne» not 
mdy pushed fonrard from tlnee directions on the 
capital, bat dispatched fiiroes fiom his eight towards 
Flavins^ to threaton Napoleon^s rear and conununica* 
tions. Leafh^ the'pitfsmt of BlucheTi the Emperor 
oounter-marched on Meanx/ and«' marching from 
thenoe to Gnignes^ he joined the army of Ondioot 
«iid Victor^ idio were retreating before Schwartzen- 
berg. He here found the reinforcements which he 
had drawn from Spain, about 2O9OOO in number, 
tried and ^cdlmt troops. With this army he now 
fronted that of Schwartsenberg, and upon the 17th 
Fdmiary, commenced the offensive at. all points, 
and with success, posseissing himself of Nangis, and 
nearly destroying the corps under Count Pahlen at 
Mormant. The Prince Royal of Wirtemberg was 
forced to retreat to Montef eau. 

So alarmed wm the aUies 4it the near apptoaeh of 
Aeir terry^e enemy, that a mpsiwge ncas sent to Na- 
pideon from 4he allied soTemgns^ by Prinoe Sdtwari. 
aenbei^!a.8ide^e<>caibp^ Count Par^ stating their ^uv- 
priseat Ufro&nssivie'movement, since they had gif«n 
eidevs' t0'4heitf'plenipetfibtiarif«iat Cbatilbn to>j%n 
-the j^elitn^jmrfes of peace, on die tjesms wliuth had 
betoasscnled to by the Frenich envoy,. Caubancoun. 

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This letter, of which we skaiX hereafter give a more 
Aill explanation, remainod for some days unansver^ 
ed, during which Napoleon endeaToured to puriihia 
advantages. He recoTerad the bridge at Moatereau, 
after a desperate attack, in which the Crown Prince 
of Wirtemberg dgnalised himself by the valourof his 
defence. In the course of the action. Napoleon retoro- 
ed to his old profession of an artilleryman, and point* 
ed several guns himself^ to the great deUg^t of ^he 
soldiers* They trembled,. however, when the fire at- 
tracted the attention of the enemy, whose balls be*- 
gan to be aimed at the French battery^ ^ Go, my 
children," said Buonaparte, ridiculing their appre* 
hensions ; ^^ the ball is not cast that is to UU me." 

Having taken the place by storm, Buonaparte, dis- 
satisfied with the number of men he had lost, loaded 
with reproaches some of his best officers* Montbrnn 
was censured for want of energy, and Digeonfor the 
scarcity of ammunition with which the artilleiy nas 
served ; but it was chkfly on Victor, the Buke of 
Belluno, that his resentn^nt discharged .itself. He 
imputed to him n^hgence, in j»ot having attacked 
M<mtereau qn the day heSore the action, when it wa(i 
unprovided for resistance ; and he ordered him to 
retire firom the service. The Marischal eftdearafun^ 
ed to obtain a hearing in his own dsfeuce, b«t fior 
some time could not succeed in oheoking the stream 
of repxoaches. At l^^pth they were a(^M»ed;into k 

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dunge of brokea health, and the love oT tepons, i». 
ddeat to wouads and infinaities. ^' The tot bed,^ 
said tlie Emperor, '* which die quarters affiird, must 
sow be soc^ht oat for the once indefatigaUe Victor.^ 
The Mareschal fek the diai^ more sev^nely in pro- 
poction as it became moderated within what was pro- 
baUy the bounds of truth ; but he would not con- 
(seat to quit the service* 

^^ I have not,*^ he said, ^< £atgot mj ori^nal trade. 
I will take a musket. Victor will become a private 
in the Gtiard.^-^BuonapaTte could not resist this 
mark of Attachment. He held out his hand.— ^^ Let 
us be friends C he replied, *^ I cannot restore to you 
your cotpG d'arm6e, which I have given to Girard ( 
but I will place yoU at the head of two divisions of 
the Guard. 6o«^-4esume your command, and let 
there be no more of this matter betwixt us.^' 

It was upon such occasions, when he subdued his 
exoited feelings to a state of kindness and generosity, 
that Buonaparte^B personal conduct seems to have 
been most amiable* 

The allies, in the memitime, rememberings per- 
haps, though somewhat of the latest, the old fable 
of the bunch of arrows, resolved once more to enter 
ittto oomiiMinioation with the Silesian army, and^ 
<xiicentntijig near Troyes, to accept of battle, if 
Bttknapartedmiddoiferit. The indefatigable Blucher 
b»l already reanufced his troops, md, being r^infor^ 


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ced by a division of the army of the North, under 
Xangeron, moved southward from Chalons, to which 
he had retreated after his disaster at Montmirail, to 
Mery, a town situated upon the Seine, to the north- 
east of Troyes, to which last place the allied mo- 
narchs had again removed their head-quarters. Here 
be was attacked with fury by the troops of Buona- 
parte, who made a desperate attempt to carry the 
bridge and town, and thus prevent the proposed com- 
munication between the Silesian army and that of 
Schwartzenberg. The bridge, which was of wood, 
was set fire to in the struggle. The sharp-shooters 
fought amid its blazing and cracking beams. The 
Prussians, however, kept possession of Mery. 

A council of war was now held by the' allies. 
Blucher urged the fulfilment of their original purpose 
of hazarding an action with Napoleon* But the 
Austrians had again altered their mind, and deter- 
mined on a general retreat as far as the line between 
Nancy and Langres ; the very position on which the 
allies had paused when they first entered France. 
The principal cause alleged for this retrograde move- 
ment, by which they must cede half the ground they 
ha^ gained since their entering France, was, that Au- 
gereau, who had hitherto contented himself with his 
successful defence of Lyons, had been recruited by 
considerable bodies of troops from the army of Suchet, 
which had been employed in Catalonia^ Thus r&x^ 

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forcod, the French Mareschal was now about to as- 
sume the ofTensive against the Austrian forces at 
Dijon, act upon their communications with Switser* 
land, and raise in a mass the warlike peasantry of 
the departments of the Doubs, the Saonne, and the 
mountains of the Vosges. To prevent such con- 
sequences, Schwarizenberg sent General Bianchi 
to the rear with a large division of his forces, t6 
support the Austrians at Dijon ; and conceived 
his army too much weakened by this detachment 
to retain his purpose of risking a general action. 
It was therefore resolved, that if the head-quar- 
ters of the Grand Army were removed to Langres, 
those of Blucber should be once more established on 
the Mime, where, strengthened by the arrival of 
the northern army, which was now approaching front 
Flanders, he might resume his demonstration upon 
Paris, in cftse Buonaparte should engage himself in 
the pursuit of the Grand Army of the allies. 

This retrograde movement gave much disgust to 
the Austrian solders, who considered it as the pre- 
face to a final abandonment of the invasion. Their 
resentment showed itself, not only in murmurs and 
in tearing out the green boughs with which, as in 
sign of victory, they usually ornament their helmets 
and schakos, but also, as is too frequently the case 
in similar instances, in neglect of discipline, and- ex-* 
cesses committed in the country. 

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68 I'IFE OF 

To diminish the bad effects arising from this dis^ 
fontent anuMig the troops^ Schwartzenberg publish- 
ed an ofder of the day, commanding the officers to 
enforce the strictest discipline, and at the same time 
explain to the army that the present retreat was only 
temporaiyyand that enjoining with its reserves, which 
had already crossed the Rhine^ the Grand Army 
would instantly resume the offensive, while Field* 
Mareschal Blucher, at present Inoving northward, 
so as to form a junction with Winzengerode and Bu- 
low; should at the same time attack the rear and 
flad£ of the enemy. The publishing this pkn of 
the campaign^ went far to rouse the dejected confi- 
dence of the Austrian army. 

On the evening of the 22d February, an answer to 
the letter of Schwartzenberg was received, but it was 
addressed exclusively to the Emperor of Austria; 
and whUe its expressions of respect are bestowed libe- 
rally on that power, the manner in which the other 
members of the coalition are treated, shows unabated 
enmity^ ill-concealed under an affe<;talion of con- 
tempt. The Emperor of France expressed himself 
willing to treat upon the basis of the Frankfort de- 
claration, but exclaimed against the terms which his 
own envoy, Caulaincourt, had proposed to the pleni- 
potentiaries of the other powers. In short, the whole 
letter indicated, not that Napoleon desired a general 
peace with the aUies, but that it was his anxious wish 

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to break up the coalition, by making a separate peace 
with Austria. This co interacted in spirit and let- 
ter the purpose of the confederates, distinctly ex* 
pressed in their communication to Napoleon. 

The Emperor Francis and his ministers were re- 
solved not to listen to any proposals which went 
to separate the Austrian cause from that of their 
allies. It was therefore at first resolved that no an- 
swer should be sent to the letter ; but the desire of 
gaining time for bringing up the reserves of the 
Grand Army, who were approaching the Swiss iron- 
tier under the direction of the Prince of Hesse-Horn- 
berg, as also for the union of the army of the north, 
under Bulow and Winzengerode, with that of Sile- 
sia, d^rmined them to accept the offer of a sus- 
pension of hostilities. Under these considerations. 
Prince WencesUus of Lichtenstdn was sent to the 
head-quarters of Napoleon, to treat concerning an 
armistice. The Emperor seemed to be in a state of 
high hope, and called upon the Austrians not to sa- 
crifice themselves to the selfish views of Russia, and 
the miserable policy of England. He appointed Count 
Flabault his commissioner to negotiate for a line of 
demarcation, and directed him to meet with the en- 
voy from the allies at Lusigny, on 24th February. 

On the night of the 23d, the French bombarded 
Troyes, which the allied troops evacuated according 
to their latest plan of the campaign. The French en- 

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70 LIFJi OF 

tered the town on the 24th9 when the sick and wounds 
ed, left behind by the allies, were dragged out to grac^ 
Napoleon'^fi triumph ; and a scene, not less deplorable^ 
but of another description, was performed at the same 

Amid the high hopes which the entrance of the 
allies into France had suj^sted to the enemies 
of Bdonaparte's government, five persons, the chief 
of whom were the Marquis de Widranges, and the 
Chevalier de Gouault, had displayed the white cock* 
ade, and other emblems of loyalty to the exiled fa- 
mily. They had received little encouragement to 
take so decided a step either from the Crown Prince 
of Wirtemberg, or from the Emperor Alexander; 
both of whom, although approving the principles 
on which these gentlemen acted, refiised to sanc- 
tion the step they had taken, or to warrant them 
against the consequences. It does not appear that 
their declaration had excited any corresponding en- 
thusiasm in the people of Troyes or the neighbour- 
hood ; and it would have been wiser in Napoleon 
to have overlooked such a trifling movement, which 
he might have represented as arising from the 
dotage of loyalty, rather than to have, at this criti- 
cal period, called the public attention to the Bonxn 
bons, by denouncing and executing vengeance upon 
their partizans. Nevertheless Napoleon had scarce 
entered Troyes, when the Chevalier Gpuault (the 

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Other Royalists having fortunately escq^d,) was 
seized upon, tried by a military commission, con- 
demned, and immediately shot He died with the 
utmost firmness, exclaiming, ^^ Vive le Rail^^ A 
violent and ill-timed decree promulgated the penal- 
ty of death against all who should wear the decora- 
dons of the Bourbons, and on all emigrants who 
should join the allies. The severity of the measure, 
80 contrary to Napoleon^s general conduct, of late 
years, towards the Bourbons and their followers, 
whom he had for a long period scarce even alluded 
to^ made the world ascribe his unusual ferocity to an 
uncommon state of apprehension ; and thus it gave 
farther encouragement to those into whom it was in- 
tended to strike terror. 

At this period of the retreat 'of Schwartaenberg 
&om Troyes, and the movement of Blucher towards 
the Mame, we must leave the armies which were 
contending in the interior of France, in order to re- 
trace those movements upon the frontiers, which, 
though operating at a distance, tended at once to re- 
inforce the invading armies, and to cripple Napo- 
leon's means of defence. fi^. 

It is di£Eicult for the inhabitants of a peaceful, 
territory to picture to themselves the miseries sus- 

* It has been said that Napoleon had been persuaded to save 
his life. But the result was similar to the execution of Clare no*. 

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® tained by the country which formed the theatre of 
this fianguinaTy contest. While Buonaparte, like a 
tiger, henrmed in by hounds and hunters, now* me- 
naced one of his foes, now sprung furiously upon 
another, and while, although his rapid movements 
disconcerted and dismayed them, he still remained 
unable to destroy the indnriduals whom he had as- 
sailed, lest, while aiming to do so, he should af- 
ford a fatal advantage to those who were disenga- 
ged,— the scene of this desultory warfare was laid 
waste in the most merciless manner. The soldiers 
on both parts, driven to desperation by rapid 
mardbes through roads blocked with snow, or trod- 
den into swampsy became reckless and pitiless ; 
and, straggling from their columns in all directions, 
committed every species of excess upon the inhabi- 
tants. These evils are mentioned in the bulletins 
of Napoleon, as well as in the general orders of 

The peasants, with their wives and children^ 
fled to caves, quarries, and woods, where Uie latter 
were starved to death by the indemency of the sea- 
son, and want of sustenance ; and the former, c6l- 
lectittg into small bodies, increased the terrors of war 
by pillaging the convoys of both armies, attacking 
small parties of all nations, and cutting off the sick, 
the wounded, and the stragglers. The repeated ad- 
vance and retreat o£ the different contending pities, 

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exasperated these eTih* Every fresli bmid of plun^ *jr 
derers vhieh antved, mm savngc^ esger after spoily 
in proportion as tbe gleanings became scarce. In the 
words of Scriptuxey what the locust left was devour- 
ed by the pahner-wortn— -what escaped the Baskirs, 
and Kirgas, and Croats, of the Wolga, and Cas* 
pian and Turkish frontier, was seized by the half* 
dad and half-starved conscripts of Napoleon, whom 
want, hardship, and an embittered spirit, render* 
ed as careless of the ties of country and language, 
as the others were indifferent to the general chtims 
of humanity* The towns and villages, which were 
the scenes of actual conflict, were frequently burnt, 
to the ground ; and this not only in the course of 
the actions of importance which we have detailed, 
but in consequence of innumerable skirmishes fought 
in different points, which had no influence, indeed, 
upon the issue of the campaign, but increased in- 
calculably the distress of the invaded coimtry, by 
ext^ding the terrors of battle, with fire, famine, and 
slaughter for its accompaniments, into the most re- 
mote and sequestered districts. The woods afford- 
ed no concealment, the churches no sanctuary ; even 
the grave itself gave no cover to the relics of morta- 
lity. The villages were everywhere burnt, the farms 
wasted and pillaged, the abodes of man, and all that 
belongs to peaceful industry and domestic comfort, 
flesolated and destroyed. Wolves, and other savage 

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74 LIFE or 

animals, increased fearfully in the districts which 
had been laid waste by human hands, with ferocity 
congenial to their own. Thus were the evils which 
France had unsparingly inflicted .upon Spain, Prus- 
sia, Russia, and almost every European nation, ter- 
ribly retaliated witlun a few leagues of her own me- 
tropolis ; and such were the consequences of a sys- 
tem, which, assuming military force for its sole prin- 
c^le and law, taught the united nations of Europe 
to repel its aggressions by means yet more formi- 
dable in extent than those which had been used in 
supporting them. 




B^ogpect ofMUitary Events en the French FraiUiers^-^De* 
fecHon ofMumt, who declares in favour of the Allies. — Bs 
consequences, — Augereau is compelled to abandon Gex and 
Tranche Compte. — TAe North of Germany andJFlandere 
lost to France. — Camot intrusted with the command of 
Antwerp, — Ber gen-op- Zoom nearly taken by Sir Thomas 
Grahttniy but lost by the disorder of the troops in the mo- 
ment of success. — The AUies take, and evacuate Soissons.—- 
Bulow and Winzengerode unite with Bhicher. — The Duke 
of Wellington forces his way through the Pays des Gaves. — 
State of the Royalists m the West of France. — Discontent • 
of the old Republicans with NapoUotCs Crovemment. — 

. Views of the different Members of the Alliance as to the 
Dynasties of the Bourbons and of Napoleon. — Proceedings 
of the Dukes ofBerri and AngoulemCy and Monsieur, the 
two latter of whom enter France. — The French defeated by 
Wellington at Orthez. — Bourdeaux is voluntarily surren- 
dered to Marshal Beresford by the inhabitants, who mount 
the white cockade. — Details of the Negotiations of ChatiUon. 
'— Treaty of Chaumont, by which the Allies bind themselves 
of new to carry on the war with vigour. — Napoleon presents 
a singularly unreasonable contre-projet at ChatiUon. — Con- 
gress at ChatiUon broken up. 

While Napoleon was strugglingy in the Cam* 
paign of Paris, for his very edstence as a monarch, 
events were taking place on the frontiers, by all of 
which his fate was more or less influenced, and in 
almost all of them unfaYonrably. Of these events 

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we must give a brief detail, mentioning, at the same 
time, the influence which they individually produced 
upon the results of the war. 

The defence of Italy had been committed to 
Prince Eugene Beauhamois, the Viceroy of that 
kingdom. He was entirely worthy of the trust, but 
was deprived of any means that remained to him of 
accomplishing his task, by the defection of Murat. 
We have often had occasion to describe Murat as 
distinguished on the field of battle — rather an un- 
daunted and bigb*>mettled soldier than a wise com- 
mander. As a sovereign he had little claim to dis- 
tinction. He was good tempered, but vain, limit- 
ed in capacity, and totally uninformed. Napoleon 
had not concealed his contempt of his understand- 
ing, and, after the retreat from Russia, had passed an 
oblique, but most intelligible censure on him, in a 
public Imlletin. In writing to the wife of Murat, and 
bis own sister. Napoleon had mentioned her husband 
disparagingly, as one who was brave only on the 
field of battle, but elsewhere as weak as a monk or a 
woman. Caroline, in answer, cautioned her brother 
to treat her husband with more respect. Napoleon, 
unaceustoimcd to suppress his sentiments, continued 
the saxae line of language and conduct. 

Meaiiwlale Murat,^ in Itia reseutment, listened to 
terms from Austria, in which, by the mediation of 
that state, which was interei^ed in the reeovely of 

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her Italian provinces, England waa with difficulty 
induced to acquiesce. In consequence of a treaty 
formed with Austria, Murat declared himself in fa- 
TOUT of die allies, and marched an army of 30,000 
Neapolitans to Rcmie, for the purpose of assisting in 
the expulsion of the French from Italy. He speedily 
occupied Ancona and Florence. There was abeady 
in Italy aa army of 30,000 Austrians, with whom 
the Viceroy had fought the indecisive battle of Bo- 
verbello, afi» wluch he retreated to the line of the 
Adige, en which he made a precarious stand, until 
the war was concluded. The appearance of Munit^s 
anny on the side of Austria, though he confined 
himself to a war of proclamations, was calculated to 
end all French influence in Italy. Counter revolu- 
tionary movements, in some oi the Cantons of Swit- 
aerland, and in the mountains of Savoy, t^ided also 
to dose the door through which Buom^arte had so 
often transferred the war into the Italian Peninsula, 
and from its northern provinces, into the heart of 
Austria herself. 

The defection of Murat had the ftirther e%ct, of 
disconcerting the measures which Napoleon had me- 
ditated, for recovery of the eouifa-eastem fixmiier 
of France. Augereau had received orders to ad* 
yance fiom Lyons, and receive the reinforcements 
which Eugene was to have dispatched {torn Italy 
across the Alps. Thes^ it was calculated, would 

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have given the French Mareschal a decisive superi- 
ority, which might have enabled him to ascend to- 
wards the sources of the Saonne, call to arms the 
hardy peasantry of the Vosgesian mountains, in- 
terrupt the communications of the Austrian army, 
and excite a natbnal and guerilla warfare in the 
rear of the allies. 

To stimulate more highly the energies of his 
early comrade in arms, Napoleon caused the Em- 
press Maria Louisa to wait upon the young Du- 
chess of Castiglione, (the MareschaPs wife,) to pre- 
vail on her to use her influence with her husband, 
to exert all his talents and audacity in the present 
crisis. It was a singular feature of the declension of 
power, when it was thought that the command of 
the Emperor, imposed upon one of his Mareschals, 
might require being enforced by the interposition of 
a lady ; or rather, it implied that Napoleon was sen- 
sible that he was requiring of his officer something 
which no ordinary exertions could enable him to per- 
form. He wrote, however, to Augereau himself, 
conjuring him to remember his early victories^ and 
to forget that he was upwards of fifty years old. But 
exhortations, whether by a sovereign or lady, cannot 
supply the want of physical force. 

Augereau was unable to execute the task im- 
posed upon him, from not receiving the Italian rein-, 
foicements, which, as matters stood in Italy, Eugene 

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could not possibly spare. Detachments from Su- 
cliet's Spanish veterans did indeed join the Mareschal 
at Lyons, and enable him to advance on General 
Bubna, whom he compelled to retreat to Geneva. 
But the arrival of General Bianchi, with a strong 
reinforcement, which Schwartzenberg had dispatched 
for that purpose, restored the ascendancy of the al- 
lied armies on that frontier, especially as the Prince 
of Hesse Romberg also approached from Switzer* 
land at the head of the Austrian reserves. The last 
general had no difficulty in securing the passes of 
Saonne* Augereau in consequence was compell- 
ed to abandon the country of Gex and Franche 
Compt^, and again to return under the walls of 
Lyons. Napoleon was not more complaisant to his 
old comrade and tutor, than he had been to the other 
Mareschals in this campaign, who had not accom- 
plished tasks which they had not the means to achieve. 
Augereau was publicly censured as being inactive 
and unenterprising. 

The North of (7erm|py and Flanders were equal- 
ly lost to France, and firench interest. Hamburg 
indeed still held out. But, as we have already said, 
it was besieged, or rather blockaded, by the allies, 
under Bennigsen, to whom the Crown Prince of Swe- 
den had left that charge, when he himself, having 
put an end to the war with Denmark, had advanced 
towards Cologne, with the purpose of asststiog in 

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clearing Belgium of the French, and then entering 
France from that direction, in support of the Sile- 
eian army* The Crown Prince showed no personal 
willingaess to engage in the invasion of France. The 
causes which might deter him have been already con- 
jectured. The Royalists added another, that he had 
formed views of placing himself at the head of the 
government of France* which the allied monarchs de^ 
clined to gratify. It is certain that, whether from 
motives of prudence or estrangement, he was, after 
his arrival in Flanders, no longer to be considered as 
aa Sctive member of the coalition. 

.In the meantime, Antwerp was bravely and sci- 
entifically defended by the veteran republican, Car- 
not. This celebrated statesman and engineer had 
always opposed himself to the strides which Na- 
poleon made towards arbitrary power, and had vo^ 
ted against his election to the situation of Consul 
for life, and that of Emperor. JLi does not appear 
that' Napoleon resented this jg^^osition. He had 
been obliged to Carnot befoM^'fais unexampled rise, 
and afterwards he was sowlt mindful of him, as to 
cause his debts to be paid at a moment of embarrass- 
ment. Camot, on his part, took the invasion of 
France as a sxguaX for every Frenchman to use his 
talents in the public defence, and, offering his ser>* 
vices to the Emperor, was intrusted with the com-^ 
mand of Antwerp. 

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Bergen-op-Zoom was also still occupied by the 
French. This city, one of the most strongly forti- 
fied in the world, was nearly taken by a coup-de- 
main, by Sir Thomas Graham. After a night-at- 
tack of the boldest description, the -British columns 
were so far successful, that all ordinary obstacles 
seemed oyercome. But their success was followed 
by a degree of disorder which rendered it unavail- 
ing, and many of the troops who had entered the 
town were killed, or obliged to surrender. Thus an 
enterprise, ably planned and bravely executed, niis« 
carried even in the moment of victory, by accidents 
for which neither the general nor the officers imme- 
diately in command could be justly held responsible. 
General Graham was, however, reinforced from Eng- 
land, and was still enabled, with the help of the 
Swedes and Danes, ka well as Dutch and Flemish 
corps, to check any sallies from Bergen or from Ant- 
werp. . . 

The liberation of the Low Countries beinf so 
nearly accomplished, Bi^ow pressed forward on La 
Fere, and finally occupierf'Laon. Here, upon the 
28th of February, he formed a junction with Win* 
zengerode, who, bequeathing Juliers, Venloo, and 
Maestricht, to the observation of the Crown Prince, 
marched through the forest of Ardennes.^ Soissona 
offered a show of desperate resistance, but the com* 


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82 LfFfi •:f 

mtmUnt being IfiUedi tbe place waa delivered up. 
T)u$ waa qn Ihe 13th jfebniary, and the allie9 ought 
to hove held this itnportant place. But in their 
haste t€f join Prince Blucher, they evacuated Soissoosy 
irhich Mortier caused to be presently re-occu^^ hy 
a $trong French garrison. The possession of thia 
tgiwn bepame shortly afterwards a matter of great 
cmsequence. In tb^ meantine, Bulow and Winaen- 
gekK>de, with Hmrivrq ad^iional am^ies^ entered inta 
eoinaimicatifHi with B^uchCT, of whom they now 
fbrmed the rear-giwd, and more than restored to 
him &e adrantage be had lost by the defeats at 
Mo&t^oirail and Champeaubert. 

tte the spiitl|*westem frontier die borisp^ seeased 
yet darker. The Duke of Welliiiglon having en? 
lered Spsiil, was abopt to ibrca lifis way through the 
atrong oountrya called (iJiePcf^daaCraim, the land) 
that if, ^the ravines fenned by rivers ai|d teraents* 
He maintained such severe discipline, and paid wi^h 
auch regularily fioT the sillies which li^ needed 
£rqm the country, that he was voluntarily furp«ab« 
ed with previsions of every kind; niiile t^f 9iWJ 
of Sodi, ^pi^h stationed in the Mareschd'a ^^n 
eountay, o^taiiied none» save by the sm^ty ^Dli. un- 
•vnllit^ means of military r^quiritipii. In f^iof^ 
^uence ^ 1^ strict cBsdpUne, the presenp^ of the 
IQMtish trocfa was &r ftc^n being distremi^ t9.4he 
country ; and some effi>rts«nade I^ Genead Haiiape, 

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tp faise g«mlbs wmaag his countfymeiit tk Batqums 
to act on tbe Duke of WeiBagloii's loar, became to- 
tiAy iiio£fecttiaL The small iea»port town of St. 
Jeaa de JLax aapplied the English anny with pnKi 
"risions and mQ[fbieemcnt«. The acthrity of Eng^ 
lish oommetce speedaly sent caigoeQ of every kind 
into the harbonr, where before were only, to heaeen 
aftw fi8hiiig4MMtB. The go^da were landed, under 
a tariff of dutiea aattlod fay the Duke of WeSingtoi s 
and 80 ended the Contmental System. 

In the m o aatiine, the atate of the west c£ Fcanee 
was auoh aa held o«rt the hi{^st political results to 
die IMtid, in ciise they should be able to ovesoome 
the oiMtades pmented by the atreag entrenched 
camp at Bayonne, on whidi Soult rested his ri^t 
flank, eKten^ing « Hue of great stiei^h upon the 
Adoor and Ae neighbouring Gwes* 

We have mentioned abeady die eonfiedemey of 
Boyali^ whicti was now in full activity* and ez« 
tended by ftudiftd agents through die whole west of 
France. Th^ wete now at their post, and preparing 
ercrythkig for an explosion. The police of Buona-^ 
parte were nmther ignorant of the existence or pur* 
pese of this coii8{»racy, but they were unable to ob<- 
tsin such precise information as should detect and 
cnidi i|. The two M^usrs de Poligaac were deeply 
engi^ed, and, becpming t&e sulgeets of suqfjicimy it 
was only by a dexterous aud i^eedy flight from Bsri* 

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that tbey eluded captivity^ or perhaps death* They* 
succeeded in reaching the army of the allies, and 
Yteie, it is believed, the first who conveyed to the 
Emperor Alexander an exact state of the royal party 
in the interior of France, particularly in the capital, 
)lrhich moie a powerful impression on the mind of 
that prince. 

Throughout the west of France diere started up a 
thousand agents of a party, which were now to awake 
from a sleep of twenty years. Bourdeaux, with its 
loyal mayoi^) Count Lynch, and the greater port of its 
citizens, was a central point of the association. A gxeat 
part of the inhabitants were secretly regimented and 
embodied, and had arms in their possession, and artil^ 
lery, gunpowder, and ball, concealed in their ware-> 
houses. The celebrated La Rochejacquelein^ made 
immortal by the simple and sublime narrative of his 
consort, solicited the cause of the royalists at the 
English bead<-quarteTs, and made repeated and periL 
ous journeys from thence to Boutdeaux, and back 
again. Saintonge and La Vendee were organized 
for insurrection by a loyal clergyman, the Abbe Ja- 
qualt. The brothei*G . of Iloche-Aymon prepared 
Perigord for a struggle. The Duke of Duras had 
engaged a thousand gentlemen at Touraine* Lastly, 
the Chouans had again prepared for a rising under 
the Count de Vitray, and Tranquille, a celebrated 
leader, called Le Capitaine sans peur. Numerous 

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bands of refractory conscripts, rendered desperate by 
their state of outlawry, were ready at Angers, Nantes, 
and Orleans, to take arms in tbe cause of the Bour- 
bons, under the Count de TOrge, Monsieur d^ Airac, 
Count Charles d^Autichamp, the Count de Suzan- 
net, and Cadoudal, brother of the celebrated Georges, 
and his equal in courage and resolution. But all de- 
sired the previous advance o£ the Bltce-Flints, as they 
called the English, their own being of a different co- 
lour. Trammelled by the negotiation at Chatillon, 
and various other political impediments, and anxious 
.especially not to- lead these high-spirited gentlemen 
into danger^ by encouraging a premature rising, the 
English ministers at home, and the English general 
in France, were obliged for a time to restrain rather 
than encourage the forward zeal of the Royalists. ' 
Such caution was the more necessary, as there ex- 
isted at the same time another conspiracy, also direct- 
ed against Buonaparte^'s person, or at least his autho- 
rity ; and it was of importance that neither should 
explode until some means cotkld be found of prevent- 
ing their checking and counteracting each other* 
This second class of malcontents consisted of those, 
who, like Buonaparte himself, owed tbeir political 
consequence to the Revolution ; and who, without 
regard to the Bourbons, were desirous to get free 
of the tyranny of Napoleon. These were the dis- 
appoinjted and degraded Republicans, the deceived 

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S6 lAtt OF 

G(m8titution«list8, all vrho bad bopect and expect- 
ed tbat the Revduiion would have pafved tbe way 
for A free goTenment, in whicb tbe career of pre* 
ferment should be open to talents of every descrip- 
tion, — a lottery in wbich, doubtless^ ^ach hoped 
tbat his own abilities would gain som^ important 
prise. The sceptre of Napoleon had weired harder 
upon this class than even npon the Royalists. He 
bad no dislike to the principles of the latter, aH- 
stractedly considered ; he felt some respect for their 
birth and titles, and only wished to transfer their af- 
fections from the House of Bourbon, and to attach 
Ibem to that of Napoleon* Accordhigly, be distribu- 
ted employments and honours among such of the old 
noUesse as co'ukl be brought to accept them, and ob- 
viously felt pride in drawing to his Court names and 
titles, known in the earlier periods of French history. 
Besides, until circumstances shook bis throne, and 
-enlai^ed their means of injuring him, he considered 
the number of the Royalists as small, and their power 
as despicable. But from those active spirits, who had 
traded in revolution after revolution fbr so many 
years, he had much more both to fear and to dislike, 
especially as they were now understood to be beaded 
by bis ex-minister Talleyrand, with whose talents, 
both fer scheming and executing poHtical changes, 
he had so mudi reason to be acquainted* To this 
dlass of his enemies he imputed the hardy atccpipt 

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ivhich WHS made^ not iridiottt {voapBits of aticee^i t¥ 
orerthrow his gorettiiDent duriiig hk abb^ac^ in 
Russia. ^ You have the tail, but not the head,^ 
had been the words of the principal consprator, when 
aboitit to be exeeuted ^ and they sttU rung in the ears 
of Buonaparte. It was generalty supposed, that bit 
foflg stay in Paris, ere he again took the field againat 
the alli^Sj was dictated by his fear of soine similar &^ 
plosion to that of Mallet'sconspiracy. Whether these 
iw6 separate classes of the enemiesof Buonaparte eem- 
municated with each other, we have no opportunity of 
knowing, imt they both had intercourse with the al- 
lies. That of Talleyrand's faction was* we beliete^ 
maintained at the court of London, through n^ans 
of a near relation of his own, who visited England 
shortly befi>re the opening of the campaign of which 
we treat. We have no doubt, that through some st- 
miliu^ medium Talleyrand held communication with 
the Bourbons ; and that, io the same manner as the 
l£DgIish Redtoradon was brought about by a union 
between the Cavaliers and Presbyterians^ there was 
even then upon foot 6ome treaty of accommodation, 
by which the exiled monarch was, in regaining the 
crown, to have the assistance of those, whom, for 
want of another name, we shall call Constitutional- 
ists^ it being understood that his government was to 
be established on the basis of a free model.. 

It was of the greatest importance that both these 

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factions should be cautious in their mbvements, utitil 
it should appear what course the Allied Monarcfas 
were about to pursue in the impending negotiation 
with Buonaparte. The issue of this was th^ more 
dubious, as it was generally understood that though 
the Sovereigns were agreed on the great point of de« 
Btroying, on the one hand, the supremacy of France, 
and, on the other, in leaving her in possession of liev 
just weight and influence, they entertained a diffe- 
rence of opinion as to the arrangement of her future 

The Prince Regent of England, from the genero- 
sity of his own disposition, as well as from a clear 
and comprehensive view of future possibilities, enter- 
tained views favourable to the Bourbons. This illus^ 
trious persoii justly conjectured, that free institutions 
would be more likely to flourish under the restorefi 
family, who would receive back their crown under 
conditions favourable to freedom, than under any 
modification of the revolutionary system, which must 
always, in the case of Buonaparte'^s being permitted 
to reign, be felt as implying encroachments on his 
imperial power. The Bourbons, in the case pre- 
sumed, might be supposed to count their winnings, 
in circumstances where the tenacious and resentful 
mind of Napoleon would broad over his losses ; and 
it might be feared, that with a return of fortune he 
might' struggle to repair them. But there were mi- 
nisters in the British cabinet who were afraid of in« 

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tiihirig the imputation of protracdng the war by 
auBouBciiig England's adoption of the cause of the 
Bourbons, which was now of a date somewhat anti* 
quitated, and to which a sort of unhappy fatality had 
hitherto been annexed. England'^s interest in the 
royal cause was, therefore, limited to good wishes. 

The Emperor Alexander shared in the inclinatioa 
which all sovereigns must have felt towards this un« 
hap^ family, whose cause was in some degree that of 
priDces in general. It was understood thatMoreau^« 
engagement with the Russian Monarch had been 
fimnded upon an express assurance on the part of 
Alexander, that the Bourbons'were to be restored to 
the Crown of France under the limitations of a free 
constitution. Prussia, from her close alliance with 
Russia, and the personal causes of displeasure which 
existed betwixt Frederick and Napoleon^, was certain 
to vote for the downfall of the latter. 

But the numerous armies of Austria, and her vi- 
cinity to the scene of action, rendered her aid indis- 
pensable to the allies, while the alliance betwixt her 
Imperial house and this once fortunate soldier, threw 
much perplexity into their council. It was believed 
that the Emperor of Austria would insist upon 
Buonaparte's being admitted to treat as Sovereign 
of France, providing the latter gave sufficient evi^ 
dence that he would renounce his pretensions to 
geaeral supremacy ; or, if he continued unreasonji- 

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#0 t.irs CfT 

Wy obfitiMte^ that the Emperor Fmcis would Ae* 
■ire that a regency should be established, with Ma- 
ria Louisa at its head. Either eonrse, if adopted, 
would have been a deathWow to the hopes of the 
exiled family of Bourbon. 

Amid this uneertatnty, the Prtscea of the Hoi»e 
uf BourboD gallantly determined to risk their own 
persons in France, and try what their presence might 
do to awake andent r^nembrances at a crisis so m- 

Although the British ministry reused to tUcitd 
any direct countenance to the schemes of the Bour* 
bon fiunily, they could not, in ordinary justice, deny 
the tnore actiTe members of that unhappy race the 
freedom of acring as they themselves might judg^ 
most for the interested their cause and adherents. To 
their applications for permission to depart for Prancc> 
they recei'ved ftom the British ministry the rep)y> 
ilhat the Princes of the Hous^ of Bourbon were the 
guests, not the prisoners, of Britain ; and although 
the present state of public affiiits precluded her froi^ 
expressly authorising any step which they might 
think proper to take, yet they were free to quit her 
territories^ and return to them at their pleastre* 
Under a sanction so general, the Duke d' Angouleme 
set sail for St Jean de Lu», to join the army of the 
Duke of Wellington ; the Duke de Berri for Jersey, 
to correspond with the Royalists of Brittany ; **** 

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Monsieur for Holland, from whicli he gained the 
frontiera of Switxerland, and entered France in the 
rear of the Austrian armies. The movements of the 
two last princes produced no effects of consequence. 

The Duke de Berri paused in the Isle of Jersey, 
on receiving some unpleasant communications from 
France respecting the strength of the existing go- 
vernment, and on discovering, it is said, a plot to 
induce him to land at a point, where he must become 
the prisoner of Buonaparte. 

Monsieur entered France, and was received at 
Vesoul with great enthusiasm. But this movement 
was tiot encouraged by the Austrian commandants 
and generals ; and Monsieur^s proposal to raise corps 
of Boyslists in Alsace and Franche Compte, was 
treated with coldness, approaching to contempt. The 
etectttiou of OouauU at Troycs, and the decree of 
death against the RojillstB, struck terror into the 
party, whieh was ihereased by the retrograde move- 
ment of the Grand Army. The enterprise of Mon- 
sieur, therefore, had no immediate result, though un- 
^ubtedly his presence had a decisive effect in con- 
sequence of ultimate events ; and the restcnration 
would hardly have taken place, without that prince 
bating sd adventured his person. 

The arrival of the Dtike of Angouleme in the 
army of the Duke of Wellington, had more imme- 
diate consequences. His Royal Highness could 

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4)nl7 be received as^ a volmiteer, but the effect of hn 
arrival was soou visible. La Bochejacquelein, who 
bad dedicated to the royal cause his days aud nights, 
his fortune and his Jifei soon appeared in the British 
camp, urging the general to direct bis march on the 
city of Bourdeaux, which, when delivered from the 
vicinity of Soult's ann^, would instantly declare it- 
self for the Bourbons, mid be followed by the rising 
of Guienne, Anjou, and Languedoc. Humanity, as 
well as policy, induced the Duke of Wellington still 
to hesitate. He knew how frequently patriotic en- 
thusiasm makes promises beyond its power to fulfii^; 
and he cautione4 the zealous envoy to beware of a 
hasty declaration, since the conferences at Chatilloa 
were still continued, and there was a considerable 
chance of their ending in a peace between the allies 
and Napoleon, La Rochejacquelein, undeterred by 
remonstrancess continued to urge his suit with such 
intelligence and gallantry, as to receive at last the 
encouraging answer, ^^ Remain a few days at head- 
quarters, and you shdil see us force the Gaves.^^ 

Here, accordingly, commenced a series of scienti- 
fic manoeuvres, commencing 14th February, by which 
tlie Duke of Wellington, pressing step by step on that 
part of the French army which were on the left side 
of the Adour, drove them successively beyond the 
Gave de Mauleon, and the Gave d'Oleron. On the 
right side of the latter Gave, the French too]f a po«' 

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^tieii on very strong ground in front of the town of 
0|thez, where, joined by Clausel and a strong rein- 
forcement, Soult endeavoured to make a stand. The 
Duke of Wellington commenced his attack on the 
enemy^s right, storming and taking the village by 
vbich it was commanded. The desperate resistance 
which the enemy made on this point, occasioned one 
of those critical movements, when a general is called 
npon, in the heat of battle, to alter all previous ar- 
ntngements, and, in the moment of doubt, confusiony 
and anxiety, to substitute new combinations to super*, 
sede those which have been planned in the hours o£ 
cool premeditation • A left attack upon a chain of. 
heights extending along General Soult'^s left, was 
substituted for that to which Wellington had at first 
Ousted for victory. 

At the same time, the appearance of General HillV 
division, who had forded the river, or Gave, above 
Orthez, and threatened the enemy^s flank and rear, 
made the defeat complete. For some time Mare- 
schal Soult availed himself of the alertness of his 
troops, by halting and taking new positions, to pre* 
serve at least the form of a regular retreat ; but at 
lengthy forced from one line to another by the ma- 
Bceuvres of the British, sustaining new losses at every 
halt, and menaced by the rapid approach of Ge- 
neral Hill's division, his retreat became a flight, in 
»bich the French suflVred great loss. Whole bat- 

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91 i-irs o*- 

faiiom of conscripts diopersed entmfy« and iii«i^* 
left thdir imiskels r^ulsrly piled, as if iiitimfilii|g^ 
their fixed resditttioa to retire altogether from the 

Another action near Aires, by General Hill, and 
the passage of the Adour, under Bayonne, by the 
Honourable Sir John Hope, a manceu^e vhich 
might well be compared to a great battle fought^ 
gave fresh influence to the British arms. Bayoime 
▼as inyested, the road to Bourdeaux Imd open, and 
Soult, kft with scarce the semblance of an army, re* 
treated towards Tarfaes, to secure a junction wiA^ 
such French corps as mi^t be returning from Spain. 

The little of Orthez, with the brilliant and mas^ 
terly manceuvi^s which preceded and followed iil> 
served to establi^ the superiority of the ^ttslt 
ferces in points wherdin ihey had tiU then been detsn^ 
ed most deficient. Since the victories in Spain, U was 
no longer uncommon to hear a French ofiicer allow, 
that iti the extreme tug of conflict the £nglV»h sol- 
dier^ frcmi physical strength and high energy of cha* 
racter, had perhaps some degree of superiority over 
his own impetuous but less persevering countrymen* 
But he uniformly qualified such a stretch of candour, 
by claiming for the French sypedor i^dH in contri- 
ving, and promptitude in executing, those previous 
movements, on which the fate pf battles usually dt* 
pends. The victory of Salamanca, though gained 
over a general distinguished as a tactician, and in 

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WMjceqmppce of a pTeTious oontetl of mamsuTres, wai 
not «dmtled to contradict the opinion with which 
Ffencbmen were g^emlly iminressed. Yet, since 
the commeooeinent of the campaign on the Aduur, 
the Ficnch amy, though under command of the 
cdebBated Soiilt» f fe Fi^K^ Renardy as he was fiuni* 
\aAy called by bis ^oldiera,) was chedced, turned, 
eiittiiMHrclied) and out-flsnked upon every oecasion ; 
driyw from poation to position, in a country that 
affords sp many of peculiar strength, without having 
^ an thw power to iiy«ire their victors by aprotract- 
ed defence; and repeatedly defeated, not by main 
force 07 fiiqpeviortty of nunber, but by a coBibina.> 
law of movements, at once so bpldly conceived and 
SQ admirably eiiecuted, as left tbrou^iQut the whole 
ooatert die pdm of science, as well as of enduring 
eaeigy 4Uid physical htfdihood, with the British soL 
dier. These victories, besides adding another laurel 
iQ the thidC'Woven chiclet ni the English gmeral, 
bai die most decisive eflfect on the fixture events of 
die war, as weU as upon the fwblic mind in the 
aoath of Fiance. 

Bonrdeaux being thus left to follow the incUna^ 
tioDfl of the inhabitants, and encouraged by the ap^ 
poach aS an English detachment of 15,000 men, 
under Field-Marshal Beves&rd, pourad out its muk 
thnte to receive the Duke of Angouleme. Theniun^ 
\e^ which thronged out of the city were computed 

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to be at least 10,000 persons. The mayor* Couot 
Lynch, in a short speech , told the English General, 
that if he approached as a conqueror, he' needed 
not his interposition to possesshimseH* of the keys of 
Bourdeauz ; but if he came as an ally of their lawful 
sovereign, he was ready to tender them up, with every 
token of love, honour, and afiection. Field-Marshal 
Beresford reiterated his promises of protection, and* 
expressed his confidence in the loyalty of the cityof 
Bourdeaux. The Mayor then uttered the long-for-- 
gotten signal cry of Vive le Roi ! and it was echoed, 
a thousand times from the thousands around. Count 
Lynch then, pulling the three-colourc;d cockade 
from his hat, assumed the white cockade of the! 
Bourbons. All imitated his example, and at a con- 
certed signal, the old ensign of loyalty streamed from 
the steeples and towers of the city, amid general ac-> 

The enthusiasm with which the signals of loyalty 
were adopted, and the shouts of Vioe le Roi repeat* 
ed on all hands, mingled with blessings upon the 
heads of the English and their leaders, formed ja 
scene which those who witnessed it will not speedily 
forget. It was a renewal of early affections and at- 
tachments, which seemed long dead and forgotten,^ — 
a general burst of feelings the more generous and 
affecting, because they were not only as disinterest* 
ed as spontaneous, but might eventually be deeply 

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Y«l Astf w«re inlefed ^th a g^fievoiiii •eti«9iud«lii^, 
diat placed the aolons fftr allots liie apprebbfiSioft of 
personal consequeneei^. 

Tbe same fivefy aodamatidim haited the entra&efe 
<iftheXHike d'Angafuleme into this ^Ae city. At 
tbe Prinee*6 enuy, ^ inhiri^tants clfotrded romid 
him with enthusiasm. The arohMdhbp. tCoA elerg;^ 
fsf the diocese tecogniised him ; Te Deum was sung 
IB full poinp» while the united banners of FrAnco, 
Bntam, Spain, alid Portugal, were hoisted on the 
walls of the town. LotS Dalhoosie \f^ left command^ 
ant of ihe British ; and if exeellent sense, long expe- 
rience, the most perfect equality of temper, and un*^ 
diaken steadiness, be necessary qualittes in so deli- 
cate a trust, the British army had not one more fit 
ferthe charge. 

Brilliant as these tidings* weore, they excited in 
Biitaih the most cruel apprehensions for the fat« 
ihifeh Bobrdeaux might incitt, if this declaratioii 
dioald unhappily prove cobein-etnafture. The treaty 
•t Chutillon seiemed to approach a temiiiation, a^d 
vessels are said to have been diftpaiched to the 6i^ 
roade, to fayeur.theescaipe of i^oh citiitend its iiii^t 
be iftost obiMNckms to the f engeahce of Buonapait^ 
Maay bf those who vwithed most for British su^cces^, 
ve^e tempted to negset thuil dfe victoiry ^ Orth^ hiid 

VOL, Vlll. (J 

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16 LIFE or 

tnkea i^aee ; so great ware their affprehlensioiis fchr 
(hose who had been encouraged by that success, to 
declare agidnst the government of Napoleon ere his 
power of injuring them was at an end. Thai we mty 
see how f«t tholse fears were warranted, we shall has- 
tfly review the progress of this remarkable-negotia- 
tion, of which, however, the secret history is not even 
now entirely known. 

The propositions for peace had begun with the 
communication of the Baron St Aignan, which had 
been discussed at Frankfort. The terms then propo- 
sed to Napoleon were, that, abandoning all his wider 
oonquests, France should retire within the course of 
the Rhine and the barrier of the Alps. Napoleon 
had accepted these conditions as a basis, under asti- 
pidation, however, which afforded a pretext for break- 
ing off the treaty at pleasure, namely, that France 
was to be admitted to liberty of commerce and navi- 
gation ; an implied challenge of the maritime laW, as 
exercised by the British. To this, the Earl of Aber- 
deen, the able and accomplished representative of 
Britain,replied,that France should enjoy such liberty 
of commerce and navigation as she had any right to 
expect. A subject of debate, and a most important 
one, was thus leflt open ; and perhaps neither of dioce 
powers were displeased to possess a means of disturb- 
ing the progress of the treaty, according to what 
should prove the events of the war. 

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• Caulaincoart, Duke of Vicensa, the mitufiter of 
foreign affiiirB, was the representative of Napoleon 
«t Chatillon, upon this most important occasion. 
His first instructions, dated 4th January, 1814, re- 
stricted him to the basis proposed at Frankfort^ 
which assigned Belgium to France, thus concede 
iog to the latter what Napoleon now called her na* 
tural boundaries, although it certainly did not ap« 
pear, why, since victory had extended her fron- 
tiers by so many additional kingdoms, defeat should 
net now have the natural efiect of retrenching them< 
But after the inauspicious commencement of the 
campaign, by the battle of Brienne, in which Na- 
poleon gained little, and that of La Rothiere, in 
which he was defeated, he saw that as peace, like 
the Books of the Sibyls, (to the sale of which the ne- 
gotiation has been compared,) would rise in price, 
circumstances might render it necessary, also, that 
peace should be made by Caulaincourt without com* 
munication with Napoleon. Depending upon the 
events of war, it might' be possible that a favourable 
da^, nay, an hour being suffered to elapse^ might put 
the treaty out of his reach. For these reasons, Cau- 
laincourt was intrusted, over and above his instruc- 
tions, with a definitive and unlimited carte-blanche, 
in which he was empowered to *' bring the negotia- 
tion to a happy issue, to save the capital, and prevent 
the hazards of a battle, on which must rest the last 
hopes of the nation.^ 

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Caulaincourt reached ChatilloTi sur Seine, which 
kad been dedared neutral Sh? lite ptirpose ^yf th^ 
ednfer'en^es. At this liiemorabl^ Cdngrese, Couiit 
St^iott represented Austria, Count Razinhowski 
Russia, Baron Humboldt Prussia, and JGrreat Bri-' 
tain had three commissioners present, namely, Lord 
Abelrdeen, Lord Cathcart, and Sir Charled Stewart. 
£.reiy pbliteness was showii on the part of Ae 
Ft^nchi who ereti offered the Ef]gli«h ministers the 
advanta^ of ccirresponding directly with LKindoAby 
the way of Calais ; a courtesy which was decKned 

'The commissioners of the allies Wel:6 not long ill 
expressing what Napoleon's fears bad ^ticij^ated^ 
They declared that they would no longer dbidfe 6y 
the basis proposed at Frankfort. *' To obtain pea^e, 
France tnust be restricted within her ancient limits^*^. 
which ex'cluded the important acquisition of BelgiUtii. 
Buron Fain gives us an interesting account of the 
mode in which Napoleon received this communica- 
tion. He retired for a time into his own apartment, 
aifd isent for Berthier and Mareit. They icame — ^he 
gate them ite &«ial dispatch~they i*ead, a^d a dee|^ 
silence etfdiied* Tlie two faithful minist^is fltmg 
themselves at their master's feet, and with tears in 
their eyes implored hinl to give way to the necessity 
df the tifaie. " N»ver,'' he replied, *^ will I bnsftk 
the oath by which' I Emne.'iit snly oorohat^, ti> 

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mwxUin the integrity dT the territories of the J^ 
fmbHc^ and never will I leave France less in exteiit 
than I fovmd her. It would not only be France tlia^ 
would vetreat, but Austria and Prussia who woulfl 
advance. France indeed needs peace, but such a 
peace 19 worse than the most inveterate war. What 
answer would I have to the Republicans of the StaU^ 
when tfcey should demand from me the barrier ^f the 
Bhine ^ No<-**imte to Caulaincourt that I reject thp 
treaty >^ and wiU rather abide the brunt of battle^T 
Shortly afiier he is safd to bav% exclaimed, ^' I aip 
yet nearer to ]ymnich than they are to Paris/" 

liis eounciUors we?e not discouraged. In a cooler 
mom^t> tfa^ B^inisters who watched his pil|ow, ob- 
tained fifom him permission that the treaty shoul^ 
proceed. He directed that the articles proposed by 
the allies should be sent to Paris, and the advice 
of each privy councillor taken individually upon the 
subject. With one exceptbn, that of Count La- 
cute de Cessac, all the privy councillors agreed that 
the terms proposed at Chatillon ought to be subscri- 
bed tp. Thus sanctioned, Caulaincourt, on' the 9th 
of February, wrote to the commissioners of the allies, 
that if an immediate armistice were entered into, he 
was reftdy to consent that France should retreat 
within her ancient limits, according to the basis pro- 
posed. He offisred, also, that France should cede in- 
^antly, on ccmdition of the armistice being granted 

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108 LIFE OP 

some of the strong places, which their acceptance of 
the terms offered obliged her to yield up. Bat this 
offer of ceding the fortresses was clogged with secret 
conditions, to be afterwards explained. The alliee 
declared their readiness to adhere to these prelimi^ 
naries, and for a day the war might be considered 
as ended. 

But, in the meantime, the successes which Napo- 
leon obtained over Blucher at Montmirail and 
Cfaampeaubert, had elevated him in his own opinion 
above the necessity in which he stood after the bat- 
tle of Brienne. From the field of battle at Chateaa 
Thiery, he wrote to Caulaincourt to assume an at- 
titude less humiliating among the members of the 
Congress ; and after the defeat of the prince of 
Wirtemberg, at the bridge of Montereau, and the 
retreat of the Grand Army from Troyes, he seems 
to have entirely resolved to break off the treaty. 

When Schwartzenberg, as we have seen, demand- 
ed the meaning of Napoleon's offensive movement, 
contrary to what had been agreed upon by the Con- 
gress at Chatillon, he answered, by the letter to the 
Emperor of Austria, in which he rejected the con- 
ditions to which Caulincourt had agreed, and re- 
probated them as terms which, if known in Pans, 
would excite general indignation. '* It would realize, 
he said, ** the dream of Burke, who desired to make 
France disappear from the map of Europe. It was 

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phd^ England* in posseision of Antweip and the 
Lor Countries^ neither of whidi he woidd ever sur- 

In the same spirit, and at the same time^ Napoleon 
wrote fiom Nangis to Caulaincoiirt, that *^ when he 
had given him carte-Uanche, it was fiir the piupooe 
of saving Par^, and Paris was now saredj; it was 
for avoidKng the ride of a battle, — ^that risk was over, 
and the battle won ; he therrfoie revoked the ex- 
tnordinaxy powers with which his ambassador was 

We will not stop to inqnire into the diplomatie 
question, whether Caulaincourt had not effectually 
eiendsed, on 9th February, those powers which were 
not recalled until the 17th, six days after ; and, ocmr 
aequently, whether his master was not bound, by the 
act of his envoy, beyond the power of retracting. 
Enough remains to surprise us in Napoleon's head- 
strong resolution to continue the war, when, in fact, 
it was already ended upon terms which had been re- 
commended by all his councillors, one excepted. His 
obligation to the Republic of France, to maintain the 
int^rity of its territories, could scarcely remain bind* 
ing on one, by whom that very Republic had been de- 

* This alluded to the match, then supposed to be on %he tapis, 
betwixt the late Princess Charlotte of Wales and the Prince of 

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Moyei; and at any rate, bo sach ^nf^sgeikiept ean 

Uvi a soVaraigii haom acting in cMreidity as fk^ 

safety of the community requires. Far less cotibltba 

tmw be saidHodisliMbt^ fVanto, or'stiike be^but 

of tbe map tif JBn^^ unksd ter't^cmouf and d»f* 

tmcp, ii(hidll IvbA teiif iskisdr for tmiver*o«ntiirie^, !*&- 

ptndbdupm^aaaoquititiob wbi^'ahe faad^m^ierwitlii 

IK twenty jfcftifg;' But tile «eal ^as^ i*iis« tlial Bttbi 

napavtei akray « Cbniiect%d Ihe lods of litMi6«r irttfa tke 

MUfender of vhat6>ter- he cooeeivedr bimpetf whwfie i 

chance of being able to retain. Every cession nMTfi 

be^wrungfiom him ; be ifouldpartifith' nodiiaginl- 

iingly ; aad, like a cbiM wkh its toys, tliat of '^HaA 

there was any attcfmpt to de|firive bitu, beeameiioMo- 

diatefy the most valuable of his possessions. An^ 

werp, indeed^ had a partScukr right to be consid^Ml 

as inestimaUe. Tbe sums be had bestowed otf i€s 

magnificent basinii, and almost impregnable foiftific«- 

tions, were immense. He had always the idea tb^ 

he might make Antwerp the principal station ^ a 

large navy. He clung to this vision rf a flee^ ^^ 

at £!lba and Saint Helena, repeating often, that he 

might bttve saved his c»we if be wicmld have temiff^' 

ed Antwerp at ChatiUett; and no idea was moi^ ril^«*- 

ted in his mind, than that his refusal was founded on 

patriotic principles. Yet the chief value of Antwerp 

. lay in the event of another war with Great Britaip? 

for which Buonaparte was thus preparing, while tie 

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qadf&m w^b, boar die pteaeBt JhostBittai- meam ^ bet 
cbsed.; and raifljrt %^|K»ninlily^ ^ aavjE^ whtfli 
bd HO existfiiitte^ .$}Bb3l^Jsak:iom» IfBOk- placed. iinr 
^ODBpelaAiQii.vUlrlliefiiifdl^r of a^atlattr ^fHymor. 
petilied by the war nmtFegtngii^ iMe iwqr cenfttfi 
of his kingdom.^ This he saw iD.a ^iSiiemi liglil 
Sdboi that ef eabn xeataiv ^^ if I am i/9i ocbidye 
Ikig^iaAai,'' he and, ff 1ft il: he at baefrniidei^ianDe 
ofooiapvfaaeii.'' : 

' iMudjy tlffi ten^KiEacjr a^ceess yti^^ he had at- 
tained hi >the ficid flifaatlle^ iraa of a>ohamcterv^iiebi 
juatly eopatdeidl^ ought jaali^to ha^» enequ^figedlifte 
Piau^ Emperor to (MMaiiue /iiar> biitr'09 the emfc 
«rm7^ ttight hare ifori^khed a prQ$iott9 oppQrtattailjr 
lac making peace, before thf very s^oidV pai«l irfos 
i4 hie tibroat The candiliio&s which he aaight haye 
made ia thi^ moment ef tempoissiy su^eesa^ wcmld 
have had the appearance of being g?ac<^aUy c§4ed, 
rtther. than ppwtively extorted by neoeasity* A»d 
il may be added, that the aUiesi, starUed by their 
Ipssesy wonld have probaUy granted him better 
Uxm 9 mi certeinly^ refi^embering hi^^ military ta- 
knts, would have tid^encwc to^oibserye those whicih 
they might £x upoiu The reverses, therefore, in the 
month of February^ which obscured the arms of the 

* See Journal, && par Le Compte de Las Cases, teme IV. 
partie 7ieme. 

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106 UFB OP 

oombiiifid nmudiBy leMmblad the douds, which^ in 
Byron's Tale» b dttcribed as passing over the moon, 
to aSBoftd an impodtent ren^ade the last and limited 
term for repentenoe.* But the heart of Napoleon, 
like that of Alp, was too proud to fnrofit by the in- 
terval of delay thus «£Porded to him. 

The truth seems to be^that Buomiparte never ae- 
tiously 'intended to make peace at Chatilhm ; and 
while his negotiator, Caulainconrt, was instructed to 
hold out to the allies « proposal to cede the frontier 
fortresses, he received from the Duke of Bassano the 
iGdIowing private directions : — <^ The Emperor de- 
sires that you would avoid explaining yourself dearly 
upon every thing which may relate ^to delivering up 
the fortresses of Antwerp, Mayence, and Alexandria, 
if you should be obliged to consent to these cessions ; 
his Majesty intending, even though he should have 
ratified the treaty, to be guided by the military si- 
tuation of affairs : — ^wait till the last moment. The 
bad faith of the allies in respect to the capitulations 
of Dresden, Dantzic, and Gorcum, authorises us to 
endeavour not to be duped. Refer, therefore, these 
questions to a military arrangement, as was done at 

* *' There is. a light doad by the moon.^ 
'Tis passing, and 'twill pass fuU soon ; 
If, by the time its vapoury sail 
Hath ceased her shrouded orb to veil, 
Thy heart is not within thee changed, 
Then God and man are both avenged." 

Siege of Corinth, 

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Fresborg, Vienna, and Tilrit. His Majesty desiies 
liiat you mnAd not lose right of the disporitum whidi 
he will feel, not to deliver up those three keys of 
Franeej if military events, on which he is willing 
sdll to rely, should permit him not to do so, even if 
he should have signed the cession of all these pro^ 
vinces. In a word, his Majesty wishes to be able, 
after the treaty, to be guided by existing circum- 
stances, to the last moment. He orders you to bum 
this letter as soon as you have read it." 

The allies showed, on their ride, that the ob- 
stinacy of Mapoleon had increased, not diminish- 
ed, their determination to carry on the war. A 
new treaty, called that of Chaumont, was entered in- 
to upon the Ist of March, between Austria, Russia, 
Prusria, and England, by which the high contract- 
mg parties bound themselves each to keep up an 
army of 150,000 men, with an agreement on the 
part of Great Britain, to advance four millions to 
carry on the war, which was to be prosecuted with- 
out relaxation, until France should be reduced within 
her ancient limits ; and what further indicated the 
feelings of both parties, the military commissioners, 
who had met at Lusigny to settle the terms of an 
armistice, broke up, on pretence of being unable to 
agree upon a suitable line of demarcation. 

The principal negotiation continued to languish 
at Chatillon, but without much remaining hope lie- 
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jng flnt^rtatned, by those "wbo were weU-jqfevnftd.Qii 
tfciifiwr Hide, of the result being &ypiu»ble« 

On >tbe 7tb Maroh^ BM&iguy, a clerk af JBwm- 
jporte^s calniiet, bijougbt to the Efoperor^ on theasftu- 
ing^ot the bloody battle of Cnu^pne, the ultimatum «f 
the «Uies, ini^istbig that the Fren^ entay sboutd 
either proceed to {reat upon the basis tbey.had of- 
fered, n^ely, that Frane^ should be nsduci$d m&r 
in her aoeiest limits, or tb^t C^ulaincpurt stranid 
present a conire^ptqj^t* Hps plenipotrati^ry m- 
guested instruetiops ; but it appeacs.thut BuoMpftrte, 
"too aUe not to see the liesidt of bia .pertiuacityy jnt 
too haughty to recede from it, bad vesolved^ ip 
sportsman's phrase, to die hard- The iptb day tf 
March having pasted orer, without any ^niswer am- 
Ting from Buonaparte to Gaulainc(mrt,,tbe term a^* 
signed to him for declaring bia ultimatum, wf^s^^ 
tended to fire days ; the plenipptentiavy of FraiiQP 
hoping, probably, that seme decisive event in ^ 
field of battle would either induce bis muster toeoilr 
sent to the terms of the allies, ox give him a rigbttP 
obtain better. 

It is said, |;hat, during this interval, PriB# 
Wentaseslaus of Licbtenstein was iigain dii^pf^ti^b^ 
by the Emperor Francis tq the hjaadHquart^^ pf Kt- 
poleon, as a special envoy, for the purpose of coii- 
jniiiig him to aooommodate bis ultimatum tP th^ ^^ ^i' 
des settled as the. basis of the conferences, and in- 

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tetisdikg him that otherwise the Em^ror Fnltibiir 
wmild lay aside those ftmily eonsicleratioHS, ytiAxlk 
hAd hitherto prevented him ttotA acoeditkg to the dis^ 
portions of the other allied powers in favotit of the 
dynasty of Bourbon. It is added, that Buonaparte 
sdemed at first ^dlenced and astounded by this inti*^ 
BiMion 9 but, immediately recoTtering himself, treats 
ed it as a Vain threat held <iut to intimidMe him, bsbA 
^ it would be most for the interest of Austria td 
join in procBring him a peace on his own terms, siiiee 
oArerwise he might again be forced to cross the Rhine. 
The Austrian prince retired without reply : and from 
t&at moment, it has been supposed, the Emperor re« 
^g&ed his son*in-law, without further effort in his 
fevonr, to the consequences of his own ill->timed ob- 

Caalaincourt, in the meantimei played the part of 
tti aUe minister and active negotiator. . He kept the 
n^tiation as long afloat as possible, and, in the 
iBeanwhile, used every argument to induce his nias- 
^ to close with the terms of the alliciit* 'At length; 
Wever, he was compelled, to produce a, oontre-pro'. 
M whidi he hoped might have at teast the effect o^ 
ptdonging the negotiation. 

But the plan he olSfered was not only too vague to 
^tre the puipose of ^minding the aUito, but bbb incon^^ 
sisteht i?idi the artidel^ ad<»pted by aU paMi^s as the 
bl8i8bfthecoliibreiioe,t(ibeatiitMeiitUiHien^t<^« He 

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110 LIFE OF 

demanded the whole line of the Rhine — ^he demanded 
great part of that of the Waal, and the fortress of Ni- 
meguen, which must have rendered the independence 
of Holland purely nominat^he required Italy« and 
even Venice, for Eugene Beauharnois, although this 
important article was not only in absolute contradic- 
tion to the basis of the treaty, but peculiarly ofFensire 
and injurious to Austria, whom it was so much Buona* 
paate's interest to concilitate. The possession of Italy 
embraced, of course, that of Switzerland, either di- 
rectly or by influence ; so that in future wars Aus- 
tria would lie open to the incursions of France along 
her whole frontier, and, while concluding a victori- 
ous treaty upon French ground, would have been 
placed in a worse situation than by that which Buo- 
naparte himself dictated to her at Campo Formio I 
There were stipulations, besides, for indemnities to 
Jerome, the phantom-king of Westphalia ; to Louis, 
Grand Duke of Berg ; and to Eugene, in compen- 
sation of his alleged rights on the Grand Duchy of 
Frankfort. Nay, as if determined to show that no- 
thing which he had ever done, even though undone 
by himself, should now be considered as null, with- 
out exacting compensation at the expense of the rest 
of Europe, Buonaparte demanded an indemnity for 
his brother Joseph, not indeed for the crown of 
Spain, but for that very throne of Naples, fifcw* 
which he had himself displaced him, in order to 

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make room for Murat ! The assembled Congreae re- 
ceived this imperious communication with equal sur- 
prise and displeasure. They instantly declared the 
Congress dissolved ; and thus terlninated the fears of 
many, who considered Europe as in greater danger 
from any treaty that could be made with Buona^ 
parte, than from the progress of his arms against the 

It was the opinion of such men, and their num^ 
ber was very considerable, that no peace concluded 
vith Napoleon could be permanent, and that any im- 
mediate terms of.composition could be only an armed 
tnice,to last until the Emperor, of France should feel 
himself able to spend the remainder of his life in 
winning back, again the conquests 'which he had 
spent the earlier part of it in gaining. They in* 
nsted that this was visible, from his breaking off the 
treaty on the subject of Antwerp ; the chief utility of 
which, to his empire, must have been in the future 
vars which he meditated with Britain. It was seek- 
fflgwar through peace, not peace by war. Such 
Jeasoners were no doubt in many cases prejudiced 
against Napoleon's person, and inclined to consider 
his government as a usurpation. But others amongst 
them allowed that Napoleon^ abstractedly consider- 
ed, was not a worse man than other conquerors, 
hut that a run of success so long uninterrupted, had 
io«de war and conquest so familiar to his soul, that 



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'It2 wwm OF 

>«a mt an ekpresmn of thie pcMi iVe ^* carfchqitake 
-^voice of yietbiy'*^ was to Mm the necessary andindift- 
-)tenJ9abte breath of life. This passion for bittle^ thej 
' said, might ndt make Napoleon hateful as a man, for 
mnoh, far too mudi, allovafaoe is made in modem 
mrorality for the thitfit of military fame ; but it must 
ibb^owed that it rendered him a most linfit inonardk 
for those with whose blood that thirst was .to be 
stanched. Such reflections are, hbwvyec, fiweign to 
'our present purpose. 

It wais not the least remarkable contingenoe in 
^these momentous transactions, tiiat as Caulaincourt 
1^ Chatillon, he met the secretary of Buonaparte 
Ifosting towards him with the full and iexplicit powers 
bf treating which he had so loiig vainly soJottited. 
Had Napoleon adopted this final decision of submit^ 
tiiig himself to circumstances but cme day earli^, the 
treaty of ChatiUon might have prooeededf avd he 
irooM hive contidued in possession of the throne ii 
Franee. But it Was too late. 

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i^fiduUies of Bwmaparte-^He marches upon Bbicher, wko 
is m possession of Soissons — Attacks the place without sue- 
cess, — Battle of Craonne, on 7th March, attended by no 
decisive result.^^Bhicher retreats on Laon, — Battle ofLaon 
on the &th, — Napoleon is conq>eUed to withdrttto on Me 1 Ith, 
tvidi great loss4 — He attacks Bheims, which is evacuated by 
the Russians. — Defeat at Bar^sur-'Aube of the French di- 
tiskms under Oudinot and Girard, who, itith Macdonald, 
are forced to retreat upon the great road to Paris, — Schwart' 
zerierg wishes to retreat behind the Aube — but the Emperor 
Alexander dnd Lord Castlereagh opposing the measure, it 
is determined to proceed upon Paris, — Napoleon occupies 
Arcis, — Battle ofArcis on the 20th, — Napoleon is joined, in 
the night after the battle, byMacdonald, Oudinot, and Gi' 
rardr^Neveriheless he retreats alahg both sides of the Aube^ 
with litOe loss. 

The sword was now again brandished^ not to be 
flheathed or reposed, until the one party or the other 
should be irretrievably defeated. 

The sitaation of Baonaparte, even after the yic-. 
tory of MoDtereatt, and capture of Troyes, waa 


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114 1.1F£ OF 

most discouraging. If he adyanced on the Grand 
Army of the allies which he had in fronts there was 
every likelihood that they would retire before him, 
wasting his force in skirmishes, without a possibility 
of his being able to force them to a general action $ 
while^ in the meantime, it might be reck6ned for 
certain that Blucher, master of the Mame, would 
march upon Paris. On the contrary, if Napoleon 
moved with his chief force against Blucher, he had^ 
in like manner, to apprehend that Schwartzenberg 
would resume the route upon Paris by way of the 
valley of the Seine. Thus, he coald make no ex- 
ertion upon the one side, without exposing the capi- 
tal to danger on the other. 

After weighing all the disadvantages on either 
side, Napoleon determined to turn his arms against 
Blucher, as most hostile to his person, most rapid in 
his movements, and most persevering in his pur- 
poses. He left Oudinot, Macdonald, and Girard in 
front of the Grand Army, in hopes that, however in- 
ferior in numbers,they might be able to impose upon 
Schwartzenberg abelief that Napoleon was present in 
person,and thus either induce the Austrian to conti- 
oaehis retreat,or at least prevent him frqnai resuming 
the offer^s^ve. For this purpose the French troops 
were to move on Bar.sur**Aube, apd occupy, if prac- 
ticabl^^ the heights in that lae^ghboprbood* The sol- 
diers wer^ filso to n^e the fcry of Vive FEmperetfif* 

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as if Napoleon had been present. It was afterwards 
seen, that as theMareschals did not command 40,000 
meninall^incladingaforce anderMacdonald,it was 
impossible for them to discharge effectually the part 
assigned them. In the meanwhile. Napoleon him- 
self continued his lateral march on Blucher, suppo- 
sing it possible for him, as formerly, to surprise his 
flank, as the Prussians marched upon Paris. For 
this purpose he moved as speedily as possible to La 
Fert6 Gauchere, where he arrived 1st March; but 
Sacken and Torek, who would have been the first 
victims of this manoeuvre, as their divisions were on 
the left bank of the Marne, near to Meaux, crossed 
the river at La Ferte Jouarre, and formed a junc- 
tion with Blucher, who now resolved to fall back on 
the troops of Bulow and Winzengeipde. These 
generals were, it will be remembered^ advancing 
from the frontiers of Belgium. 

A sudden hard frost rendered the country pass- 
able, which had before been in so swampy a con- 
dition as to render marching very difficult. This 
was much to the advantage of the Prussians. Napo- 
leon detached the forces, under Marmont and Mor- 
tierj whom he had united with his own, to press up- 
on and harass the retreat of the Prussian Field Ma- 
reschal^ while he himself, pushing on by a shorter 
line, possessed himself of the town of Fismes, about 
half way betwixt Rheims and Soissons. The occu- 
pation of this last place was now a matter of the laat 

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tl6 LI^E O^ 

consequence. If Blucher should find Soissons open 
to him, he might cross the Marne, extricate him- 
self from his pursuers without difficulty, and form 
his junction with the army of the North. But n 
excluded from this town and bridge, Blucher must 
have hazarded a battle on the most disadvantageous 
jterms, having Mortier and Marmont on his front, 
Napoleon on his left flank, and in his rear, a town, 
with a hostOe garrison and a deep river. 

It was almost a chance,like that of the dice, which 
party possessed this important place. The Russians 
had taken it* on 16th February, but being imme- 
diately evacuated by them, it was on the 19th oc- 
cupied by Mortier, and garrisoned by five hunored 
Poles, who were imagined capable of the most de- 
termined defence. On^e 2d March, howevei:, the 
commandant, intimidated by the advance of Bulow s 
army of 30,000 men, yielded up Soissons to that ge- 
neral, upon a threat, of an instant storm, and&o 
quarter allowed. The Russian standards then wav- 
ed on the ramparts of Soissons, and Blucher, arriv- 
ing under its walls, acquired the full power of nm*- 
ing himself with his rear-guard, and giving or refus- 
ing battle at his pleasure, on the very moment when 
Buonaparte, having turned his iBank, expected to 
have forced on him a most disadvantageous action* 

The Emperor's wrath exhaled in a buUetin ug^^ 

« See p. 81. 

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the inconceivable' baseness of the commandant of 
Soissons, who was said to bave given up so imports 
ant a place when he was within hearing of the can- 
oonade of the 2d and 3d^ smd must thereby have 
known the approach of the Emperor. In the heat 
of his wrath, he ordered Soissons to be assaulted and 
carried by storm at all risks; but it was defended by 
General I^angero^ with 10,000 Jftussians. A des. 
pirate conflict ensued^ but Langeron retained pos- 
^ssion of the town. 

Abandoning this project. Napoleon crossed the 
Aisne at Bery-au-Bach, with the purpose of attack- 
ing the left wing of Blucher^s army, which, being 
now concentrated, was strongly posted betwixt the 
village of Cra<mne and the town of Xjaon, in' such 
a manner as to secure a%etreat upon the very 
strong position which the latter town affords. Blu^ 
cher imagined a manoeuvre, designed to show Buo- 
naparte that his favourite system of turning an ene. 
my^s flank had its risks and inconveniences. He 
detached ten thousand horse under Winzengerode, 
by a circuitous route, with orders that when the 
French commenced their march on Craonne, they 
should move round and act upon their flank and rear. 
But the state of the roads, and other impediments, 
prevented this body of cavalry from getting up in 
time to execute the intended manoeuvre. 

Meantime, at eleven in the morning of the 7th 
Ifarch, the French began their attack with the 

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nS I«IF£ OF 

utmost bravery. Ney assaulted the position on the 
right ilank^ which was defended by a ravine, and 
Victor, burning to show the zeal which he had been 
accused of wanting, made incredible exertions in 
front. But the assault was met by a defence equally 
obstinate, and the contest became one of the most 
bloody and best-sustained during the war* It was 
four in the afternoon, and the French had not yet 
been able to dislodge the Russians on any point, 
when the latter received orders fromBlucher to with- 
draw from the disputed ground, and unite with the 
Prussian army on the splendid position of Laon, 
which theMareschal considered as a more favourable 
bcene of action. There were no gnns lost, or pri- 
soners made. The Bussians, in despite of a general 
charge of the French cavalry, retreated as on the 
parade. As the armies, considering the absence of 
Winzetogerode with the detachment of cavalry, and 
of Langeron with the garrison of Soissons, were 
nearly equal, the indecisive event of the battle was 
the more ominous. The slain and wounded were 
aSout the same number on both sides, and the French 
\ only retained as a mark of victory the possession of 
the field of battle. 

Napoleon himself followed the retreat of the Rus- 
siaiis as far as an inn between Craonne and Xiabn, 
called L'Ange Gardien, where he reposed for the 
night. He indeed never more needed the assistance 
«f a guardian angcfl, and his own appears to have dc- 

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Kiried hia charge. It was here that Uumigny found 
bim when he presented the letter of Caalaincodrt, 
praying for final instmctions from the Emperor; and 
it was here he could only extract the anabiguous re- 
ply^ that if he must submit to the bastinadb^it should 
be only by force. At this cabaret, also, he regula- 
ted his. plan for attacking the position of Blucher on 
the next morning ; and thus ridding himself finally, 
if possible, of that Silesian army, which had been 
his object of disquietude for forty-two days, during 
the course of which, scarce two days had passed 
without their being engaged in serious Conf)ict,either 
b front or rear. He received valuable information 
for enabling him to make the projected attack, from 
a' retired officer. Monsieur Bussy de Bellay, who 
had been his school-fellow at Brienne, who lived in 
th^ neighbourhood, and was well acquainted with 
the ground, and whom he instantly rewarded with 
the situation of an aid-de-camp, and a large appoint- 
aient. When his plan for the attack was finished, 
he is said to have exclaimed, ^^ I see this war is an 
abyss without a bottom, but I am iresolved to be the 
last whom it shall devour.^ 

The town of Laon is situated upon a table-land, 
or emilience flattened on the top, which rises very 
ilbruptly above a plain extending about a league in 
length. The face of the declivity is steep, shelving, 
lUsbost precipitous, and occupied by terraces serving 
as vineyards. Bulow defended this town and bank. 

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120 LIFE aF 

The rest of the Silesiati army was placed oo the plain 
below ; the left wing, composed of Prussians, extend- 
ing to the village of Athies; the right, consisting of 
Russians, resting <m the hills between Thiers and 

Only the interval of one day elapsed between the 
bloody battle of Craonne and that of Laon. On 
the 9th, availing himself of a thick mist, Napoleon 
pushed his columns of attack to the very foot of 
ihe eminence on which Laon is situated^ possessed 
himself of two of the villages, termed Semilly and 
Ardon, and prepared to force his way up the hill 
towards the town. The weather cleared, the French 
attack was repelled by a tremraidous fire from ter^ 
xaces^ vineyards, windmills, and every point of ad* 
vantage. Two battalions of Yagers, the impetus 
of their attack increased by the rapidity of the 
descent, recovered the villages, and the attack of 
Xiaon in front seemed to be abandoned. The 
French, however, continued to retain possessitm in 
that quarter of a part of the village of Clacy . Tbui^ 
stood the action on the right and centre. The 
French had been repuls^ all along the line. On 
the left Marshal Marmont had advanced upon the 
village of Athies, which was the key of BLucher^s 
position in that point. It was gallantly defended by 
Yorck and Kleist, supported by Sacken and liaa- 
geroiu Marmont made some progress, nptwithstand^ 

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ii^this resistance, and night found him bivolwokiilg 
in front of the enemy, and in possession of part of 
the disputed village of Athies. But he was not des- 
tined to remain there till day-break. 

Upon the 10th, at four in the mornings just as 
Buonaparte, arising before day^break, was calling 
for his horse, two dismounted dragoons were 
brought before him, with the unpleasing intelligence 
that the enemy had made a hourrn upon Marmont, 
surprised him in his bivouack, and cut to pieces, ta- 
ken, or dispersed his whole division, and they alone 
had escaped to bring the tidings. All the MareschaPs 
gOQs were lost, and they believed he was himself 
either killed or prisoner. Officers sent to reconnoitre, 
hroaght back a confirmation of the truth of this in- 
telligence, excepting as to the situation of the M a- 
leschaL He was on the road to Rheims, near Cor- 
hery, endeavouring to rally the fugitives. Not- 
mthslanding this great loss, and as if in defiance 
of bad fortune, Napoldin renewed the attack upon 
Clacy and Semilly ; but all his attempts being fruit- 
less, he was induced to relinquish the undertaking, 
under the excuse that the position was found im- 
pregnable. On the 11th, he withdrew from before 
Iiaon, having been foiled in all his attempts, and 
having lost thirty guns, and nearly ten thousand 
men. The allies sufiered comparatively little, as 
^ey fought under cover. 

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Napoleon baited at Soissons, whtcb, evacuated by 
IjBxigerotk when Blucher concentrated his army, was 
now again occupied by tho Frencb. Napoleon di- 
rected its defences to be strengthened, designing to 
leave Mortier to defend tbe place against the ad- 
vance of Blucher, which, victorious as he was, might 
be instantly expected. 

While at Soiss<»is, Napoleon learned that Saint 
Priest, a French emigrant, and a general in the 
ilussian service, had occupied Rheims, remarkable 
for the venerable cathedral in which the Kings of 
France were crowned. Napoleon instantly saw that 
the possession of Rheims would renew the com- 
munication betwixt Schwartzenberg and Blucher, 
besides neutralizing the advantages which he himself 
expected from the possession of Soissons. He mo- 
ved from Soissons to Rheims, where, after an attack 
^hich lasted till late in the night, the Russian general 
being wounded, his followers were discouraged, and 
evacuated the place. Th^ utmost horix>rs might 
have been expected during a night attack, when one 
army forced another from a considerable town. But 
in this instance we have the satisfaction to record, 
that tbe troops on both sides behaved in a most or- 
derly manner. In his account of the previous ac- 
tion. Napoleon threw in one of those strokes of fata- 
lity which he loved to introduce. He endeavoured 
to persuade the public, or perhaps he himself be- 

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lieved^ that Saittt Priest was shot by a ball bom the 
same cannon which killed Moreau. 

During the attack upon Rheims^ Marmont came 
tip with such forcet^ as he had been able to rally after 
his defeat at Athies, and contributed to the success 
of the assault. He was, nevertheless, received by 
Napoleon with bitter reproaches, felt severely by 
a chief, of whose honour and talents no doubt had 
been expressed through a long life of soldiership. 

Napoleon remained at Rbeims three days, to re- 
pose and recruit his shattered army, which was re- 
inforced from every quarter where men could be col- 
lected. Jansaens, a Dutch officer, displayed a par- 
ticular degree of military talent in bringing a bodyof 
about 4000 men, draughted from the garrisons of the 
places on the Moselle, to join the army at Rbeims ; 
-vl movement of great difficulty, considering he had 
to penetrate through a country which was in a great 
measure possessed by the enemy's troops. 

The halt of Napoleoii atRheims was remarkable, 
as affording the last means of transacting business 
with his civil ministers. Hitherto, an auditor of the 
Council of State had weekly brought to the Impe- 
rial head-quarters the report of the ministers, and 
received the orders of the Emperor. But a variety 
of causes rendered this regular communication du- 
ring the rest of the campaign, a matter of impossibi- 
lity. At Rbeims, also, Napoleon addressed to Cau- 

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124 LIFE OF 

laincoort a letter, dated 17th Sf arch, by which he 
seems to have placed it in the power of that pleni- 
potentiary to comply in full with the terms of the 
allies* But the language in which it is couched is 
so far froip bearing the precise warrant necessary 
for so important a concession, that there must re- 
main a doubt whether Canlaincourt would have felt 
justified in acting upon it, or whether, so acting. 
Napoleon would have recognised his doing so, if cir- 
cumstances had made it convenient for him to dis- 
own the treaty.* 

While Napoleon was pursuing* fighting with, and 
finally defeated by Blucher,his Lieutenant rGenerals 
were not more fortunate in front of the Allied Grand 
Army. It will be recollected that the Mareschals 
Oudinot and Girard w^re left at the head of 25,000 
men, exclusive of the separate corps under Macdo- 
pald, with orders to possess themselves of the heights 
of Bar-sur-Attbe, and prevent Schwartzenberg from 
crossing that river. They tnade the movement in 

* The words alleged to convey such extensive powers as totally 
to recall and alter every former restriction upon€aiilainoourt*8 ex- 
ercise of hit own opinion, are contained, as above stated, in a letter 
from Rheims, dated 17th March 1814, '^ I have charged the Duke 
of Bassano to answer your letter in detaiL I give you directly the 
authority to make such concessions as shall be indispensable to 
maintain the continuance (aetwiti) of the negotiations, and to ar- 
rive at a knowledge of the ultimatum of the allies ; it b^ing dis- 
tinctly understood that the treaty shall have for its immediate re- 
sult the evacuation of our territory, and th^ restoring prisoners pp 
Jboth sides." 

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advance accordingly,kiid after a sharp actioD, which 
left the town in their possession, they were so nigh 
to the allied troops, who still held the suburbs, that 
a battle became unavoidable, and the Mareschals 
had no choice save of making the attack, or of re- 
ceiving it. They chose the former, and gained, at 
first some advantages from the veiy audacity of 
their attempt ; but the allies had now been long ac- 
customed to stand their ground under greater dis- 
asters. Their numerous reserves were brought up, 
and their long train of artillery got into line. The 
French, after obtaining a temporary footing on the 
heights of Yemonfait, were charged and driven back 
in disorder. Some fine cavalry, which had been 
brought from the armies in Spain, was destroyed 
by the overpowering cannonade. The French were 
driven across the Aube, the town of Bar-sur-Aube 
was taken, and the defeated Mareschals could only 
rally their forces at the village of Vandceuvres, about 
half-way between Bar and Troyes. 

The defeat of Oudinot and Girard obliged Mare- 
schal Macdonald, who defended the line of the river 
above Bar, to retreat to Troyes, from his strcMig po- 
sition at La Ferte-sur-Aube. He therefore fell 
back towards Yandoeuvres. But though these three 
distinguished generals, Macdonald, Oudinot, and 
Girard, had combined their talents, and united their 
forces, it was impossible for them to defend Troyes, 

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126 LIFE OF 

and they were compelled to retreat upon the great 
road to Paris. Thus^ the head«quarters of the al- 
lied monarchs were, for the second. time during this 
changeful war, established in the ancient capital of 
Champagne ; and the Allied Grand Army recover- 
ed, by the victory of Ear-sur- Aube, all the territory 
which they had yielded up in consequence of Buona- 
parte's success at Montereau. . They once mo|:e 
threatened to descend the Seine upon Paris^ being 
entitled to despise any opposition offered by a feeble 
line, which Macdonald, Oudinot, and Girard, en- 
deavoured to defend on the left bank. 

But Schwartsnenberg's confidence in his positicm 
was lowered^r when he heard that Napoleon had ta- 
ken Rbeims; and that, on the evening of the 17th, 
Ney, with a large division, had occupied Chalons- 
sur-Marne. This intelligence made a deep impres- 
sion on the Austrian council of war. Their tactics 
being rigidly those of the old school of war, they 
esteemed their army turned whenever a French di- 
vision occupied such a post as interposed betwixt 
them and their allies. This indeed is in one sense 
true; but it is equally true, that every division' so 
interposed is itself liable to be turned, if the hostile 
divisions betwixt which it is interposed take com- 
bined measures ^br attacking it. The catching, 
tiktr^Qt^^ too prompt an alatm^' or <coBsideringthe 
consequences of such a oiovement as irretrievable, 

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beloDgs to the pedantry of war, and not to iti 

At midnight^ a council was held for the parposo 
o£ determining the future motions of the allies. The 
GeDeralisfiimo recommendedaretreat behind the line 
of the Aube. The Emperor Alexander opposed 
this with great steadiness. He observed, with jus* 
tice, that the prqitracted war was driving the coun- 
try people to despair, and that the peasantry were 
already taking up arms, while the allies cnly wanted 
resolution, certainly neither opportunity nor num- 
bers, to decide the affair by a single blow. 

So many were the objections stated, and so diffi- 
colt was it to bring the various views and interestf 
of 80 many powers to coincide in the same general 
plan, that the Emperor informed one of his attend^ 
ants, he thought the anxiety of the night must hav« 
turned half his hair gray. Lord Castlereagh was 
against the opinion of Schwartzenberg, the rather 
that he concluded that a retreat behind the Aube 
would be a preface to one behind the Rhine. Ta- 
king it upon him, as became the Minister of Britain 
at such a crisis, he announced to the allied powers, 
that, so soon as they should commence the proposed 
retreat, the subsidies of England would cease to be 
paid to them. 

ItfWas, therefore, finally agreed to resume offen- 
sive operations, for which purpose they proposed to 


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186 LttE at 

diminish the dbtancebet wixt the Allied Grand Army 
and that of Silesia^and resume such a communication 
with Blucher as might prevetitthe repetition of such 
disasters as those of Montmirail and Monterau. With 
this view, it was determined to descend the Aube, 
unite their army at Arcis^ ofier Napoleon battle^ 
should he desire to accept it, or move boldly on Paris 
if he should refuse the profiered action. What de- 
termined them more resolutely, from this moment; 
to approach the capital as soon as possible, was the 
intelligence which arrived at the head-quarters by 
Messieursde Polignac* These gentlemen brought an 
encouraging account of the progress of the Royalists 
in the metropolis, and of the general arrangements 
which were actively pursued for uniting with the 
interest of the Bourbons that of all others, who, from 
dislike to Buonaparte^s person and government, or 
fear that the country, and they themselves, must 
share in his approaching ruin, were desirous to get 
rid of the Imperial government. Talleyrand was 
at the head of the confederacy, and all were resolved 
to embrace the first opportunity of showing them* 
selves, which the progress of the allies should per- 
mit. This important intelligence, coming from snch 
unquestionable authority, strengthened the allies in 
their resolution to march upon Paris. 

In the meantime. Napoleon being at Rheims, as 
stated, on the 15th and 16th March, was alarmed 

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by the newg t^ due loss of Ike battle of Bar, tke r^ 
treat of the three Mavesehak beyond the Seine^ and 
the demoastratiotts of the Grand Army to cross that 
liver once mere. He bnAe u^^sb we have seen, from 
fthnmson the 17th, and s^cbng Ney to take posses- 
sum of CSudMis^ naichedhimsetf to Epemay, vidi the 
purpose of f^lacing hins^ on the right flank, and in 
the rear -of Scfawartsenbeig, in -case he «hottld ad- 
vance OB the road to Piuis. At Epernay, he learn- 
ed that the allies, ahumed by his movements, had 
letbed to Troyes, and that they were about to 
Ktraat i:^n llie Aube, and pvebaUy tM> Langre^. 
He also learned that the Mareschak^ Maodonald 
and Oudindt, had resumed their adi^anoe so 4&m 
ts tk^r ad^eramries began to retreat. He hastened 
to finna « j-nnotion with these persevering leaders, 
«d praeeeded to aeoHid tke Aube as high aa Bar^ 
idieee he ext)eeted'to throw himself into Schwartoen- 
berg's rear^ hAvang no denbt that his aimy was reti- 
xisg fiiam the famiks ^the A^be. 

In these teakvlations, accurate as far as the infiar* 
HMtion permitted, Buoaapapte was greatly misled* 
He ieeaiceived himself to be acting upon the retreat 
ef the allies, and expected only to find a rear^gnard 
at Asois ; he was even tidking jocularly of making 
kis faAer4nnlaw frisoner during his retreat. If con- 
trary to his expectation, he should find the enemy, 
er ai^ isonridarttUe part ef them, still upon the 

VOL. Vlll. I 

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130 Llf E OF* 

Aube, it was, from all he had heaid^ to be supposed 
, his appearance would precipitate their retreat toward? 
the frontier. It has also been asserted, that he ex- 
pected Mareschal Macdonald to make a correspond-' 
ing advance from the banks of the Seine to those of 
the Aube ; but the orders had been received too late 
to admit of the necessary space being traversed sd 
as to arrive on the morning of the day of battle. 

Napoleon easily drove before him such bodies of 
light cavahry, and sharp- shooters, as had been left 
by the allies, rather for the purpose of reconnoitring 
than of making serious opposition. He crossed the 
Aube at Plancey, and' moved upwards, along the left 
bank of the river, "with Ney's corps, and his whole 
cavalry, while the infantry of his guard advanced 
upon the right ; his army being thus, according to 
the French military phrase, i chetfalj upon the Aube. 
The town of Arcis had been evaucated by the tS^fi 
upon his approach, and was occupied by the French 
on the morning of the 20th March. That town forms 
the outlet of a sort of defile, where a succession of 
narrow bridges cross a number of drains, brooks, and 
streamlets, the feeders of the river Aube, and a bri^e 
in the town crosses the river itself. On the other 
side of Arcis is a plain, in which some few squadrons 
of cavalry, rosembling a reconnoitring party, were 
observed manoeuvring. 

Behind these horse, at a place called Clermont, the 

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Prince Royal of Wirtemberg, whose name has been 
80 often honourably mentioned, was posted with his 
division, while tl|e elite of the allied army was drawn 
op on a chain of heights still farther in the rear, calU 
ed Mesnil la Comptesse. But tjbese forces were not 
appsrrait to the Vanguard of Napoleon's army. The 
French caTafary had orders to attack the light troops 
of the allies ; but these were instantly supported by 
whole regiments, and by cannon, so that the attack 
v>8 unsuccesBftd ; and the squadrons of the French 
were repulsed and driren back on Arcis at a moment, 
when, from the impediments in the town and its eur 
virons, the infantry could with difficulty debouche 
from the town to support them. Napoleon showed, 
as he alw^ays did in extremity, the same heroic cou- 
nge which he had exhibited at Lodi and Brienne. 
He drew his sword, threw himself among the broken 
citfdry, called on them to remember their former 
▼ictcHies, and checked the enemy by an impetuous 
charge, in which he and his staff-officers fought hand 
to hand with their opponents, so that he was in per- 
301U1I danger from the lance of a Cossack, the thrust 
of which was averted by his aide-de^^uunp, Girardin. 
His Mameluke Rustan fought stoutly by his side, 
and recdved a gratuity for his brarery. These des* 
perate exertions afibrded time for the infantry to 
debouche from the town. The Impe^al Guards 
came up, and the combat waxed very warm. . The 

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BKfmmt n— hrw <rf Ag tUw muteigd them the aa- 
8BSant8«iiaH{K»iata. A stroDgiy ailiiwted Tillflge in 
ftant, fliidfio«0wlMili« lk» left «r Ams, cdkd G^^ 
ToKcy^lMidbeenoecapiedl^tbeFieiicb. Thisplaee 
WM Bpaatedly aad-deapeEately attadced by tJb idKes^ 
bnt the Enenc^ made good their fMtioB. AfcU tt* 
adf irat eet M five hjr liie dhrils of the MBaBants, 
and ni|^ afene aepanted iha ^onbataatay bf indtt- 
cisg die aUiea to deaiat firem the attack. 

In the caurae of die idght, Buonaparte waajcuad 
hy Maedoiudd, Oadiiio^ aad Girard^ irftdi the fen»i 
ivith whaehthey had lately held tke defenanre ufmt 
fte tScrae ; and the arasioiiaqiiefltionrcKiaiAed, mhe- 
Aet, dma reinforced, he should veiature an actian 
with Ae GtmA Army, to which he was atiU amdi 
farferior in ttombers. Schwaartaeiiberg, a^reetfbly to 
Ae last reaolmion of the alfies, drew up on liie 
heights of Mesnil La OoiBt>tas8e, spared to reeeii^ 
hatde. On eonsideration of the superior atrength >of 
the eneB»y, and of the riisence of same ti»opa oo^ yet 
come up, Napoleon feirily determined not to accept 
a 'batde tinder aoch disadvantageous •eircnmstaiaeeB. 
H^, lli€i!ef€ire> eoBii&enced a jetreit, lbe)direocio« cf 
"^^Kki was dooin^ to prove the crisis of Us fSste. 
He vetired as be had advanced, along both sides of 
the A^Ae ; and though pitfsued andanaoyed in this 
nKri^enxtent, {which was necessarily executed thnnqjh 
Areis and all its d^es,) his rear-guaid waa «o wtf 

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conducted, that hesnstained little loss. A late author,* 
irho has composed an excellent and scientific work 
on this campaign, has remarked, — ** In conduding 
the account of the two days thus spent by the con- 
tending armies in presence of each other, it is equally 
worthy of remark, that Buonaparte, with a force not 
exceeding 26,000 or 30,000 men, should have risked 
himself in such a position in firont of 80,000 of the 
aDies, as that the latter should haye allowed him to 
escape them with ftnpuntty." The permitting. him 
to retreat with so little annoyance, has been censur- 
ediii gjsaeral by aU who hare written on this earn- 

* Mawr «gdtf^OiM ^ti « P Br^»f tbA AiU«d Armies in 181S i 
1814. LondoB^ Murray^ 1822. 

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134 LIFE OF 


Pkms of BuaruqMrte in his present difficulties considered. — 
Military and political Questions regarding Paris. — Napo- 
lean determines to pass to the rear of the eastern Frontier, 
and crosses the Mame on 2^ March, — Retrospect of 
Events in the vicinity of Lyons, (fc. — The Allies adwmce 
upon Paris, — Defeats of the French in various quarters. — 
Mamumt and Mortier, uM their disamraged and hroken 
Forces, retreat under the walls of Paris. — Paris, how far 
defensible. — Exertions of Joseph Buonaparte. — The Em" 
press Maria Louisa, with the civil Authorities oj^^em- 
ment, leave the city. '■^Attack of Paris on the 3c9^ when 
the French are dtfeated on all sides. — A truce is cqpplied 
for, and accorded. — Joseph Buonaparte flies, with aU his 

The decline of Napoleoll^3 waning fortunes having 
been such, as to turn him aside from an oflered field 
of battle, and to place him betwixt two armies, each 
superior in number to his own, called now for a 
speedy and decisiye resolution. 

The mancBuvres of Schwartzenberg and Blucher 
tended evidently to form a junction ; and when it 

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lA considered, that Buonaparte had felt it neees« 
sary to retreat from the Army of Silesia before 
Laon, and from the Grand Army before Aids, it 
would have been frenzy to wait till they both do- 
sed upon him. Two courses, therefore, remained i — 
dther to draw back within the closing cirde which 
bis enemies were about to form around him, and, 
retreating before them until he bad collected his 
whole forces, make a stand under the walls of Pa- 
ris, aided by whate?er strength that cental possess- 
ed, and which his energies could have called out ; 
or, on. the contrary, to march eastward, and, break- 
ing 'through, the same cirde, to operate on the 
rear of the allies, and on their lines of communica- 
tion. This last was a subject on which the Austrians 
had caressed such feverish anxiety, as would pro- 
bably immediately induce them to give up all 
thoughts of advandng, and march back to the fron- 
tier. Sudi a result was the rlither to be hoped, be- 
cause the continued stay of the allies, and the passage 
and repassage of troops through an exha9sted coun- 
try, had worn out the patience of the hardy peasantry 
(tf Alsace and Franche Compte, whom the ezactioHa 
and rapine, inseparable from the movements of a 
hostile soldiery,, had now roused from the apathy with 
which they had at first witnessed the invasion of 
their territory. Before Lyons, Napoleon might 
xeckon on being reinforced by the veteran army of 

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Socbet, arrived from Caitakmaj and he woaM be 
yinthm reach of l^e aumeious chain ef fortresses, 
which had garrieoDa stroag enough to form aoi army, 
if dnvwn together. 

The preparations' for arranging such a force, and 
fos arming the peaaantrj^ bad been> in progress for 
some tiaoe. Trusty agents, bearing orders eonceal- 
ed in the sheaths of thm kniyes, the coUurs ef 
their dog8> or about theup persons, had been detach- 
ed- to mars tho variovs commaadaiit& of the Empe- 
Ivor's pleasiure. Several were taken by 1^ btockadisg 
troops of the aflies, and hanged as 0|^e&, but others 
node their way. While at Bhdbns, Buonaparte had 
issued an order for rousing the peasantry, in which 
be not only declared their arising in arms was an 
act of patriotic duty, but denounced as traitors the 
nayops of the districts who should throw obstmc- 
hons in the way of a general levy. The aifies, on- the 
contrary, ibreatened Ae extremity of military exe- 
eulioD on aO the peasantry who should' obey Napo* 
leott's call to tmns. It was> as we formerly observed', 
ap excellent exemffifieatioB) how mueh poUticri opi^ 
mens depend on* circumstances ; for, after the fseeosxi 
capture of Yienna, the Austrians were calling out 
1^ levy-en^masse, and Napdieon^ in his^tisna, was 
threat^Eiing to^ hwat tlte vilbiges> and exeeuto the 
peasants, whe should dare to obey. , . 

White Napoleon w«i^ at Rheims^ dfe atfairs of the 

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Mrtli-^aal: frontier aeenud so pionisBig, that Nty 
eSaeA ki take the command of the insiirveolioiuiiy 
am; ;. andy as he was reckoned the best offi«er ollight 
tMofks in £i£H^^ it is Rot improbable he might have 
biottght the Itevies^fr-masse on Aat warUke border, 
toi haye fiBnght like the- Fremeb national forees H»the 
b^imiing of the Berolution. Buonaparte did not 
yield to this proposal. Perhaps he thought so bold 
amoTemeni eouid only succeed under his own eye. 
But. there weie two especial considerations whiefa 
mustrliaare made Napoleon hesitate oo adopting this 
flpecies^ df beck-game, designed to redeenir the stake 
whiA. it was impossible to save by the oidmary 
meana of eanying on the bloody pfavf . The one was 
the miUtflpy question^ whether Paris eoukt be defend- 
ed^ if Napofeon was to^ move to the rear of the ab* 
itd axmy, instead of faBing back upon' the eil^ 
with, tile army which he commanded. The other 
question was of yet dcepa import, and of a poblaeal 
nature. The means of the capital t^r defence being 
supposed adequate, was it likely that Paris> a town 
of seyen hundred thousand inhabitawl», ^vided ii^fo 
ibctions unaccustomed tathe near voice of war, and 
startled by the drea^^d novelty of likeu: situation, 
would submit to the samfioes which a successfiit de«- 
fenee of the dty must in every event have required ? 
Was, in short, their love and fear of Bucmaparte so 
great, that without his personal presence, and that 

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138 LIFE OF 

of his anny, to encourage^ and at the same time oyer*, 
awe them, they would willingly incur the ridk of see- 
ing their beautiAil metropolb destroyed, and all the. 
horrors of a sack inflicted by the mass of nations 
whom Napoleon's ambition had been the means of 
combining against them, and who proclainled them- 
selves the enemies, not of France, but of Buona- 
parte ? 

Neither of these questions could be answered with, 
confidence. Napoleon, although he had embodied 
30,000 national guards, had not provided arms for. 
a third part of the mimber. This is hinted at by. 
some authors, as if the want of these arms ought to 
be imputed to some secret treason. But this accusa-. 
tion has never been put in any tangiUe shape. The 
arms never ensted, and never were ordered ; and al- 
though Napoleon had nearly three month's time allow- 
ed him, after his return to Paris, yet he never thought 
of arming the Parisians in general^ Perhapshedoubt-. 
ed their fidelity to his cause. He ordered, it is said^ 
two hundred cannon to be provided for the defence of 
the; northern and eastern line of the city, but neiUieri 
were these obtained in suffident quantity. The 
number of indiyiduals idio could be safely intrusted 
with arms, was also much limited. Wh^tfato,' there* 
fcore, Paris was, in a^iilitary pcHnt <^view, (Salable »{ 
4e&nce or not, must have^ in^eveiy event, depended 
much on the strength of the miUtary force^ left to 

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protect it. This Napoleon knew must be very mo- 
derate. His hopes were therefore necessarily li- 
mited by drcumstances, to the belief that Paris, 
though incapable of a protracted defence, might yet 
hold out for such a space as might enable him to 
more to its relief. 

Sut, secondly! as the means of holding out Paris 
were very imperfect, so the inclination of the dtisens 
to defend themsdres at the expense of any consider- 
able sacrifice, was much doubted. It was not in 
reason to be expected that the Parisians should imi- 
tate the devotion of Zaragosaa. Each Spanish dti- 
sen, on that memorable occasion, had his share of in- 
terest in the war which all maintained — a portion, 
namely, of that lib^y and independence for which 
it was waged. But the Parisians were very difier- 
ently dtuated* They were not called on to barri- 
cade their streets, destroy their suburbs, turn thdr 
houses into fortresses, and themsdres into soldiers, 
and expose their property and families to the horrors 
of a storm; and this not for any advantage to France 
or tfaemsdyes, but merdy that they might maintain 
Napoleon on the throne. The ceaseless, and of late 
the losing wars, in which he seemed irretrievably en- 
gag^, had rendered his government unpopular ; and 
it was plain to all, except perhaps himself, that he 
did not stand in that relation to the people of Paris, 
when dtbens are prepared to die for thdr sovereign. 
It might have been as well expected that the frogs 

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140 Lf rs OF 

hi the ftb)& woiikl, in case of hwiisiaa) have rtsaki ki 
» maoEF t& disfend Kmg Serpent. It h pcdbaUe th«b 
Bkionapopte did' net see this in the tviie point of Ticsr; 
but tlwt, with the fedings of «elf-iiqpi0vlanaei whkb 
sovereigns flrast aaturaUy acquHre tnm their siitaat* 
tion, and which, from his high aetioas and distil 
guished talents, he of all sovereigns, was peculiiirly 
entitled to indulge, — it is pvobabte thai lit hnt sigk* 
of the great dispropevtion beiwixt iftievairiDii and' am 
indmdual; and forgol;, amid the kandveds of tfaoa* 
sands which Paris- contains^, wlnHf smal r«l«Aa» tise 
number of his own fii^d!|ffel and devoted fol&meitf 
bore, not only t& those who were periiousi^ esgageA 
in fiietions hostile to him, butt to Aegftat mass, vboy 
far Hotspur's' phrase, loved thar ewn shops at bama 
better than his house. 

ThiMIf ^ the consequences of Pam baing SoM, 
either from not posscissiBg^ or not ewpldyiDg, Ih^ 
means oTdefence^ were* sure^ bepyodlaetwe at mfth 
trievalfleealamitjr. B;u«8k,ashjidb0s»filiow]|rOodM 
surrfve the ^Hes«rwetiott of iCfs* cftqailtal^ and^ petfaaps 
GTreat Brita&ii^ fattemi^ wst^WdlfkidaihflilimaBLf^ 
tore of Lon^bn^ BkitthegovemliBentrof'Prneebad^ 
dorhig afl the phases of th^ Rev^luttMis ^ttpended 
upon the possession of PIhIs^ a eapivai whioh has at 
all times cKreeted the pubM^ opinion^of that eowMry. 
Shoidd the mffitary occupation of thi^ VMise iHiabn- 
tial of all> capitafe, bring about^ a»iw«» most Ukoly; a 
pofittcaV andf intemdf revol^Kioi^, it wm gvaatl|)r Ink be 

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doitlited, whether the Emperor eouU make aB eflfeo- 
tmtl fitmd in any iOtber part of hk doHuiaoBg. 

It must be ooididljr admitted, tiiat this rea«Miiii|^ 
avibeiB^sabeequeot to the fiuct, has a laiieh aAore deci- 
smappeaoance than it ct>nld liaye had when sufcgect- 
ediJDthecxmtidenUaoiiDfNapQleoii. He was entided, 
fina the £eTeriah amdety hitherto dwwB by the Aus- 
taaas, 1^011 any approach to flank moTements^and by 
die caaden oFibeir gencrid proceedingB, to think that 
they taaidd be gnaafldy too tinaroiis to adopt tibehc^ 
step4>f fvouang xHiwafd to Paris. It was more likely 
tibat they woxM ibUow Mm to the froatier, wiA the 
pmpoM of preserving dieir ^aimBuaaeatiBns. Bed- 
sides, Napoleon at this cnsis had but a Twy slen- 
der ehoiee of mesBures. To vemain where he laas, 
between Blucher and SchwartKidttrg, was not pos- 
dde ; and, in adTnaeing to either flank, he must 
hare fbnght infix m supenor cbeiny* To retreat 
iqian PariB, was aune to kiddce the wkole allies t» 
panne in the same dixeetaan; and the eneomBgemeBt 
which such a retreat oiiist have given to his oppaof* 
eats. Blight have had the moBt fiital consefnenees* 
F4ttbaps Us partiaans might bsme taken meoa eonrage 
darix^ his aibsence, from Ab idea that he was at the 
head of a oon^pering araoy, in the rear rf the allies, 
than during his aotaal presenee^^if he had armedm 
Paris in consequence of a compidsory retveat. . 
Buonaparte seems, as much from a sort of neees* 

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14fi LIPS ot 

sity as fiom dioioe, ta haye preferred brenkbg 
through die circle of hunters which hemmed him in, 
trosting to strengthen his army with the garrisons 
drawn from the frontier fortresses, and with the war- 
like peasantry of Alsace and Franche Compte, and, 
thus reinforced, to advance with rapidity on the rear 
of his enemies, ere they had time to execute, or per- 
haps to arrange, any system of offisnsive operati<»i& 
The scheme appeared the more hcqpefiil, as he was 
peremptory in his belief that his march could not fiul 
to draw after him, in pursuit, or observation at leaal;, 
the Grand Army of Schwartsenberg ; the general 
maxim, that the war could only be decided where he 
was present in person, being, as he conceived, as , 
' deeply impressed by experience upon his enemies as 
upon his own soldiers. 

Napoleon could not disguise from himself, what 
indeed he had told the French public, that a march, 
or, as he termed it, a Howrra upon Paris, was the 
principal purpose of the allies. Every movem«at 
made in advance, whether by Blucheror.Schwartsen- 
berg, had this for its object. But they had unifcHrm- 
ly relinqpiished the undertaking, upon his making 
any demonstration to prevent it ; and therefore he 
did not suspect them of a resolution so venturous as 
to move directly upon Paris, leaving the French 
army unbroken in their rear, to act upon their line of 
communication with Germany. It is remarked, that 
those chess-players who deal in the most venturous 

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gambits are least capable of defjending themselyes 
when attacked in the same aadacious mannier ; and 
that, in war, the generals whose usual and favourite 
tactics are those of advance and attack, have been 
most frequently surprised by the unexpected adop- 
tion of offensive operations on the part of their enemy. 
Napoleon had been so much accustomed to see his 
antag<»ii8ts bend their attention rather to parry blows 
than to aim them, and was so confident in the dread 
impressed by his rapidity of movement, his energy of 
assault, and the terrors of his reputation, that he 
seems to have entertained little apprehension of the 
allies adopting a plan of operations which had no re- 
ference to his own, and which, instead of attempting 
to watch or counteract his movements in the rear of 
their army, should lead them straight forward to take 
possession of his capital. Besides, notwithstanding 
objections have been stated, which seemed to render 
iL permanent defence impossible, there were other 
considerations to be taken into view. The ground to 
the north of Paris is very strong, the national guard 
was numerous, the lower part of the population of a 
military character, and fiivourable to his came. A 
defence, if resolute, however brief, would havie the 
douUe effect of damping the ardour of the assailants, 
and of detaining them before the walls of the capital, 
until Buonaparte should advance to its relief, and 
thus place the allies between two fires. It was not 
to be supposed that the surrender of Paris would be 

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144 UF£ OF 

the work of a M^e day. The unanunous voioe of 
the joiHiiak, ef the juinkters'of the police, and pf the 
thiMuaads whofie iut»«6t was radically and deeply 
entwisted with that of Buonaparte, assured their maa^ 
ter on chat pcunt. The movement to the rear„ iheia-. 
face, thMgk aremoviqg hin &iam Paras, di^bieh it 
mi^ht expose to tMiipcrraiy slaxm, m^t nat» is 
Buonaparte's i^p^ehensioB, sanously <coia|ffaffiisie 
the securi^ of the oapitaL 

TbB Freach En^piwer, in ^xeoutk^ this <deGiaive 
movinaent, was extreoiely 'deskous io have poasessad 
himself of Vitiy^ whidb ky in the j^neof his adi^wee* 
But as ^s town oenfeaiDed a garriscm^cf about 5000 
Baen, ocuaHianded by an^^b^er of xesohilioa, he se^ 
turaedattegatiTe to^khe summoBs^ and Napolaon, 
in no eoa»dU»oii to attempt a c^up d^ main on a plaoe 
of sbme ^tieaE^liy passed the Mame ^eia the 28d o£ 
March, ^i^ a farid^ of rafts eonatnoeted at Frigin- 
eour^ and contuRied his mo^raent towards the ^aat- 
evn .fivNHiter, increashig tke <dittande fit every ^ep be* 
tvi^Kt him and his csfitol, and at ihe ^ame Hime he-^ 
tirixt him and ystenamies. 

In dM meiin4(nae, «irants had tahen {dacein ehe 
wiwty of liiyoii^, takding gready lo Uma any .ndr 
▼aola^es which Nafokon .m^ht hare eirpect^d «to 
reap on iteaois^^astem part of the irexHi&ct&wMii^ 
SwitzeiliHid, and ^m ^ ffi^ apiiits to ihe mttee- 
nms eneiiiies aof his gomameiit in Pvoten^^ whete 
the Royalists always piMBCssed a <oanside)QaMe party- 
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The reinforcements dispatclied hy the Augtriana 
under General Bianchi, and their reserves, brought 
forward by the Prince of Hesse-Homberg, had re- 
stored their superiority over Augereau's army. He 
was defeated at Ma^on on the lltfa of March, in a 
battle which he had given for the purpose of ma^* 
tainiug his line on Ae Same. A second time, he ^^ 
defeated on the 18th. ajt St George, and obliged to 
retire in great disorder, with scaroe /even, the maa^ 
of defending the Iaei:e, up which rlv^ he zeJtreate4f 
Lyons^ tbfis uncovered, ppened its gates to BiaiKchi; 
and, after all that they bad heard concerijungitb^ 
losses of . tbe allies, tibe .citizens saw with aatonisli- 
xoeat and alarm ai^. untouched Wdy o( their trofip, 
smeunting to 60,000 n^, defile through their, a^r^^^. 
This defeat of Augereau was probal^y unknown. tf> 
Napoleon, when he determined to inarch to the fron- 
tiers, and thought he might reckon on co*oper^ti(^ 
with the Lyonnese samy^ Thpugb, there&pe, the 
EmpercNT^s movement to St Dizier was out of the 
rules of.ocdinaTy war/ and though it enablqd;.tbe fd- 
lies to conceive aAd e^xecute the daring sdieme, which 
put avuend to;iign,.yet it was by nojnepivs 
hopeless in its outset ; oj:, we would rather s^y^ was 
one ol.the &w t^temativ^s, which the crisis of his 
aflS^i^left toJBupnjaparte, and which, jiidgii^ G^ogn 
the pre^ous vacillation and cauUous timidAly disptoy- 
ed in th^ coimdls pf th^ allije^ he Ii9d oo reiv>oni to 


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tA6 I.I>K 6t 

Apprehend would have given rise to the conseqaerfcetf 
that actuaUy foUowed. 

The allies, who had in their latest councik womid 
up their resolution to the dedsive experiiaeiit of 
marching on Paris, were at first at a loss to account 
for Napoleon*s disappearance, or to guess whither he 
had gone. This occasioned some heidtation and loss of 
time. At length, by the interception of a French cou- 
rier, they found dispatches addressed by Buonaparte 
to his government at Paris, from which they were 
enabled to conjecture the real purpose and direction 
of his mardi. A letter, in the emperor^s own hand, 
to Maria Louisa, confirmed the certainty of the in- 
formation. The allies resolved to adhere, under 
this unexpected change of circumstances, to the bold 
Tcsolution they had already formed. To conceal die 
real direction of his march, as weU as to open oom- 
-munications with the Silesian army, Schwarti^ibeig, 
moving laterally, transferred his head-quarters' fo 
Vitry, where he arrived on the 24th, two days after 
~ it had been summoned by Napoleon. Blucher, m 
the meantime, approached his army from Laon to 
Chidons, now entirely re-organised after the two 
bloody battles which it had sustained. 

As a necessary preparation for the advance. 
General Ducca was left on the Aube, with a divi- 
sion of Austrians, for the purpose of defending their 
depdtH, keeping open their communications, and 

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giiardiiig the person o^ the lAmperot Frincis, trho 
did not perhaps judge it delicate to a{yptoaeh Pifria 
id arms, with the rest of the sovereigns, while the 
oty was ilominally governed by his owli daughteif as 
R^nt. Ducca had also in charge, if pressed, to 
retreat tlpon the Prince of Hesse Homberg^s aniiy, 
'. which was in triumphant possession of Lyons. 
This important arrangement being made, another 
wtt adopted equally necessary to deceive and ob- 
Kdrre Napoleon. Ten thousand cavalry Were select- 
ed, under the enterprising generals, Winzengerode 
ftnd Czemicheff, who, with fifty pieces of cannon, 
Were dispatched to hang on Buonaparte's march, to 
obstruct his communications with the country he had 
left, intercept couriers from Paris, or information te- 
bpecting the motions of the allied armies, and to pte^ 
Bent on all occasions such" a ftont, as, if possible, 
might impress him with the belief that their corps 
form^ the vanguard of the whole army of Schwart- 
tenberg. The Russian and Prussian light troops 
meanwhile scoured the roads, and intercepted, near 
Sommepuix, a convoy of artillery and ammunition 
belonging to Napoleon^s rear*guard, when twenty 
pieces of cannon, with a strong escort, fell into thdr 
hands. They also cut off several couriers, bringing 
important cBqpatches to Napoleon firom Paris. One 
of these was loaded with as heavy tidings as ever 
were destmed to afllKct falling greatness. Thispa<£et 

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148 LIFE OF 

iiifoTmed Napoleon c£ the descent of the English in 
Italy ; of the entry of the Austrians into , Lyons, 
and the critical state of Augereau ; of the declara- 
tion of Bourdeaux in favour of Louis ; of the de- 
monstrations of Wellington towards Toulouse ; of 
the disaffected state of the public mind, and the ex- 
hausted condition of the national resources. Much 
of these tidings was new to the allied sovereigns and 
generals ; but it was received by them with very dif- 
ferent sensations from those which the intelligence 
was calculated to inflict upon him for whom the 
packet was intended. 

Blucher, in the meanwhile, so soon as he felt the 
opposition to his movements diminished by the march 
of Buonaparte from Chalons to Arcis, had instantly 
resumed the offensive, and driven the corps of Mor- 
tier and Marmont, left^to observe his motions, over 
the Mame. He passed the Aisne near BeryJe-Bac, 
repossessed himself of Rheims by blowing open the 
gates and storming the place, and, having gained 
these successes, moved towards Chalons and Vitry. 
His course had hitherto been south-eastward, in or- 
der to join with Schwartzenberg j but he now recei- 
ved from the King of Prussia the welcome order to 
turn his march westward, and move straight upon 
Paris. The Grand Army adopted the same direc- 
tion, and thus they moved on in corresponding lines, 
^d in communication with each other. 

While Buonaparte, retiring to the east, prepared 

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for throwing himself on the rear of the allies^ he 
was necessarily, in person, exposed to the same risk 
of having his communications cut off, and his sup- 
plies intercepted^ which it was the object of his 
movement to inflict upon his enemy* M armont and 
Mortier, who retreated before Blucher ovet the 
Mame, had orders to move upon Vitry, probably 
because that movement would have placed them in 
the rear of Schwartzenberg, had he been induced to 
retreat from the line of the Aube, as Napoleon ex- 
pected he would. But as a very different course 
had been adopted Tby the allies, from that which 
Napoleon had anticipated, the two Mareschals found 
themselves unexpectedly in front of their Grand Ar- 
my near Xa Fere Champenoise. They were compel- 
led to attempt a retreat to Sezanne, in which, ha- 
rassed by the numerous cavalry of the allies, they 
sustained heavy loss. 

While the cavalry were engaged in pursuit of the 
Mareschals, the infantry of the allies were approach- 
uigthe town of La Fere Champenoise, when a heavy 
fire was heard in the vicinity, and presently appeared 
a large column of infantry, advancing chequer-wise 
and by intervals, followed and repeatedly charged by 
several squadrons of cavalry, who were speedily re- 
cognised as belonging to the Silesian army. The 
infantry, about 6000 in number, had left Paris with 
* large convoy of provisions and ammunition. They 
vere proceeding towards Montmirail, when they 

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Ifi0 * uru, Of 

were diseovered and altaiked bjr the csvalry of Bltt« . 
cher's army. Unable to make a atandj they endea- 
voured, by an alteration of their march, to reach J..a 
Fere Champenoi^e^ where they mpected to find either . 
the Emperor, or Idar^nont and Mortier. It was thus . 
their misfortune to fall upon Scylla in seeking to 
avoid Char}'bdi8. The column consisted entirely of 
young men, conscripts or national guards, who had . 
never before been in action. Yet, neither the ne- 
cessity of their condition* nor their unexpected sur- 
prise in meeting first one, and then 41 second army 
of oiemies, where they looked only for friends, could 
induce^ these spirited young men to surrrader. Rap« 
patel, the aide-de-camp of Moreau, and entertained 
in the same capacity by the Emperor Alexander, 
was shot, while attempting, by the orders of the Em- 
peror, to explain to them the impossibility of resist- 
ance. The French say, that the brother of Rappatel 
served in the company from which the shpt came 
which killed the unfortunate officer* The artillery 
fLt length opened on the French on every side ; they . . 
w^e charged by squadron after squadron ; the whole 
copvoy was taken, and the escort were killed, wound- . 
je4» or mjkde prisoners. 

Thus, the allies continued to advance upon Pa- 
ris,, while the shattered divisions of Mortier and 
Marmont, hard' pressed by the cavalry, lost a rear- 
giiard of 1500 men near Ferte Gaudiere. At Crecy , 
tiipjr parted into • two bodies, one retreating on 

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Mesox, the odffif Ob Lagay. Tliejr wcKYtillpur^ 
medand haraflged; and at lengthy tbe mUkra be-- 
(MauBg'deqpeiate, oould hardly be kqpt together^ 
ihSe the aitUkvy-mea cat the tiaces of their gims^ 
and aiouBted their drai^t-hones, to eSBct Am 
eaettfe. It is compated that the French diviabss 
belweea La Fer6 Champenoiae and Lag&y, lost 8000 
men, and eighty gonS) beaideB immeiiae qnantitiea 
^ tNig8*8^ ^"^ ammunitioD* Indeed, suRounded 
as ftey were by overpowering niuobera, it requir- 
ed Be litUe aldU in the generals, as wdl as brareiy 
and derotion in the Mldien, to keqp the army from 
diawlving entirely. The allies, gainii^ advantages 
at every step, moved on with such expedition, that 
when, bn.^e 27^ Bfaxdi» they todk up their head- 
quarters at CoUimiiers, thqr had marched upwards 
of seventy miles in three days. 

An effi>rt was made, by about 10,000 men of the 
national guards, to stop a column of the anny of 
Sileria, but it totally failed ; General Home ga]|op* 
isg^mto the very centre of the French mass of in- 
fimtiy, and making prisoner the general who com*- 
manded them with bis own hand. When Bhidber 
approached Meaux, the garrison, (apart of Mor- 
^^a army,), retreated, Mowing up a large powder 
magaafaie. This was on the 28th of Mardi, .and on 
the evening of the same day, the vanguard. of tbe 
^lesian army pushed on as far as Claye, ^m whence, 
not witbfmt a sharp fnption they di^lqdj^^-a^part^of 

10S^ tiFR or 

Afe dMAdtin of Mansont and Moitier. ThM^ 
MareiielialB now' retreated ttnder the waiUiB of PaiiiV 
^Mit discouraged as^ broken forced finmiag tbe 
only regular troops, excepting those of the ga]Yi6on> 
ivfiich eoufd be reckoned on for the defence of the 

The allied armies moved onward^ on the saite 
grand point, leaving, however, Oenerals Wrede atii 
S^ken, with a coips d'aimee of 30,000 men, upon 
thef Hue of the Marne^ to oppose any attempt urUkh 
miglit be mdde for imnoying the rear of the amy^ 
and thus relieving the nietropolis. 

Deducing this covering army, th^ rut of the ■!« 
lied forces moyed in eolumns along the three grand 
routes of Meaux, Lagny, and^Soissons^ tbiw tiiMtci* 
ening Paris along all its hortfa-reastem quarter. The. 
military sovereigns and their victbriotts armies werb 
now in sight of that metropolis, whose rukr jmd his 
soldiers had so often and so long lorded it ip tfaetrai 
of thnt Paris, which, unsatisfied with h^r h^;h tnik 
among the eSiJes • of Europe, had ^^mentedi constapt 
war until all should be stitjju^ted to her empixe-; 
of tiat poud city, who boasted herself the first <» 
arms and in science, the mistress andexampie of ihq 
civilized w6rld, the depesrtary of ail that is'woiiddv 
fill in the fine arts, and the dietatftess as well of taate 
as of law to continental £urop^ 

The position of Paris,, on the north-'eastcsiiffion^- 
ti^, wMdk was thus apf^roft^Md^ is m stnugly d^ 

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fensiftle, perfaflpg, as can be 8did of any unfbttified 
town in tire world. Art, however, had added Kitle 
to the defence of the city itself, except a few wretch- 
ed redoubts, (called by the French taniboUrs,) enect- 
ed for protection of the barriers. But the external 
line was very strong, as will appear from the follow- 
ii^ sketch. The heights which environ the oity on 
the eastern side, rise abruptly from an extensive 
phdn, and form a steep and narrow ridge, which 
sinks again as suddenly upon the eastern quarter of ' 
the town, which it seems to screen as with a natural 
bulwark. The line of defence which they afford is 
extremely strong. - The southern extremity of the 
ridge, which rests upon the wood of Vincennes, ex- 
tending southward to the banks of the river Martie, 
is'calted the heights of Belville and Romainville, 
taking its name from two delightfrd villages which 
occupy it, Belville being nearest, and RomainviBe 
most distant from Paris. The heights are covered 
with romantic groves, and decorated by many plea- 
satit villas, with gavdens, orchards, vineyards, and 
plantations. These, which, in peaceftil times, are a 
faVoiirite' resort of the gay Parisians, on their par- 
ties of pleasure, were now to be occupied by other 
guests, and for far different purposes. In advance 
of these heights, and protected by them, is the vil- 
lage of Pantln, situated on the great road from' 
Bondf. To the left of Komainville> and more in 
front of Belville, is a^ projecting eminence, termed 

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l$t< LIFXOF 

the Butte de Smnf Chaumont The ridge Aeee 
&joii»f and admits a half-finished aqueduct^ called the 
Canal de FOurcq. The ground then again rises 
into t^e bold and steep eminence, called Montmai^ 
irjq, from being the au^osed place of the martjr- 
doxn of St Denis, the patron of France. From the 
declivity of this steep hill is a level plain, extending 
to. the river Seine, through which runs the principal 
northern ^approach tp Paris, from the town of Saint 
Denis. The most formidable preparations had been 
made for maintaining t&is strong line of defence, 
behind which the city lay sheltered. The extreme 
right of the French forces occupied Uie wood of 
Vincennes, and the willage of Charenton upon the- 
Mame, and was supported by the troops stationed 
jon the heights of Belleville, Bomainville, and on 
thie Butte de Chaumont, which composed the right 
wing. Their centre occupied the line formed by the 
half-finished canal de TOurcq, was defended by the 
village of La YillettC) and a strong redoubt on the 
farm of Rouvroi, mounted with eighteen heavy guns, 
and by the embankments of the. canal, and still far. 
ther protected by a powerM artillery planted in the 
rear, on the heights of Montmartre. The left wing 
was thrown back firom the village called Mon9eauz, 
near the north-western extremity of the heights, and 
prolonged itself to that of Nei^Uy^ on the Seine, ' 
which was strongly occypied by the extreme left of 
j^hfir frmy. Thus, with the right extremity of the. 

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army restiiig^ upon the river Mflme» and the left up- 
on the Seine, the French occupied a defendye aemi* 
qreobir line, which could not be turned, the greater 
pari of which was posted on heights of unecmmion 
steqmess, and the whole defended by cannon, placed 
with the utmost science and judgment, but very de- 
ficient in point of mimbers. 

The other side of Paris is almost defenceless ; but, 
10 ord^. to have attacked it on that side, the allies 
nrast have previously crossed the Seine ; an opera- 
tion successfully practised in the following year, but 
vhich at that period, when their work, to be execu- 
ted at all, must be done Buddenly, they had no lei- 
sure to .attempt, considering the great probability of 
Napoleon'^s coming up in their rear, recalled by tJie 
^iiger of the capital. They were therefore com- 
peUed to prefer a sudden and desperate attack upon 
the strongest side of the city, to the slower, though 
niore secure measure of turning the formidable line 
<f defeuoe which we have endeavoured to describe* 

Three times, since the allies crossed the Rhine, 
the capital of France had been menaced by the ap- 
proach of troops within twenty miles of the city, but 
it had uniformly been delivered by the active and. 
^pid movements of Napoleon. Encouraged by this 
recollection,- the citizens, without much alarm, heard, 
for the fourth time, that the Cossacks, had been seen 
M Meaux. Stifled rumours, however, began to cir. 
cidate, thai^ the divisions of Marmoot and Mortis- 

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VS6 ^ XlTZX)}f 

had sustained seviere loss/and were in fiill retreat on 
the capital ; a fact speedily confirmed by the long 
train of wounded who entered the barriers of the 
city, with looks of consternation and words of dis- 
couragement. Then catne crowds of peasants, fly- 
ing they knew not whither, before an enemy whose 
barbarous rapacity had been so long tlie themie of 
every tongue, bringing with them their half-naked 
and half-starved families, their teams, their carts, 
and such of their herds and household goods as the^ 
could remove in haste. These unfortunate fugitives 
crowded the Boulevards of Paris, the usual resort of 
the gay world, adding, by exaggerated and contra- 
dictory reports, to die dreadful ideas which the Pa- 
risians already conceived of the approaching storm. 
The government, chiefly directed by Jbseph Bud- 
naparte, in the name of his sister-in-law ]\laria 
Louisa, did all they could to encourage the people, 
by exaggerating their means of defence, and main- 
taining with effrontery, that the troops which ap- 
proached the capital composed but some isolated co- 
Itiran which by accident straggled towardis Paris, 
while the Emperor was breaking, dividing, and 
slaughtering, the gross of the confederated army. 
The light could not be totally shut out, but suck 
rays as were admitted were highly coloured with 
hope, having been made to pass through the medium 
of the poHoe and public papers. A grand review of 
the troops destined for the defence of the capital, ' 

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was: held upon the Sunday preceding the assault. 
Eight thousand troops of the line, being Ae garri- 
son of. Paris, under General Girardiand 30,000 Aa- 
^onal guards, commanded by Hulin, governor of the 
city, passed in order through the stately court of the 
Tuilleries, followed by their trains of artillery, their 
porps of pioneers, and their carriages^ for baggage 
and ammunition. This was an imposing ,and en- 
couraging spectacle, until it was remembered that 
these forces were not designed to move out to dis- 
|»nt con(|ue8t, the destination of many hundreds of 
thousands which in other days had been paraded be- 
fore J;hatt palace j but that they were the last hope pf 
Paris, who must defend all that she contained by a 
battle under her walls. The remnants of Marmont 
and Mortier^s corps d^afmee made no part of this pa- 
rade. Their dimished battalions, and disordered 
flt^te of equipment, were ill calculated to inspire cou- 
rage into the public mind. They were concentrated 
and stationed on the line of defeiice alre^ady described, 
beyond the barriers of the city* But the Mareschals 
thjsmsdves entered Paris, and gave their assistance 
totfae military councils of Joseph Buonaparte. 

Preparations were made by the government to 
remove beyond ^ lioire, pr at least in that direc- 
tioo, Maria- Louisa had none of the spirit of an 
Amazon, though graced with all the domestic vir^ . 
tues* 3be was also placed painfully in the course ^f 
a.V?i^,b^r«iit her hud^aiid and&ther. Be8idci9» 9be 

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158 tif'E or 

' obeyed, end ftohMy with no laek of wilt, tiapof^ffs 
' injimctionB to leuve the capital, if danger shoidd i^ 
' proach. She left Paris, therefore, with her son; wlkfia 
said to have shown an unirilltngness to defMttt, irhidi, 
in a child, seemed to have something ominous in it. 
- Almost all the dvil authorities of Buonaparte^s go- 
vernment left the city at the same time, after destroy- 
ing the private records of the high police, and carry- 
ing with them the crown jewels, and muc9i of the pub* 
Mc treasure. Joseph Buonaparte remained, detainlii^ 
with him, somewhat, it is said, against his incI&iat£aB, 
fHambaceres, the Chancellor of the Emperor, whom, 
though somewhat too unwieldty for the character. 
Napoleon had, in one of his latest couddls, threat- 
ened with the honours and dangers of the Coloneli^ 
of a battalion. Joseph himself had the talents of an 
accomplished man, and an amiable member at so- 
ciety, but they do not seem to have been of 'a mili- 
tary description. Jle saw his sister-in-law depart, at- 
tended by a regiment of 700 men, whom some writers 
have allied had been better employed in the defenoe 
of the city ; forgetting of what importance it was to 
Napoleon that the person of the Empress should be 
protected alike against a roving band of Hulans or 
Cossacks, or the chance of some dvic mutiny. These 
srrattg«n«[its beii^ made, Joseph published, on tile 
morning of tite 29th, a proclamation, assuring tiie 
dtisens of Paris that ** he would remain witii tiiem -^ 
he described the enemy as a single straggling ooluflm 

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I^APOLXOll BtfCflfAPAETE. 109 

vhich had approached frpm MeaUx, wad required 
them hf mhrief and valorous resbtance to suatain the 
heoour oFthe French name, until the arrival of the 
Smperor, who, he assured the Parisians, was on foil 
march to their soocotr. 

Between three and four o^dock on the next erent- 
ftd morning, the drums beat to arms, and the ns- 
lional guards assembled in force. But of the thou- 
sands wluch obeyed the call, a great part were^ from 
dge^ habits, and want of inclination, unfit for the 
semee demand^ from them. We have also al- 
teacty alluded to the scarcity of arms, and certainly 
there were very many of those citiaen-soldioB, whom, 
had weapons been more plenty, the govemnient df 
Buonaparte would not have intrusted with them. 
. Most t>f the national guard, who were suitably 
amed, were kept within the barrier until aboift 
^eleVen o'clock, and then, as their presence became 
necessary, were marched to the scene of action, and 
grayed in a second line behind the regular troc^, 
so as radier to impose upon the enemy, by an a^ 
peanmce of numbers, than to take a very active 
ABJte in the contest The most serviceable wert, 
howev^, draughted k> act as sharp-shooters, and se** 
veral battalions were stationed to strengthen particu- 
lar points of the line. The whole of the thwps, in- 
cluding many volunteers, who actively engaged m 
the defence of the city, might be between lO^OOO 
md 20,000. 


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160 ufit OF 

The proposed assault of the allies was lo hegs^a^ 
ral and simultaneous^ along the whole line of defence* 
The Prince lloyal of Wirtemberg was to attack the 
extreme right of the Fr^ch^ in the wood of Yin- 
cennes, drive them from the banks of the Mameand 
the village of Charenton, and thus turn the blights 
of BalleviUe. The Russian general, Rayefski, 
making a flank moyemoit from the pubUp road t9 
Meaux, was to direct three strong columns, with 
their artillery and powerful xeser^s, in order rto 
.attack in front the important heights of BdleviUe 
and RomainviUe, and the villages which give oam^ 
to them* The Russian and Prussian body-guatda 
had charge to attack the centre of the enemy, posted 
upon the ca^al de TOurcq, the reserves of which oe* 
cupied the eminence called Montmartre. The army 
<of Silesia was to assail the left of the French lu^ 
so as to turn and carry the heights of Montmartse 
from the north-east. The third divisiim of the al- 
lied airmy,.and a strong body of cavalry, were kept in 
reserve. Before the attack commenced, two succes* 
sive flags of truce were dispatched to summon the 
city to eapitulate. Both were refused admittance, ao 
that the ii^ntion of the defenders of Paris af^earisd 
fixed to hazard an engagement* 

It was about eight o'clodt, when the Parisians^ who 
had assembled in anxious crowds at the barneirs <>f 
St I)enis and of Vincennes, the onllets from f aiis, 

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oonaqpoodiiig with the two extremities of the Hue, 
hecmie senriUe^ from the dropping sudDession oi 
m«sket-«hot8^ which sounded like the detached pat- 
ffimg of large diops of rain before a thunder-storm, 
that the yoik of destruction was already commenced. 
Ihres^Qitly platoons of mudEetry, with a close and 
heavy fire of eamHNa, from the direction of fiellevilley 
annoimced that the eng^^ment had become general 
on that part of the line* 

€reneral Rayefski had begun the itttack by posh- 
ing forward a column, with the purpose of tumitq; 
the heights of Bomainyiile on the right ; but ite 
piogfess haTmg been arrested by a heavy fire of 
artillery, the French suddenly became the assail, 
ants, and» under the command of Marinont, rushid 
fi»ward and possessed themselves of the villi||0 of 
Pantin, in advanee of their line i an important peil, 
which' they had abandoned on the preceding even- 
ii^, at the abroach of the allied army. It was in* 
st«atly recovered by the Russian grenadiers, at the 
point of the bayonet ; and the French, although 
they several times attempted to resume the offensive, 
were driven back by the Russians on the villages of 
Belleville and Mesnilmontant, while the allies pushed 
forward through the wood of Romainville, under the 
acdivity of the heights. . The most determined and 
sustained fire was directed upon than from the 
French battenes along the whole line» Several of 

VOL. Vlll. L 

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theae were gerved by the youths of the Po}yj;edimc 
school, boys from twelve to sixteen years of age, wha 
ahowdd the greatest activity and-the most devoted 
Qourage. The French infantry rushed repeatedly 
in columns from the heights, where opportunities on- 
curred to check the progress of the allies. They wer? 
as ofteii repulsed by the Rqssians, each new attempt 
giving rise to fresh ^^onflicts and mote general slaugh- 
ter, while a continued and dispersed c<Hnbat of sharp- 
shooters took place among the groves, vineyards, and 
gardens of the villas, with which the heights are 
covered. At lengthy by order of General de Tolli, 
the Russian commander-in-chief, the front a,tta^w 
the hei^s was suspended until the operations of the 
allies on the other points should permit it to be re- 
sumed at a cbeiqper risk of loss. The Russian regi« 
menta which had been dispersed as sharpshooters, 
were withdrawn and again formed in rank, and it 
would seem that the French seized this opportunity 
to repossess themselves of the village of Pantin, and 
to assume a momentary superiority in the contest. 

Blucher had received his orders late in the morn'^ 
ingv and could not tx>mmence the attack so early as 
that upon the left. About eleven o'clock, having 
contented himself with observing and blockading a 
body of French troops, who occupied the viUage of 
St Denis, he directed the columns of G^ieral Lan- 
geron against the v^lage of Aubervilliers, and, ha- 

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viog sunnounted the obstinilkte opposition whicfaTwas 
there made^ moved them by the road of Clichy, right 
against the extremity of the heights of Montmartre^ 
whilst the division of Kleist and Yorck marched to 
attack in flank the villages 6f La ViUette and Pan* 
tin, and thus sustain the attack on the centre and 
right of the French* The defenders, strongly en* 
trenched and protected by powerAil batteries, oppos* 
ed the most formidable resistance, and, as the ground 
was broken and impracticable for cavalry, many of the 
attacking columns suffered severely. When tVe divi* 
sions of the Silesian army, commanded by Prince 
WilHam of Prussia* first came to the assistance of 
the originial assailants upon the centre, the French 
concentrated themselves on the strong post of La Vfl- 
lette, and the farin of Jftouvroy, and continued to ofi> 
fer the most desperate resistance in defehce of these 
points. Upon the allied left wing the Prussian 
Guards, and those of Baden, threw themselves with 
rival impetuosity into the village of Pantin, and car- 
ried it at the point of the bayonet. During these 
advantages, the t^rince Royal of Wirtemberg, on the 
ex^eme left of the allies, had forced his way to Vin- 
cennes, and threatened the right of the French bat- 
talions posted at Belleville, as had been projected in 
the plan of t3ie attack. General Rayefeki renewed 
the suspended assaidt'upon these heights in front. 

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i64 lilFS OF 

vheft he leinmed th^t they were thus in aome mea* 
sure turned in flank^ and succeeded in carrying those 
of Romainville, with the village. Marmont and Ou- 
dinot in yain attempted a chai^ upon the allied 
troops, who had thus established themsdves on the 
Fxendt line of defence. They were repulsed and 
pursued by the victors, who, following up their ad- 
vantage, possessed themselves successively of the 
villages of Belleville and Mesnilmontant, the Butts 
de St Chaumont, and the fine artillery which de- 
fended this line. 

About the same time the village of Charoime, 
on the right eztr^oiity of the heights, was also ear- 
ned, and the whole line of defence ocoipied by the 
light wing of the French fell into possession of the 
allies. Their light horse began to penetrate fiom 
Vincennes as &r as the barriers of Paris, and thcdr 
guns and mortars upon the heights were turned upon 
liie city. The centre of the French anny> stationed 
upon the canal de TOurcq, had hitherto stood firmi 
protected by the redoubt at Rouvroy, with dghteen 
heavy pieces of cannon, and by the village of I^a 
YiUette, which formed the key of the position. But 
the right flank of their line being turned by ihoee 
troops who had become possessed of Romainvillei the 
allies overwhelmed this part of. the line also, and car* 
rying by assault the farm of Bpu^Troy, yriik its strong 
redoubt, and the village oip La Villette, drove the 

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oentfe «f the Fvrach bade a|>on the city- A body 
of Fieaeh csTahy attempted to check the advance of 
die aHied cofaiiiiiis, but were repiilted mi deifrojed 
hj a biiUiaiit diaisge of the Uack hussars of Bran- 
denburg* Meanwhile the right wing of the Silesian 
anny approached dbse to the foot of Mmitmartrei 
and Count Langeron^s corps was preparing to storm 
thb hut remaining defensible post^ when a flag of 
tniee iappeared, to demand a cessation of hostilitieB. 
Itappemrs that, in the morning, Joseph Buonaparte 
had diown himsdf to the defenders richng along die 
lines, aeeompanied by his staff, and had repeated to. 
all the corps, engsiged, the assurance that he woidct 
liy^ anid die with them. ^ There is reason to thinks 
that, if he did not quite credit that such eztensire 
pqpai^tions for assault were made by a single divi-> 
aon of 1^ allies, yet h^ beUeved he had to do with 
onfy one of their two apoies, and not witib their united 
fcree. He was undecrived by a person named Feyref, 
called, \yy some, an engpbaeer officer attached to the 
staff of the governor of Paris, and, by others, a super* 
intendant belonging to the corps of iSre-men in that 
city. F^re, it seems, had fallen into the hai^ of a 
party of Cossacks the night before, and was carried 
in the n)oming to the presence of the Emperor Alex- 
ander, at Bcmdy. In his route he had an opportu- 
^ty of cakdbiting the immense force of the anmea 

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now under the waUs of Paris. Thvough the medium » 
of this officer, the Emperor Alexander explained the 
intentions of the allied soFerogns, to aUow fmr terms 
to the ci^ of Paris, provided it was proposed to ca- 
pitulate ere the barriers were forced ; with the corre- 
sponding intimation, that if the defence were^i^lcn^ 
ed bejond that period, it would not be in the power- 
either of the Emperor, the King of Prussia, or the 
allied generals, to prevent the total destruction of 
the town. 

Mons. Peyre, thus erected into a commissioner 
and envoy of crowned lieads, was set at liberty, . and 
with danger and difficulty found his way im^ the 
Frendi lines, through the fire which was mtuntahi- 
ed in every direction. He was introduced to Jo- 
seph, to whom he delivered his message, and showod 
proclamations to the city of Paris, with which ihe 
Emperor Alexander had intrusted him. Joseph he- 
sitated, at first inclining to capitulate, then puffing^ 
up resolution, and determining to abide the chance 
of arms. He continued irresolute, blood flowing fast 
around him, until about noon, when the enemy'^s co- 
hmms threatening an attack on Montma»tre> and the 
shells and bullets from the artillery, wbieh was in 
position to cover the attempt, flying last over the 
heads of himself and his staff, lie sent Peyre to Ge^ 
neral Marmont, who acted as eoii)mander4n*chief) 

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whhperffiissioDtodieMareschal todanand aceaeadte 
rf arms. At the same time Jeseph himself fled with 
his whole attendants ; fhvts abandoning the tfoops, 
vhom Us exhortations had engaged in tlie btoody* and 
hopeless resistance, of which Jie had sdemnly promis- 
ed to pitftake the dangers. Marmont, with Monkey; 
and the odier gMionds who ccmducted the defence, 
now saw all hopes of making it good at an end. The 
whole line was carried, ezc^tk^ the single post of 
Montmartre, which was turned, and on the point of 
being stormed on both flanks, as well as in fiont ; 
Ae Prince Royal of Wirtemberg had occupied Cba- 
renton, with its bridge orer the Mame, and pushing 
finrward on the high road from thence to Paris, his 
2jdvanced posts were already skirmishing at the Inus 
riers, called the Trone ; and a party of Cossacks had 
been with diificulty repulsed from the Fauxbourg St 
Antoine, on which they made a Hourra. The city 
of Paris is merely surrounded by an ordinary wall, 
to prevent smuggling. The l>arriers are not much 
stronger than any ordinary turnpike-gate, and the 
stockade with which they had been barricaded could 
"have been cleared away by a few blows of the pio- 
neers^ axes. Add to this, that the heights command- 
mg the city, Montmartre excepted, were in complete 
possession of the enemy ; that a bomb or two, thrown 
ptobably to intimidate the citiaens, had already falleii 

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IB tibe FatudtKNug-IiooliiMyrtfe «i4 the fllmmdf 
4'Antiii; and that it w^s evident that any sttonpftW 
piotraet the defence of Paria^ must be attended with 
fitter ruin to the town and its inhabitants* Marshal 
Marmont, influenced by these considerations, dis* 
patched a flag of truce to General Barclay de ToUi, 
requestiiig a suspension of Jiostilities, to arrange the 
lerms pn which Paris was to be surrendeied. The 
armistice was granted, on condition that Montmartre, 
the only defensible part of the line which the Frendi 
ptUl continued to occupy, should be delivered up to 
the allies. Deputies were appointed on both sides, 
to adjust the terms of surrender. These were speed- 
ily settled. The French r^plar troops were per- 
mitted to retire from Paris unmolested, and the me- 
tropolis was next day to be delivered up to the allied 
foverdgns, to whose generosity it was recommended. 
Thus ended the assault of Paris, after a bloody 
action, in which the defenders lost upwards of 4000 
in killed and wounded ; and the allies, who had to 
storm well-defended batteries, redoubts, and en- 
trenchments, perhaps about twice the number* They 
remained masters of the line at all points^ and took 
nearly one hundred pieces of cannon. When night 
fell, the multiplied and crowded watch-fires that oc- 
cupied the whole chain of heights on which the vic- 
tors now bivouacked, indicated to the astonished in- 

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hafakants of the French metropolis^ how numerous 
and how powerful were the armies into whpse hands 
the fiite of war had surrendered them. 

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170 WT£ or 


state of Parties in Paris.^-Roifalists^RevokUumists^-JBMh 
napfsrtists, — TaHeyrandr-^his plans and views^^-^ChateaU' 
briand^influence ofhU eloquence in favour of the Royal- 
ists, — Mission to the Allied Sovereigns from the Royalists, 
— TJieir answer. — Efforts of the Buonapartists. — Fedings 
of the lowest classes in Paris-^^f the rnidtUing ranks.^^ 
Neutrality of the National Guard, — Grountig strength and 
confidence of the Royalists. — They issue Proclamations, 
and White Cockades.^^ Crowds assend>le at the Boulevards 
to witness the entrance of the Allies, — Mutability of the 
French Character, — The Allies are received with shouts of 
welcome, — Their Army retires to Quarters, and the Cos^ 
sacks bivouac in the Champs Elysies, 

The battle was fought and won ; but it remmned 
a high and doubtful question in what way the vic- 
tory wa3 to be improved, so as to {iroduce results 
of far greater consequence than usually follow from 
the mere military occupation of an enemy's capital 
While the mass of the inhabitants were at rest, ex- 

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hausted by the fatigues and anxieties of the day^ 
many secret conclaves, on differ^it principles, were 
held in the city of Paris, upon the night after the 
assault. Some of these even yet endeavpured to re- 
organise the means of resistance, and some to find 
out what modern policy has called % Mextsfhterminei 
some third expedient, between- the risk of staadii^ 
\sj Napoleon, and that of recalling the banished 

The only middle mode which could have succeed- 
ed would have been a regency under the impress ; 
and Fouch^^s Memoirs state, that if he had been in 
Paris at the time, he might have succeeded in esta- 
blishing a new order of things upon such a basis. 
The assertion may be safely disputed. To Austria 
such a plan might have had some recommendations \ 
but to the sovereigns and statesmen of the other al- 
lied nations; the proposal would only have appeared 
a device to obtain immediate peace, and keep the 
throne, as it were, in commission, that Buonaparte 
might ascend it at his pleasure.* 

* The passage is curious, whether we regard it as really ema- 
nating from Fouch^, or placed in the mouth of that active revolu- 
tionist, by some one who well understood the genius of the party. 
^^^*fiad I been at Paris at that time, (the period of the siege, 
pamely,) the weight of my influence, doubtless, and my perfect ac-* 

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178 LIFE OF 

We have the greatest doubts whether, among tb^ 
ancient chiefs of the Revolution, most of whom had, 
as hackneyed took, lost credit itt the public eye, both 
by want of principle and political inconsiBtency, there 
remained any who could have muntained a popular 
interest in opposition to that of the Royalists on the 
one hand and the Buonapartists on the otiier* The 
tesw who remained steady to iheir democratic piind* 
pies, Napoleon had discredited and thrown into the 
shade ; and he had r^d^red many of the others still 
more ineffideht, by showing that they were acoessiUe 
to bribery and to ambition, and that andtot dema* 
gogues could, without muth trouble, be transmuted 

^oaintance with the secrets of every party, would have enabled me 
to give these extraordinary events a very different direction* My 
preponderance, and the promptness of my dedsion, would have pre- 
dominated over the more slow and mysteriotis influence of Talley- 
rand. That elevated personage could not have made his way un« 
less we had been harnessed to the same car. I would have revealed 
to him the ramifications of my political plan, and, in spite of the 
odious policy of Savary, the ridiculous government of Cambaceres, 
the lieutenancy of the puppet Joseph, and the base spirit of the 
Senate, we would have breathed new li£t into the oaroase of -the 
Revolution, and these degraded patricians would not have thought 
of acting exclusively for their own interests. By our united im- 
pulse, we would have pronounced, before the interfereiloe of any 
foreign influence, the dethronement of Napoleon, and proclaimed 
the Regency, of which I had already traced the basis. This con- 
elusion was the only one which could have preserved the Revolu- 
tion and Its principles.*' 

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inio fiupple and obsequious coostieis. Their daj of 
poKer au4 niterest was past, and the ezaf^ratod 
^emenoe of their deidooratic opinions had no long- 
er any effect on the lower classes, who were in a great 
proportion attadied to the empire. 

The RoyaUsts, on the other band^ had been long 
eombiiung and extending their effints and opinions, 
which gained, chiefly among the higher orders, a sort 
of fS«Bhion which those of the democrats had lost. 
Talleyrand was acceptaUe to them as himseI£noble 
fay birth, and he knew better than any one how to ap« 
]^y the le^ar (o unfasten the deep fbundadons of Na^ 
poleon^s pow^* Of. his address, though not. success^ 
fid in the particular instance, Las Cases gives us a 
duriouB specimen. Talleyrand desired to sound the 
ofdnion of Decres, about the time of the crisis of which 
we are treating. He drew that minister towards the 
diimney , saA opening a volume <^ Montesquieu, sfdd, 
asif ifi the tone oTto ordinary conversation,^^ I found 
(I passage here this morning, which strudk me in an 
exti^prdinary manner : here it is, in such a book 
and chapter, page so and so. When a prince h<u 
raised Mmadf above aU laws^ when his tyranny 
becomes insupportable^ there remains nothing fa 
the oppressed subject ewcept — r-^*" 

^* It is quite ^Bough,'' said Decres, placing his 
hapd upm Talleyrand's mouthy <' I will hear no 

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174 . . LIFE OP 

mora Sbttt your book.'" And TaDeyratid elofl6c^' 
liie book, as if nothing remarkable had happened. 

An agent of such eztraorcUnary tact ▼» not fte^ 
quemly baffled, in a cky, and at a time, when sa 
many were, from hope^ fear, Idve, hatred, and alfc 
the other strongest passions^ desirous, according to 
the Roman phrase, of a new state of things. He 
had been unceasingly active, and eminently success- 
fid, in convincing the Royalists, that the king must 
purchase die recovery of his authority by consent*^' 
ing to place the monarchy On a constitutional foot-' 
ing ; and in persuading another class, that the re-» 
storation of the Bourbons was the most favourabkr 
chance for the settlement of a free system of go^ 
vernment. Nor did this accomplished politician li-^ 
mit his efforts to those who had loyalty to be awa*^ 
kened, and a love of liberty to be rekindled, btif 
extended them through a thousand raniflcations^; 
through every class of persons. To the b6ld he oC 
Ibred an enterprise requiring courage ; to tfaelHnid^ 
(a numerous class at the time,) he sholr«d thfe rdad 
of safety ; to the ambitious, the prospect of gainitifg 
power ; to the guiky, the assurjuioe of indemnity afid 
safety. He had inspired resolution even into^ the 
councils of the allies; A note fi^m hint to the Em- 
peror Alexander, in the following wer^, is said to 
have determined that Prince to persevere in the 

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msKhj^ffpaFmiB, <^. You veiitaienQtliidg,^ said dot 
laoooic billet, f* wlien you may saftiy. venture every^ 
Qdag'^^YfsAate once, more^'' 
. It iScHot to b^ sapposed that Talleyrand wrought 
ia thia de^p. mtiqpie without acUve coadjutors. The 
Abbe de Pradt, whose finely works have so ofteii 
giyen some intarest to our pages, was deeply ihvoIi> 
Ted i^ the transactions of that busy period, and ad^ 
yoca^ed the cause of the. Bourbons against that of 
his former master. BouraonTille and otl|er s^iat<»s 
were engaged in the same cabds* 

The Royalists, on tbdr own part, were in the highf 
est state of activity^ and prepared to use their ut« 
most exertions to obtain the mastery of the public 
spirit. At this most critical moment all was. done, fay 
Monsieur de Chateaubriand^ which eloquence could 
effect, to ai^al to the afifections, perhaps even the 
prejudices of the people, in his celebrated pam^^let, 
entitled, Buonaparte and the Bourbons. This vi«- 
gorous and affecting comparison between the days 
when France was in peace and honour under, her 
own monaorchs, contrasted with those in which £v- 
rqpe appeared in arms under her walls, l»d been 
written above a month,and the manuscript was con- 
cealed by Madame de Chateaubriand in her bosonu 
It was now privately printed. So was a pioclamai- 
tion'li^ Monsieur, made in the name of bis brother, 
the late King of France. Finally, in a private as- 


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17< UFX €»' . 

semUy of the priae^dl Royalists^ amongyt wIiobi 
were the illiistriovs Barnes of Roban, RocbefiHiCMdl^ 
Montmorency, and NoaiUea^ it was resolTed to waad 
a deputation to the allied soYoreignS) to learn, if pps- 
aibk, their intention. Manfioenr Uoohet, the genilo* 
man intrusted with diis conumuueationy executed hk 
mission at the expense of consideraUe persmial dsn- 
ger, and returned into Paris with the answer^ Aat 
the allies had determined to avoid all appeaxanoe of 
dictating to France reelecting any family or mods 
of government, and that although they would most 
joyfully and willingly acknowled^ the Bourbo&Sx 
yet it could only be in consequence of a pubbc de* 
claration in their fiivour. At the same time Hon? 
sieur Douhet was furnished with a prodamatioii of 
the allies, signed Schwartsenberg, whidi,. without 
mentioning the Bourbons, was powerfully calculated 
to serve their cause. It declared the friendly in* 
tention of the allies towards France, and rqNfeseotr 
ed the power of the government which nowoppreBS- 
-ed them, as the only obstacle to instant peaces The 
allied sovereigns, it was stated, sought but to see a 
salutary govonment in France,, who would cement 
the friendly union of all nations. It beloQg^^ 
the city of Paris to pronounce, their opinioOf ^ad 
accdbrate the peace of the world. 

Furnished with this imp<»tant document, which 
plainly indicated the private wishes of the allies^ ^^ 

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Hojalists resfdved tor make an effort on the morning 
of March 31 ist. It was at first designed they should 
assemble five hundred gentlemen in araos ; but this 
plan^a^t prudentiy laid aside, and they determined to 
r^i»im93l all appearance of force, and address the 
dtisenv only by means of persuasion. 

In ^le meanfime, the friends of the Imperial go- 
Ycniment ^ete-not idle. The conduct of the lower 
dasseis, during the battle on the heights, had assumed 
m alarming efaaracter. For a time they had listened 
with a sort of stttpified terror to the distant thunders 
of the fight, beheld the wounded and fugitives crowd 
in at the barriers, and gazed in useless wonder on the 
htirried march of troops moving out in haste to rein- 
force the lines. At length the numerous crowds which 
assembled in the Boulevards, and particularly in the 
streets nea^ the Palais Royal, assumed a more ac^ 
tive appearance* There began to emerge from the 
suburbs and lanes those degraded members of the 
community, whose slavish labour is only rdieved by 
coarse debauchery, invisible for the most part to the 
more decent classes of society, but whom periods of 
pabU^icidamity or agitation bring into view, to add 
te the general confusion and terror. They gather, 
in timed of public danger, as birds of ill omen and 
noxious reptiles are said to do at the risvog of a 
tropical hurricane ; and dbeir felkw^^citizens look 

vol.. VIII. M 

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178 Lijr£ OP 

vith equad disgust and dread upom'fiices^ndfigareay 
as strange to them as if diey had issued from aoma 
distant and wvage land. Paris, like every great 
metropolis, has her diare, and more dian her shandy 
of this unwholesome population. It was the finantie 
convocations of this class which had at once insti- 
gated and carried into eififect the prindpal horroiis of 
the Revolution, and they seemed now res<)tved. to 
signalize its condusion by the destructiim of die ca** 
jAtal. Most of diese banditti wete under the «&iu^ 
«DCe of Buonaparte's police, and were stimulaited 
by the various arts which his ^nissarii^s employedv 
At <me time horsemen galloped through the crowd, 
exhorting them to take arms, and assuring thetft 
that Buonaparte had already attacked the rear of 
tiie allies. Again they were told that the Kmg of 
PruEoia was made prisoner, with a cohimin of 10,080^ 
men. At other ticbes, similar emissaries, aQnotra-t 
V»iig that the allies ha^ entered the eubierbs, and 
weare spanng neither sex nor age, ^xhorting^ the tifi- 
^ns, by placards pasted on tbd ^ip^dls, to sfaiit tb^ir 
«liopt, and prepare to defend their houses. 

This invitation to make the Iji^t earthly s^cridoes; 
in b^lf of a mihtary despot, to which Zaragoi^sfi 
iiad submitted in defence of Im national incfepetid. 
"ence, ^s» ill received by the inhabitants. A fiee 
Estate bas miUions of necks, but a despotic g^vem-^ 

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tmekt h in Hie sitiiMioti'diiffla^ed by tbe InpefW ty- 
nmt — ^it has but oner When it was obvioos thai 
the Enrpeirot Napoleoli had lost his aicendeney, no 
simp-keeper in Paris was fool enough to risk, in his 
cMRie, His shop, his flonily , and His liiPe^ or to consent 
to meastdres fbr pteseirring the capital, which were 
to c&mmea4e by abttsdoning to the allied ttdeps and 
th^ ktua of their own popnlatidn, all thai was, t6 hiin 
ififlitidil&lly^ worth fighting for. The placards we 
hiye nentioned w^re pulled do^di, therefore,^ as fitti 
9A lh%y were pasted tip ; and there was an evident 
diqposltiiiA, on the part of the better class of dtiaens 
md the natioM guards, to discourage all counsels 
which tended to stimulate resistance to the desperate 
extremity therein recommended. 

Nevertheless, the state of the capital continued 
T«r)raIaiiniog, the Idwer cImc^ cfxhibiting altematdy^ 
tbesymptinfis of panic terror, of fury, and of despair. 
They demanded a^nts, of whieh a few were ^istribu* 
tdl h them ; and there is no doubt,- that had Napou 
iKnt arrived aoHmg them in theeiruggle, there wouUI 
hftr« beeii a dreadfiil battle, in wMch Paris, itf idl 
(((Ability, ^6iM have sharM the &te of Moscow. 
Bjttft wlien ihe eatm#)N^e eeased, when the flight of 
'oiseph, lind the eapitulfttion of the dty became 
piMkiy kfiM^^, this eonffiet of jarring passions died 
tf^ into gilence^and the impertui^bable and impas- 

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180 LIFE OF 

sive composure of the nstional guard maintained the 
absolute tranquillity of the metropolis. 

On the morning of the 31st, the Royalists were 
seen in groups in the Place Louis Quinze, the Gar- 
den of the Tuilleries, the Boulevards, aad other 
public places. They distributed the proclamations 
of the allies, and raised the long forgotten cry of 
Vive le Rai I At first, none save those engaged in 
the perilous experiment, durst echo back a signal so 
dangerous ; but by degrees the crowds increased, the 
leaders got on horseback, and distributed white cock- 
ades, lilies, and other emblems of loyalty, displaying 
banners, at the same time, made out of their own 
handkerchiefs. The ladies of their party came to 
their assistance. The Princess of Leon, Vicomp- 
tesse of Chateaubriand, Comptesse of Choiseuil, and 
other women of rank, joined the procession, distri- 
buting on all hands the emblems of their party, aad 
tearing their dress to make white cockades, when the 
regular stock was exhausted. The better class of the 
bourgeois began to catch the flame, and remembered 
iheixlold royalist opinions, and by whom they were 
defeated on the celebrated day of the Sections, when 
- Buonaparte laid the foundation of his fame in the 
discomfiture of the National Guard. Whole picquets 
began to adopt the white, instead of the three-colour- 
ed cockade ; yet the voices were far from unanimous, 
and, on many points, parties of difierent principles 

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met and skirmished together in the streets. But the 
tendency to discord was diverted, and the attention 
of the Parisians^ of all classes and opinions^ suddenly 
fixed upon the imposing and terrible spectade of the 
army of the allies, which now began to enter the 

The Sovereigns had previously received, at the 
* village of Pantin, the magistrates of Paris, and 
Alexander had expressed himself in language still 
more explicit than that of their proclamation. He 
made war, he said, on Napoleon alone; one who 
had been his friend, but relinquished that character 
to become his enemy, and inflict on his empire great 
evils. He was not^ however, come to retaliate those 
injuries, but to make a secure peace with any go- 
vernment which France might select for herself. 
" I am at peace," said the Emperor, " with France, 
tod at war with Napoleon alone.'* 

These gracious expressions were received with the 
more gratitude by the citizens of Paris, that they 
had been taught to consider the Russian Prince as a 
barbarous and vindictive enemy. The measure of 
restoring the Bourbons seemed now to be regarded 
by almost every one, not particularly connected with 
the dynasty of Napoleon, like a haven on the lee- 
ward, unexpectedly open to a tempest-tossed and en- 
dangered vessel. There was no loss of honour in 
adopting it, since the French received back their 

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182 LIFE OF 

own royal faioily — there was no compulsion, since 
they received them upon their own free choice. The; 
escaped from a great and im;ninent danger, as if it 
had been by a bridge of gold. 

An immense crowd filled the Boulevards, (a larj^ 
wide open promenade, which, under a variety of dis: 
tinctive names, forms a^ cixcmt roun4 the city,) in 
order to witness Ae. entrance of the aUie^ Spyerejlg^ 
and their army, whom, in the succession of foujc-a^d:- 
twenty hours, this mutable people were dl^pose^ t^ 
regard as friends ratheir tl^n enemi^,^*^^ di/^po^i)jm 
which ilicrea^d untS it amoimted tp entbusia^fn fi^ 
the persons of those princes, againsli whon^ a.blpp4j 
battle had been fought yesterday u^d^j:. the walls, of 
Paris, in evidence of which mortal strife, theris sti]}: 
remained blackening in the sun the u30LJ[)imed tlKNV 
sands who had fallen on both sides. Thei^e wa^^ ih 
this a trait of national character. A Fi^ehman ^br 
nuts with a good grace, and apparent or re|d com- 
plaisance, to that which he cannot help.;, a^ it^ ip 
not the least advitntage of his pbiloso^hya thai; it ^t 
titles, him afterwards t^ plead t|i9>t. hjy^^^aubw^ji 
flowed entirely ftom good-will, and not frpni coiv 
atraint. Many of those who^ on the ^e<;edi^ dafj^ 
w»e fcHTced to fly firosa.the heights which- di^eoA 
Paris,, thought themselves at lil^rty ne^t n^omii^ 
to maintain, that the. alMes had entered tlHt;papjjtil 
only, by then: con«^t mA penoisaions h^fiv^tb^ 
had joined in the plaudits which accompanied dieix. 

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arrivaL To Tiiidicate» therefore^' their aij from the 
dngsice of beingcnlserBet hf farce» «8 well as givik^ 
WBj tatbexeal entbuaasm which wm fiuddenly in- 
spired fajr the. exchange of the worst evils which a 
^cmqnered. people, have to dread for the promised 
bkpsfi^ of anhonouraUe peace aud intemnjl coA-^ 
omM^'th^ Baiasiana received tUe Emperor Ate^MUider 
and the. King. of. Prussia with such geiie!rai and uo- 
r^ittingi pbttidits, as might have accompanied their 
•trium^al'.entnmce into their own capitals. Even at 
^ir. first entrance within the barriers, we learn firom 
•Sir Cbarlea.Sl»#»it^a cfficiai dispatch, the crowd was. 
jdveadj? sd edednoiiSy as veil as the aedamatiOBs » 
gieat; tkafeitLwasidifficult tamovefbrward ;. birtbefinje 
jbfe,mdtuircltt h^ reaped the porte St Martin to . 
,Mm oa thj^ Bdnlerardi, theriK ita& a moral impotsi- 
]rftit^0f|Qroce(edi]i|^; dlPaiisseemed'to be assembled 
aM^coBc^ttatad.-iB'oDe. qpotf-^oiie epidnf^ evidendy 
jfsMalrjilSihQhr nioveinen^ They thronged aremMl 
ji|MrAi6lianftc^' witb the mist mianiaioia sfaeats^ of 

fmmi^iPfWUf^miih.^ iJoyalexdamotiiMis, ^'Vitie 
k Rai f-^Vive Louis XVIIL i^Vimmt 1m Bou¥^ 
bona r To such unexpected unanimity might be ap-i 
plied the words of Scripture, quoted by Clarendon 
on a similar occasion, — ^^ God had prepared the 
people, for the thing was done suddenly.'' The pro- 
cession lasted several hours, during which 50,00Q 

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184 LIFE OF 

chofien troops of the Silesian and Grand Army filed 
along the Boulevards in broad and deep coloinns, 
exhibiting a whole forest of bayonets, mingled with 
long trains of artillery, and preceded by numerous 
regiments of cavalry of every description. Nothing 
surprised those who witnessed this magnificent spec- 
tacle, more than the high state of good order and re- 
gular equipment in which the men and horses ap- 
peared. They seemed rather to resemble troops 
drawn from peaceful quarters to some grand or so- 
lemn festival, than regiments engaged during a long 
winter campaign in constant marches and counter- 
marches, as well as in a succession of the fiercest and 
most sanguinary conflicts, and who had fought a ge- 
neral action but the day before. After making the 
circuit of half of Paris by the interior Boulevards, 
the monarchs halted in the Champs Elysees, and the 
troops passed in review before them as they were dis- 
missed to their quarters in the city. The Cossacks of 
the guard established their bivouac in the Champs 
Elys^s themselves, which may be termed the Hyde 
Park of Paris, and which was thus converted into a 
Scythiaa encampment. 

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"Bean of tite Parisians, — Proceedings of Napoleon — He is 
infofmed of the dissolution of the Congress at Chatitton. — 
Operations of the French Cavalry in rear of the Allies.'-^ 
Capture of the Austrian Baron Weissemberg, — The Empe^ 
ror Francis is nearly surprised, — Napoleon hastens on to 
Paris, and reaches Troyes on the night of the 29<A March, 
'^Opinion of Macdonald as to the possibility of relieving 
Paris. — Napoleon leaves Troyes on the SOth, and meets 
Belliard, a few miles from Paris, in Jull retreat, — Con^ 
versation betwixt them. — He determines to proceed to Par 
riSf but is at length dissuaded — and dispatches Caulaincourt 
to the Metropolis, to receive terms from the Allied Sove- 
reigns. — He himself returns to Fontainbleau. 

Whbn the enthusiasm attending the entrance of 
the allies, which had converted a day of degradation 
into one of joy and festivity, began to subside, the 
perilous question occurred to those who found them- 
selves suddenly embarked in a new revolution, Where 
were Napoleon and his army, and what means did 
his active and enterprising genius possess of still re- 
establishing his affairs, and taking vengeance on his 

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186 ttin: OF 

revolted capital ? That terrible and evil spirit, w&cf: 
had so long haunted their very dreams, and who had 
been well termed the night-^mare of Europe, was not 
^yet conjured down, though for the present he exer- 
cised his ministry elsewhere. All trembled for the 
consequence of his suddenly returning in full foree^ 
combined either with the troops of Augereau, or with 
the garrisons withdrawn from the frontier fortresses*. 
But their fears were without foundation ; for, though 
he was not personally distant, his powers of inflicting 
vengeance were now limited.-<-^We proeeedtoc trace 
his progress after his movement eastward, frbtir the 
neighbourhood of Vitry to St Du^er^ which.had.per* 
nitted the union of the two allied asrixaet^ 

Here he was joined by Caulaincoi^, who baff to 
inform hiin of the dissolution of the Congress at^ Ctia^ 
tiHon, witk the addition, tlia^he had not received his 
instructions from Rheims, until the diplomatists had 
departed. Those subsequently dispatdiod. by C^aunt 
Frochot, he had not received at all. 

MeflflMRfailey NjfHikfiiiiV caiadi^ ecmmwm^. the 
psopbaed operafbions >i«'tbe xseto of- th^- aUi^* and 
made iiii8oaier&^ soBte^parabBsr 0^ conae^^e^e^ <^k^ 
wimitiBN[^o^v a».ihtj'^vtff099!i^ mfeai^ttimtii^ 
Jhren. WeimBaln3fg„¥(fat^:h8di long .becto^tbe <^bWK 
^iitijeroo}^afert]|6>OQ«B^ (^.]»0qdAni T^e^finfOMlr 

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Fr^ate^yrm Dfidy airpHscdin pemiit by the Evemfc. 
Ugfo tisQop^ 09 WM obliged to. fly m a cfrwi^^ a, 
B»iBiWi. eiirmge».9tle9id^ oAly by tvo domastics, 
£g^Ht'S«ri«}VPr Aiiibe fef» QMtiBoQi^ and&om thenoe he 
f^tl^M^ to JaijoQ. Nap^WoB. ^wed every dudli^ 
(ft ^priscmeo, W«Ms;i^heig, wd dnpilched him 
to the Emperor of ibuflbsa^ to 8QUck.oQoe mose his 
fr^^onmbie^ .ijotafawc^ The person of the pvesent 
Kiag olFi»iioe» (then Monsieuiv) ^voiddkave been 
ft yet; mxre.isQportaiit. capture, but .the forays of tlK 
li^^teaFaliydid sob penetrate so tfar> as to endanger 

On die24tl^ Marofa, Napeken baited at BosM- 
tent^to concentrafe hisfocctis, andgatAinteUigcHcl^. . 
HiB.Benained there also on the UBihy and employed 
Us'lime.m consulting his maps, and dictating ne^ 
inatnictions for CanUdncoiiet, bjf whioh iie ^eBt^fower- 
e^him tomake every cession. Buttfae hour of safety 
was past Upon the mpming of the 26tb) Napol«Hi> 
▼as roused by the inteUigenee, that the allies had. 
attested the rear of his army und^rMacdonald, near 
St DiasieT. He instantly hastened te the support 
of the Mareschal, ooncluding that his o^m scheme 
had 'been euccessfiil, and tbM'his retreat to the east-, 
ward had drawn after him the Grand Army of the- 
aUies. The allies showed a great mmiber of cavalry^ 
witlvflying guns, bat no infantry. N^^eon orderecl 

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188 LIFE OF 

an attack on them, in which the French were suc- 
cessful, the allies falling back after slight opposition. 
He learned from the prisonersi that he had been en- 
gaged, not with Schwartzenberg, but with Blucher's 
troops, ^his was strange intelligence. He had left 
Blucher threatening Meaux, and now he found his 
army on the verge of Lorraine. 

On the 27th, by pushing a reconnoitring party as 
far west as Vitry, Napoleon learned the real state of the 
case ; that both the allied armies had marched upon 
Paris ; and that the cavalry with which he had skir- 
mished, were 10,000 men under Winzengerode, left 
behind by the allies as a curtain to screen their mo- 
tions, and engage his attention. Every word in this 
news had a sting in it. To hasten after the allies, 
to surprise them, if possible, ere the cannon on 
Montmartre were yet silenced, was the most urgent 
thought that ever actuated the mind even of Napo- 
leon, so accustomed to high and desperate risks. 
But the direct route on Paris had been totally ex- 
hausted of provision, by the march and counter- 
march of such large armies. It was necessary to go 
round by Troyes, and, for that purpose, to retro- 
grade as far as Doulevent Here he rec^ved a small 
billet in cipher, from the Post-master-General, La 
Valette, the first official communication he had got 
from the capital during ten days. ^^ The partiians 

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of the Stranger,^ these were the contents, ** are ma- 
king heady seconded by secret intrigues. The pre- 
sence of Napoleon is indispensable, if he desires to 
prevent his capital from being delivered to the ene- 
my. There is not a moment to be lost.*" The march 
was precipitated accordingly. 

At the bridge of Doulancourt, on the banks of the 
Aube, the Emperor received dispatches, informing 
him that an assualt on Paris was hourly to be expect* 
ed. Napoleon dismissed his aide-de-camp, Dejean, to 
ride post to Paris, and spread the news of his speedy 
arrival. He gave him^wo bulletins, describing in ex- 
travagant colours a pretended victory -at Arcis, and 
the skirmish at St Dizier. He then advanced to 
Troyes, which he reached on that same night/(29th 
March,) the Imperial Guard marching fifteen leagues 
in one day. On the 30th, Mareschal Macdonald 
gave to Berthier the following sound and striking 
opinion : — " It is too late,'" he said, " to relieve Pa- 
ris ; at least by the route we follow. The distance is 
fifty leagues ; to be accomplished by forced marches, 
it will require at least four days ; and then in what 
condition for combat is the army like to arrive, for 
there are no depots or magazines, after leaving Bar- 
8ur-Seine. The allies being yesterday at Meaux, 
must have pushed their advanced guards up to the 
bamers by this time. There is no good reason to 

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190 Li^fe alP 

hope fiiat the i&ifM tiiipii of di6 Dukes «f Ti^tisb 
abd Ragasa C(Mld check ihem lodg eQOtfgh CO alltfnr 
lis to come up. Beside, ieit our tipp>r<$ilC$h> the idHift: 
Tdll not &il to defend the passage isf the Mai^« i 
ab then of opinion, that if Paris AUtifadfer fhi poww 
of the enemy, the Emperot ^hoUW <fif#e« his «ftf* 
on Sens, in ofder \o r^t^^M Upon Atl^f^imi 4dite 
oinr ibtcjes with Ms, fend, ifm Bft^lflg i?epe«ed tftrf 
ttbb^s, gite the enemy VkiX(S oh ^ehdsifeii fiMd. 1^ 
ProtidiMice his thrti d^Cri&iia tmtflWt huMltv ^i w» 
at teait die i^iifi h(*oui-, iiiiteid of fa^ftg df^pft^f 
ptoaged, iaken, ^nd *kughtei^ed hf CoSfecks."" N»- 
^bleon'$ anxiety fbr the fate of Ws capital' ffldfiK* 
^^iliit him to hearken to this advide'i th)^h i# 
tH^m^ the best caleulatfed to have placed hifti ini 
condition, either to make a compositioh i^di ^ 
itllies, or to carry on a formidable War in their *ear< 

From Troyes, Napoleon dispatched fd Pdfis at*-* 
oHier aide-de-camp, Geheral G^irat^n, WhoisilJiiaft^ 
haVe cfarried orders for defending the city tdihi^hi*^) 
and lit all rfsks,^— an accusation, ^iowtct^ lAicfk, 
eonsidering the maiss of uMmaginliBIe rtiisichief^ AiK 
fifuch an order mtst h*sre intolVed, h not 16 ht W- 
cdiYed without more prddf than ^^Hire bteft iW*'**^ 
' ubtaiii. 

dtt tlife 30tlf Mawjh, irjip6l6bn im Tidf&i, ««, 
%i(ib^ ih6^ H&id ^utlrefy iihoccttjeticSci; I^ (tie d^> 

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thnw hJUBadf iatoa^MBi-^Mnage, mA tmvelkdMi 
at Ml speed before his army, with a rcvy dd^t a«^ 
t^dancc* Hariiig m this way isached ViUeneuye 
VArchiveqpiSi he tocke to FoBtainbieaa im horse- 
twciCf and though it wastiieti night, took a carriage 
{» Pans, Bertfaier and Caalaincotirt aceomf anying 
Uila. On' reaching an Mi, called La C<iiir de France^ 
tf a few miles distance from Paris, he at tongth Met 
am^eprodf of bis misfortuiie in the person of Geifie^ 
iiaSe^iaid^wkhhisasMvky. The fatal idtellig^n(» 
was oenuftniiddiktedL 

Leaping' firfom his carriage. Napoleon turned baek 
with Bd&ard, eSLdnifaiing,*^*^ What means this ? 
Why here with youi'caValry, Belliard P And wh^iPa 
ue Ae enemy ? "— *< At the gates bf Paris/'—" And 
tib army P**-^*^ It is following ma'V— <« Where »e 
ts^y wife and son ?''*-**where Marmont P-— where Moif* 
imT'^^^ The Empress set ool fcft Ranrixniillet, and 
ib^nce fer Orleans. The Mareschals are busy com« 
plettng' their arnmgements at Faris.^ He then gare 
m account of tl» battle; and Napoleon instantly 
QldiMred bis carriage for Paris. TBey had already 
piocSeedied anile imd a half om flie road. The i^s^& 
conversation proceeded, and we give it as preserved, 
because it marks the character of the principal per- 
-senage, and the tone of his feeHng, much better than 
Etn be <;ollected from his expressions upon more 

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192 LIFK OF 

fomal occasions, and whgsn he had in view some {mv- 
ticular purpose.* 

General Belliard reminded him there were no long- 
er any troops in Paris. ^^ It matters not,^^ said Na- 
poleon ; ^* T will find the national guard tlia!e. 
The army will join me to-morrow, or the day after, 
and I will put things on a proper footing.''*-*-*^ But 
I must repeat to your Majesty, you cannot go to 
Paris. The national guard, in virtue of the trea- 
ty, mount guard at the barriers, and though the 
allies are not to enter till seven o^clock in the morn- 
ing, it is possible they may have found their way to 
the outposts, and that your Majesty may find Rus- 
nim or Prussian parties at the gates, or on the 
Boulevards.'" — ^^ It is all one— I am determined to 
go there — My carriage ! — Follow me with your ca- 
valry.''—" But, Sire, your Majesty will expose P»^ 
ris to the risk of stcHrm or pillage. More than 
20,000 men are in possession of the heights-^for 
myself, I have left the city in consequence of a con* 
vcntjon, and cannot therefore return.'* — *^ What is 
that convention ? who has concluded it i^ — " I can- 
not tell, Sire ; I only know from the Duke of Tro-> 

* It is taken from a work which has remarkable tntoei of au^ 
thenticity, General Koch's Memoires, pour servir a THistoire de la 
Gampagne de 1814. See also, Memoirs of the Operations of the 
Allied Armies, already quoted. 

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^90 that sueli exists^ and that I must march to Fon-' 
tMnMeau."— " What is Joseph about ? — Where is 
the Minister at War P*^— *< I do not know -, we have 
received orders from neither of them during lite' 
ifhole day. Eadi Maresdial acted on his own re- 
sponsibility. They have not been seen to-ddy with 
the army— At least not with the Duke of Treviso'a 
dWps-''— " Come, we must to Paris — nothing goes 
right when I am absettt-H-they do nothing but make 

Berthier and Cadaincourt joined in trying to di- 
rert the Emperor from his purpose. He never 
ceased demanding his carriage. Caulaincoiurt an- 
nounced it, but it did not come up. Napoleon Strode 
on ^h hurried and unequal steps, aisking repeated 
qaestions concerning what had been already explain- 
cd.* " You should have held out longer,^ he said, 
'* and tried to wait for the arrival of the army. You 
should have raised' Paris, which cannot sutely like 
the elUrance of the Rusisians. You should have put 
in motion the national guard, whose disposition is 
good, and intrusted to them the defence of the for- 
tifications which the minister has caused to be erect- 
ed, and which are well ftrrnished with artillery. 
Surely the citizens could have defended these, while 
the troops of the line fought upon the heights and in 
flie plain ? — I repeat to you. Sire, that it was im- 

VOL. viii. N 

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194 Uf^ OF 

poMiUe. The army of 1^,000 fx 18,000 men h«f 
resisted one of 100,000 for four houni, expecting 
your arrival. There was, a report of it in the city,- 
which, spread ^ the troops. They redoubled th^ 
e|;ertio^8. The national guard has behaved extreme*, 
ly well, both as sharp-shooters and in defence of the 
wretched redoubts which protected the barriers,^--? 
*^ It is astonishing. How many cavalry had you F"^— - 
<^ Eighteen hundred hQ^^, Sire, including the bri-* 
gadeof Dautencour."-^^^ Montmartre, well fortified 
and defended by heavy caiinon, should have beenim* 
pregnable.'' — "Luckily, Sire, the en^ny w&eof. 
your opinion, and approached the heights with mUi^ 
caution. But there was no occasion, we had not above 
seven six pounders l"—<^^ What can they have made 
of my artillery f I ought to have had mwe than two 
hundred guns, imd ammunition tp serve them f<xfk 
month.""— ^'<The truth is. Sire, th4t we h^ only field.- 
artillery, and at two o'clock we were obliged to alack*, 
en our fire for wa^t of §mmqnition.^-r-" Go, go — J. 
see every one h^s lost their senses^ This comes of em«, 
ploying people who hav^ neither comn[ion sense ner 
energy. Well ! Joseph imagines himself capable oi 
conducting an army; and Clarke, a mere piece of 
routine, gives himself the airs of a great minister ; 
. Vut the one is no better than a . ■ ' ■ , and the other 
^ — — *,— , or 1^ traitor, for I begin to believe 
what Savary said of him."r- The conversation going 

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oo*Hi ihm mtfuiec, tliey had adTanced a mile far^ 
ksm the^ Cour de Fmce, when they met a body o£ 
is&ntzy under GeiK^ral Gorial. Napokon yaqfrneA 
after the Duke" of Tf^vickh to whose corps d^Mrmee 
they belonged, and was informed he was still at Pa* 

It was then> that« on the pressing remonstrances 
of his officen^ who saw that in going on to Paris 
he was only mshing on death or captivity, Napo- 
haa at length turned back ; and having abandon* 
ed the strong inflexiUe impulse which would have 
carried him thither at all adventures, he seems to 
have considered his fate as decided, or at least to 
have relaxed considerably in the original vehemence 
which he opposed to adversity* 

He returned to the Cour de France, and gave or- 
derB for disposing the forces, as they should come 
up> on the heights of Longjumeitu, behind the little 
river, of Essonne* Desirous, at the same time, of 
renewing the negotiation for peace, which, on suc^ 
ceases of an ephemeral description, he had broken 
oSat Chatillon, Napoleon dispatched Caulaincourt 
to Paris, no longer to negotiate, but to receive and 
submit to such terms as the allied Sovereigns might 
be inclined to impose upon him. He returned to 
Fontainebleau the same night. He did not take pos- 
session c^ any of the rooms of state, but chose a pri« 

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LiVft 09 

nM and miirt tcdnd «p«»tidetit. Amwg tht iMtfjr 
itrfltigc trflHiSdicM trhidi h*d taken |dace tit that 
WMf9|fate and iiaiient pidae^^ tto faaHs #tffe |i6w t^ 
\ oM die mMt tttnamBnary. 

. > I 

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Thi JUied Sovereigns isnie a ProelanuUum thai th^ ynttn^ 
$reatwMp9kmiptirte.-^A PMnrianai Gotemmektunau^ 
edbffihe C09U0rv0ti9eS€tki^wi0famdeef90Mfi^^ 
itf Napolecn, — This decree is sanctioned by d^ciaratwm 
frum aM the PUbiid Bodies in Paris.-^ The legcdity ofmeU 
proeeedkig* disasu$ed,'^Fuiing$ towards Mof^Xstm^ ^ Ai 
liower dosses, and rf the MUit^.'^Ofi^ 4A 4fif^ ^n^ 
naparte issues a document^ abdicating the throne of France^ 
-^His subsequent agitation, and wish tbttmtiniU Ae iear.^ 

9re ottecprmng hf wm wbift wst k«d uku from 
him, c)r Ml^ail t)^«it (^aiaUng 8udb ft petcae M d^ 
leave bim ftt 4lie heid of the Ftenck gutmmtm^ 
politkcl eirentft wece tildog plftM lE Parifi wkkk 
pcttnted dir^ctiy ftt the orertbiow of Ut power. 

Hid Kreat miUlary takfit^ t^golker witk hii mf> 
treme iiifl^xilHlUy of temper, bad fiiftilj JaprMadI 
the alli^ aaimarclia with tbe b^f; ihikt no laititiff 
peace ooolfl be naide^ ktH EiuD|)e awhile hft^HjOTwnmt a^ 
the head of thi FiwA lilfte. Eares^ ^codoaeabit 

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which he had seemed willing to make at ^flferent 
times, had been vrrung from him by increasing diffi- 
culties, and was yielded with such extreme reluc- 
tance, as to infer the strongest suspicion that they 
Would all be again resumed should the league of the 
"allies be dissolved, or their means of opposii^ his 
{mtposes become weaker. When, therefore^ Caulain- 
court came to Pai^s on the part of his master, with 
powet to subscribe to all and each of the demands 
ipade by the allies, he was not indeed explicitly xe- 
taed audience ; but, before he was admitted to a ccm- 
ference with the Emperor Alexander^ to whom liis 
mmpn was addressed^ the Soveteqpus had ^onie un- 
der engagements which precluded them altogether 
from treating with Napoleoii. 

When the Emperor rf Russia halted, after Ac 
pn^ess of the allied Sovereigns through the city, it 
'waa at the hotel <rf TaBeyrand. He was -scaredy 'ar- 
Jjwd there: ere the jtfiiidpal-toyaliiBts, and ihose -^^ 
had acted with th«n, waited on him to cra¥ean*iii- 
4M&ee. Besides the Emperor Alexander, th^ Kingtyf 
Frusna^ and Prinoe Schwarizenberg, we** peeami 
General Poaaio di B6rgo> Ncfei^lrode, Ltcbten- 
stein, Uie Duke DaU)^g, Baron Ldui^j th^ AMb^^e 
Keadt, ^aad pthcats;- Thteo "pbitrts *r«re £scimed. 
i;. The pos^bOity of a p^e ^di Nap6leon, upon 
sdfficieht giWMrtees. IL The plan of a regency, 
IIL The restoration of the fiourbonSi 

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The first proposition Beetned inadmisBible. The 
second was carefiilly considered. It wasparticnlaily 
urged that the French were indifferent to the cause 
of the Bourbons — that the allied monarchs would ob-* 
serve no mark of recollection of them exhibited by the 
people of France-i-«nd that the army seemed pard« 
cularly averse to them. The united testimony of the 
l^ench gelitlemen present was offered to repel these 
doubts ; and it was at length agreed, that the third 
]propositiony-^the restoration of the ancient family, 
itnd the andient limits, — should be the terms adopted 
for the settlement of France. A proclamation was 
immediately dispensed, by which the Sovereigns made 
known their determination not to treat with Buona- 
]parte or any of his family. 

But more formal evidence, in the shapd of legal 
procedure, was necessaty to establish the desire of the 
Freneh people to coincide in the proposed change 
of government. The public body which ought na- 
tondly to have t^ken the lead on such an iinportant 
aflkir, was the Legislative Assembly, in whom Na« 
poliebh's constitution vested some ostensible .right 
of interference when the state was in danger ; but 
so'lkr had the Emperor been from recognising such 
a power in practice, that the instant when the As« 
sembly assumed the right of remonstrating with 
him, -though in the most respectful terms, he sus* 
pended their ftmction8> and spumed them from 

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f]i*foot8t«ol of his throne, iufonaing thorn* that not 
they, but Hb, was tho representatiTe of the people, 
ifioiii whom there hiy bo appeal, and beside whom 
jpio,b0dy in the state possessed power and efficacy^ 
.Tliia l^pidatirre couneil, therefore, being dispersed 
mi prorofpied^ could not take the initiative upon the 
pieaent occasion^ 

The searching genius of Talleyrand sought an ot> 
gaorof public opinion where few would have looked for 
it^^HM the Conservative Senate, namely, whose mem^ 
bera had beenso long the tools of Buonaparte's wildest 
pngects, and the echoes of hi* most despotic decree^ 
fHthat very body^ of which he himself said^ widi eqf^al 
bitteiaess and tnithj^ that they were more «ager to 
yield up national rights than he had been to demand 
l|ie iunrender, aod that a ingn jGrom him had aluays 
been an order forthe Senate, who hastened unif<urmly 
to anticipate and exceed hiai demands.* Yet when^ 
pn the summons of Talleyrand,^ who knew well witli 
whom he* was dealing, this Senate was convoked^ in 
a meeting attended by sijLty-six of their mimbec, 
farming o nuyprity of the body^ thqr at once, and 
without hesiUitiim, named a Provisinnal GovemmeBt, 
oonsistiBg of Talleyrand, BournoDviU% Jaucourl;, 
PalbGig,^4Uid the Abbe de Montesqiuieu ; men re^ 
mnmendedby talents and moderation, and whose 
jLameSyc known^ in the Revdutioni might, atthe same 
tima, be « gnaxantee to those who dreaded' a renova* 

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iion oS'th^ old desfotic fovenunent with the restont-* 
tioii of the ancient race of kings. 

On the 2d and 3d of April, the axe was laid to 
^ veotg. A decree of the Senate sent forth the fol- 
kiwiBg statement : — let, That Napoleon, aft^ go- 
veming: for some time i^ith prudence and wisdom, 
had violated the constitation, by raising taxes in m^ 
arbitrary and lawless mann^, contrary to 4he tengr 
of hia oath.'— '2d,. That he had a^urne4 withoot 
necessity the Legislative Body, and . suppressed a 
tefort of that assembly, besides disowning its r^^ 
to represent the people*— -3d, That he bad publish- 
ed several onconftitutional decrees, particularly those 
of 5th March last, by which he endeafcmred to ren^ 
4er national a war, in which his own ambitioa alone 
Yum interested, — ith, That he bad violated the eon- 
stitutiim by his decrees respecting state prismis.--A 
$thy That he had abolished the responsibility of mi- 
sisters^ confounded toj^ther the cfifierent powers of 
the states and destroyed the independence of judicial 
authoiities^ — €th. That the liberty of the pf ess, con« 
stilutiag 4xae of the ri^ts of the nation, bad been muU 
fbrmly sukgeobed to the arbitrary censure «xf his po. 
Uce ; while,' at the same time, he himself had made 
use of the same engine to fill the public ear wilihinr 
vented fictions, fiilse maxims, doctrines favomrable to 
d|Mpolisn> and insults upon for^gn goyeraments — 
7th, Thsct be bad caused acts and reports^ adopted 

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by the Senate, to be alter^ by bis own stttbcrrity/ 
before publication.-^^b. That instead of reigning', 
acoording to his oath, for the honour, happiness^, and 
glory of the French nation, he had put the finiiAing 
.stroke to the di^ltresses of the country, by a refusal 
to treat on honourable coiiiditions.^'the abuse 
which he had made of the means intrusted to htm, 
in nteft and indney^by abtodoning the wounded, 
without dressing or sui^enance — and by pursuing 
meastdtes, of which the conBequence» hare been the 
ruin of towns, the depopulation of l^e country, fin 
mine and pestilence. From dl these inductive causes^ 
the Senate, considering that Ae Imperial govern-^ 
meUt^ established' by the decree of 28di Floreal, in 
the year XII., had ceased to exist, and that the ma-< 
nifest desire of all Frenchmen was to obtain an or- 
der of things, of which the first result should be peace 
and concord amiMfg the great members of the Euhk 
peim family : Therefore, the Senate declared ainl 
decreed, li^, That Napoleon Buonaparte had for- 
feited the throne, and the right of inheritance esta^ 
bUiihed in bis family.— 2d, That the people «id 
army of France were disengaged and freed from the 
oath of fidelity, which they had taken to Napcdeon 
and hi6 cotlstitulidu« 

About eighty membeifs of the Legislative Body^ 
at the summons of the Provisional Government, as- 
scitnbled on the 3d April, and formally adhered to 

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Ae idbd¥e Decree of ForfiHtore. The consequenoei 
of tbese bold H^itsures showed, either that Nape- 
leon httd in reidity nerer had more than il slight 
hold on the aifections of the people of France, oj^ 
fhst the interest they took in his fortunes had been 
ki a greAt degree destroyed by the feats and pas-^ 
ttons exeited by the immediate crisis. Even befer^ 
the^ Senate could deduce its decree into tij/rth, tfan 
Council-General of die Depaftment of llie Seine 
bad renounced Napoleon's authority, and imputed 
to imnidotie the present disastrous state of the co«m* 
try. The decree of the Senate was follow^ if 
deckmtions from all the puMie bodies in and aroimd 
Paris, thut they adhered to the Provisional GdVerU*. 
menty and acquiesced in the Decree <>f Forftitmt« 
NunerouB individuals, %fao* hiid been favoured and 
eiriehed by Buonaparte^ Were among the first to 
join the tide when it set agidnst him. But it had 
been idways his policy to acquire adherents, by ad* 
dressing himself ra'riber to men^s interclstir than to their 
prindplea ; «nd many of his friends so gained^ na^ . 
turaliy became examples of the politic obserVtftldki,' 
^ thut if a prince places menin wealthy circumstancei, 
the first thing diey think of, in danger, is how to pre- 
serve the advantages they have obtained, without 
legard to his* fate to whom they owe them.*^ 
< ^ We do not believe that it occurred to any person 
wfatte tbeae ev^its were passing, to question either 

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SO^ iTFjfe OP 

Ibe fimnality or the jofitico^ of the doom df fiwAttw^ 
against Ni^cdeon ; but Time has ctlUtA out nfanjr 
author^, who« gaiood bf t1|e briUiaiicy of Nftpolee«V 
reputation, and «OiB€ of tbein houdd to him by UH^ 
gcatitode or friendship, ha^e impiq;i>ed, more Dr jbia 
dfoectly^ the form^ty q( tbe Scfaate's proisodnrai 9^ 
woHaBthejuatioeof AdbracBMic^. W^therefiMtf,^ 
fcd it our duty to bestow some cotM^ttkim npim 
iU» reml^kable event in hoik fcixM of yke^. 

The ol^eetioB prc^Meed i^aiQet tbe IqjaUty of i^ 
Senato'a aetii^ as the origin of the peopIe,i» pfomimki 
aiag the doom of fi^rfS^orOf rests 19011 (he idc»»tiMl 
Ae right of diethroaing the aover^go, who ahttt h* 
guilty of i^^Sfion b^ond enduranee, cod ooty bl 
^xereisad in a peeulidra^d folrmal mi»mfir» or^ at 
ear law-phraae goes, <^ iuocordiD^ to the staWt 
made and provided m that ease*'' This seems lo 
take a nanow yieir of the euj^eel. The righ^ of no- 
dressing themseivefr imdar mdn cireumstmoes^ doesf 
not hel<»ig to, and k not limieA by» M»f peculiar 
forms of civil go^entment. Jt i» a^ rt^ whidi be* 
longs t^ human na^i^ns und^ att qretemd whalr 
soever. It oxiatB in every goveifniiievl undje^r ihe 
^m, from that o£ thje Dey of Algiers ^ A» most 
free republic that ev^ was .c)o«stiwted. The«^ m» 
indeed, much greater lat«lude for the ,&&tcim o( 
i|rbitrary authority, in j^ome gsfv^mm^tls .^h«aa. in 
Qthecs. An Emperor rfMereoe^iai^ywiil^impi^*^ 
ty, bathe his hands to the elbows in the blood oi 

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hksiiljeetB elted by his own bftnd ; but even in ihit 
Ae-inost absolute of dei^^iBHis, there are peeuliar 
Bfiitto wiiidi cannot be passed by the sovereign with* 
out ^e es^(i»se of the natitaral right of resistance on' 
the part of his sutjects^ alAeugh their Bystem of go- 
▼emmrat be as arbitrary as words can dedare it to 
be, knA the Emperor is frequently dethroned and 
slain by his own guards. 

In limited gevemments^ on the other hand, like 
that of Great Britain, the law imposes bounds, be- 
f6feA wfaleh the royal authority shall not pass ; but it 
mdces no provision for what shall take place, should 
a monarch, as in the case of James II., transgress 
th^ social compact. The constituiion averts its eyes 
ftmn contemplating such an event — ^indeed it W 
pronounced impossible ; and when the emergency 
did arrive, and its extrication became a matter of in- 
dfeipekisable necessity, it was met and dealt with as a 
concurrence of circumstances which hnd not hap- 
pened bieft>Te, and ought never to be regarded as be- 
ing posatble to occur agait^. Tlie foreigner who pe- 
hrs^s bur constitution for the forms of procedure com- 
jsetent in such an event as the Revolution, might as 
well look in a turnpike act for directions how to pro- 
ceed in a case resembling that of Phaeton. 

If the mode of ishaking off an oppressive yoke, by 
declaring tlie monarchy abdicated or forfeited, be not 
a fixed form in a regular government, but left to be 
provided for by a convention or otherwise, as a case so 

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^abunitous and •oflHonmkNttshpuU Hitmmd^ fkt kitf 
was it to be siqq^ed that a constitutaon li^? tkal «C 
France, which Buonapirt^ had atudioitdy ^Vtiir^ 
of every powar and mf^aQS of chedd^g the eieciu 
tim, should contain a iregular fprm ^ prpoess lor 
4eclaring the c^own forfeited* He bad l^eea |h cai^ 
fyl as despot could, to leave np bar in exktenee be-* 
{cfre which the public might anaign him ; hil w^ 
i^ be oontendfdy that the pobUc had therefore foist- 
ed its natural right of acqifflng and of obtaining re^ 
4resaP If he hfid rendered the Senate the tanae 
drudges which we have d^8cribed> and prorc^ued the 
{jogislative Body by an arbitary coup d^etat, was he 
therefore to escape the penalty of his misgovern- 
^nt ? On the contrary, the nation of France, like 
Great Britain at the time of the Revcdujtion 1688, 
was to proceed as it best could in taking care, iVe 
quid detrimenti respuhlica capiat* The Senate waa 
not, perhaps, the best organ for expressing, public 
opinion, but it was the only (me Napoleon had left 
within reach, and therefore it was seized upon and 
^oade use of. Thi^t it was composed of mep whq 
had so long gone on with Napoleon^s interest, and 
now were able to keep up in course with him no 
longer, made hi^ misrule even yet more glaring, and 
the necessity of the case more evident- 

It is of far more impcMrtance to be enabled to form 
«n accurate judgment respecting the Justice of th^ 
i^pntence of forfeiture pronounced against this emir 

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mentmani than upon ils mere finmumty. Thai we 
may examine this question vith the impairtiality it 
deserves, we must look not only divested of 
our feelings as Britons, h\\^ as unconnected with 
the partizans either of the Bourbons or of Buo« 
nsparte. With these last there could be no iroom; 
either for inquiry or conviction. The Royalist must 
have been convinced that Napoleon deserved, not 
4eprivation only, but death ^so, for usurping the 
throne of his nghtfi^ sovereign -, and the Buonapar- 
dst on the other ^and, would hold it cowardly trea^ 
sfok to. desert the valiant Emperor, w}io had raised 
France to such a state of splendour by bis victories, 
ijAore especially to forsake hiuai in the instant when 
Fortune was looking black upon his cause. There 
oQuld be no argument between these ^lep, save with 
tjbeir good swords in a fai^ field. 

But such decided sentiments were not; entertain- 
ed upon the part of the gjreat bplk of the Freitdi 
nation. A large number of the middle classes, in 
particu^r, remembering the iSrst terrors of the Be* 
volution, h^ showed their willingness to submit to 
the yoke which gradually assumed a despotic cha^ 
racter rather than, by a renewed struggle for their 
liberties, to run the risk of reviving the days of Ter- 
ror and Proscription. It is in the person of sudi an 
individual, desirous of the htonour and advantage of 
bis countiy, and anxious at tlie same time for the 
jnrotection of hi$ own family apd property, that we 

' r . 3 

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now endeavour to consider thequesdoii of Napoleon^s- 

The mind of such a person would naturallj rerert 
to the period when Buonaparte, just returned from 
Egypty appeared on the stage like a deity descend- 
ing to unloose a perplexing knot, which no human 
ingenuity could eitricate. Our cidzen would pro- 
bably admit that Napoleon used the sword a little too^ 
freely in aerering the intricacies iji the n<x)se ; or, in 
plain words, that the cashiering the Council of Fire 
Hundi^, at the head of his grenadiers, was an awk- 
ward mode of ascending to power in a country which 
still called itself free. This feeling, however, would 
be greatly overbdanced by recollecting the use which 
was made of the power thus acquired ; the subjuga- 
tion, to wit, of foreign enemies, the extinction of civil 
dissentions, the protection of property, and, for a 
time, of personal liberty also. Napoleon's having de- 
bated France from the condition of a divided and 
depiessed t^ountry, in the immediate apprehension of 
invaaioii, into that of arbitress of Europe, would at 
once justify committing the chief authority to sudi 
able hands, and excuse the means he had used for at- 
taining it ; especially in times when the violent and 
successive changes under which they had l<Mig suf- 
fered, had made the nation insensible to irr^ulari- 
ties like those attached to the revolution of the 18th 
Brumaire. Neither would our citizens probably be 

much diocked at Napoleon's assuming the crown.* 


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Uoniurcby wa^tbeancieiitgoTenimentof Eranceyaad 
Mijc^esnvecfaai^Qs badaerVed todhowthattbejrc^BM 
ii9t £xt 6a angr otbcrform tif «oitsdtAtion» kboar Jmw 
fbey MToiiH^ wjiicb was endowed witbttke 8aJDi€fden 
p^oKpfttvaaniamei The- Bombonsluid, indeed, tbe 
^mk by;4r^h. t;Q JwniBt fjbat tkrone, im^n it to >be 
ag»>» ejre«led fitijt Ib^ weieia exile, Mpuraittd 1^ 
ci^rii .wito, party ^eejiidkesvtke mk of risaofciaii, and 
a thaimiid'0^er:di£citltieay wbifib acbraed'nitidiiBr 
tijQ9e.^tt9dlotely<H|atti'moiiittable. JBosanaparle j$m 
staaidiDg under the canopy^lie. grflti^ttd^^bex^§al 
^f^p^tp m-ihlM bandr hk aaBuinkig dhe jroykl' «eal 
psipfi^d aJiii^tas a,iiia^erx)£tM>iirse. ^ 

Ql^' adpposed Pamiait has nesrt taieviewka cimrae 
otf^f^cSsoxify briiiiatteyias t^ baffler critiokni^«nt 
th^tm Xf^on Conte^ie^laU the iiiidei!tiikii)g9ja^ 
Empeiror 8^m :to n^e aboYerteaclviotber in^wonder, 
ea«h being a «tQp toiRavd3 the ^alh{ileli#iiioC that 
stiipca^pjis pyi;9^d,'(9fwbii>b the)grada*ioiia^iv»ret 
ta:t»ei fpTipetd 1^! eimiiiimedipxdyiiicef, ustil -tb^ 
^ot^tStMA «ilfitei»a<>soiia !isle iof ifirilaip.aboiild^ 
addled t&^0it^h%9 j^bejpjfey ^n;tbe top bC.wbiab mbooi 
^^tJneifd^ to «Mind^be armed feim of JSTapoleoB^tram* 
E^jtjkJi^ 1«cmld/UQdf r bis foot. tThis i«- the ooblei 
w^k I'Plhi^k l&rtmoe and her moawdh' w^^ein^tbe^tet 
ofiSM^bi^^tO^. It^e^ltticeethetanorifice'ofclindraior 
xeto^iiseftttb.fiU khtit jranks » thoy go wher^^iHoioirF 

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210 LiP^ ^*' 

cMm and Victory awaits them. I'faese tidies, how- 
ever, are overclouded ; there come tidings that the 
stone heaved hy such portentous exertions so high le^ 
the hilly has at length recoiled on him who laboured 
to give it a co\irse contrary to nature. It is then 
that the real quality of the fetters, hitherto gilded 
over by success, begins to be felt^ and the ironentexs 
into the soul. The parent must not weep aloud for 
the child— -the Emperor required his service ;-«4he 
patriot must not speak a word on public affairs— the 
dungeon waits for him. 

. While news of fresh -disasters.from Spain andJkfas- 
cow weiie ^very day arriving, what comfort could n 
citizen of France find in adverting to past victories ? 
These had brought on France the hatred of Europe, 
the tears of families, the ruin of fdrtunelB, general in- 
Tasion, and welUnigh national bankruptcy. Every 
year had the children of France updergooe decima* 
tion— taxes to the amount of fifteen hundred mHlioniB 
of francs yearly, had succeeded to the four hundred 
millions imposed under the reign of the Bourbons—- 
the few remaining ships of France rotted in her har- 
bours-^ef bravest children were slaugfateredon their 
native soil— a civil war was on the point of breaking 
otttip-«4>ne half of France was overrun by the foreign 
enemy. Was this most melancholy state of the coun* 
try brought about in defending strongly^ but unfor- 
tunately, any of the rights of France? ^o-«-she might 

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liave enjoyed her triumphs in the niost profoand 
peace. Two wars with Spain and Rassia, which gai^e 
fire to thisdlreadfiil tnunof calamities, were wagedfor 
no national or reasonable object, bot merely becftaae 
one half of £iirope could not satisfy the ambition of 
^neman. Again,ourcitizen inquires; whether^'having 
committed the dreadful error of commenciiig these 
wars, the Emperor has endeavoured to make peace 
with the parties injured ? He is answered, that re- 
peated terms of peace have been oflered to'Napo- 
feoUyUpon condition of ceding his conquests, but that 
he had preferred hazarding thekingdoim of France^ 
f yielding up that which he termed his ghry, a 
term which he successively conferred on whatever 
pclssession he-was required to surrender; that «ven 
at Ohaiitleiif,* many days passed when he might 
have redeemed himself by ccmsenting that fraiioe 
should be reduced within the limits which she en« 
joyed -ui^der the Bourbons.; but that the proposal, 
when half admitted, had been retracted hf him in 
consequence 6f some transient success; and finally, 
that in consequence of this intractabililyaiid^bstip. 
Bacy« the allied sovereigns bad soioitoly declaved- 
they would not enter into treaty with him, or those 
#ho acted with' him. Our citizen would naturally 
look about for some means of escaping the impend- 
ing danger, and would be informed that the peace 
which the allied princes refused to Buondparte, they 

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tic LIFS OF 

||iittlBt)iflbivM&' taw Jfiig«:Ma»m Jyiifl^ auto Ik^ 
iafiuMdidvit JKiifialMo ^ldilJiejl499»ii9li|>T<;^ 

<A^ <Maaal<» ^ /^iifc<,A» . n^m mlirt fa |,ft y .hoimd rlD iTIliliMfft 

fAaialjr talnmiojc d^chid f^^ij^bt .torrid km^}^ 
iiienlJuidr^tfkkeAjAbMldf ti^ir ^y^^^^l/^f^ffs^^tm 

Itruggle^ may be supposed to have acted. 

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)rAl»OL£Oir BUOWilPARTt:. Illll^ 

^ !SimIoirarf ai tftthdr.tlieiloifieatt ri»u.fa.iA9ki* 
tanU^.wBhi mt. ftbeeMhte to ^ai acimb wrpmiim lft 

kbtti. of the JUipiUic» dE vrimk lie bkbeteAialft 
AMcd thk heir, . fli^>polibe had nda^rionAjSiiQWik 
ferisleilxxDiiexiiiia iamitigstitiMiat^ •itdutt iC B ia ^ d in p^ 
a»dr In App ^ ad cA ed m Ihe^gvx^ieniitete^tMiciua^ 
psiJeadBr^^ Mwies luidiLohiingfsdcammi^ 
thtit i^miuC conKIJolft) mtfcoiK tjiehi fedttq^thwr, 
fliHiafHiii imiah. alleii^d^ The. CRoiy df EnmcebiMi 
tafUiomiafa mfitriiiagrft iiiwIliclMVMd to tiwtRi^^ 
Man had been ; and their quaafciiaft i>£9e«&p^dii|r^ 
MiflfozeiBployed^ aatb^ fim}aentlf: <vm% jlfwii f he 
piMic w^riciv "vvte ^ tecb W0falKnge;fiir IttboiAjiiaaA 

ttte •pcD£ ctobblor^ ivji»'etelaftiii^4«;^f Sin^. JU^ 
mtbedr ihai:icav«isttet)d9ibltfiffafc>e&a8:ake;fo^ 
IM:!'' B«l]edn^>iL4iMMi4»an^:wllioltt tr^ 
iha fiteoritft. <l£ Napolot^W, wms as ndiaifttiag? juld 
eiMiWinii«.t0.<ibe!kihaMti^r0fQf.«be aidMHbiiMil&a 
ajjMohfi&^ficepaUbsftnmMlrai; ftriiMiw^bdficniilpli^ 
of:tL«alttli,lkhetpQ«i! haffe-fi^lahasAas iMBpte.M^ 
feeiMder Bei^bbcnnk 12h»mid.dfvtliei)¥tMii9v;iCf 
MbaSenifettliy (faar^tanw TJmo Very flamlty.fitaMia 
liiett teneadihx'taBKatiifeijfMdi'lie. ofaiidini) ioB 5irI«vpL 
thejp weia feneamiaijr tfaaCiaiiflmpiiti^tiieffitttii: 
oihaiiiiia InuW/iiaiitsdiwkh^ iumfl fnoMulil:!^ JJiMt 

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21^ LfFC OF 

sent Giicumstances, the hatred to foFeignenr, proper 
to persoBs of their class, came to aid their admiratiim 
of Buonaparte. Ib a battle^ they had somethiog to 
gain aifd nothing to lose, saving their lives, of which 
their national gallantry induced theni to^take small 
heecL Had Napoleon been in Paris, he might have 
made ii^uch use of this force. But in his absence, the 
weight of property, prudently directed, natmnlly 
bore down the ebullitions of those who had ooly^ 
brute strength to throw iata the balance, and tfae 
overwhelming force of the allied arnxy kept the 
f vbnrbs in snbjection* 

The disposition of the military was a question of 
deep importance. Accustomed to follpw-Napol^ 
through every climate, and every description of dyi* 
ger, unquestionably ^ir attachment to his pe^^on 
was of the most devoted and enthusiastic kind* But 
this can only be said, in general of the n^mentai 
officers, and the soldiers. The mareschals, andmai^ 
rf the generals, were tired of this losing war. These, 
with msmy alsaof the inferior officers, and even of tbe 
soldiers, began to consider the interest of their genfir 
xttl, and that of France, aa having becom^e sepax»ted 
from each other. It was from ^aris that the chan^ 
.gas had emanated by which the army waagovcsEned 
during every revoltttiooary crisis; and they w«:e 
noMf required to engage in an undertaking which was 
likely- to be £stal to that metrop<riis. To^iidvaace 

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upon the allies^ and fight a battle under the capital, 
was to expose to destruction the city, whose name 
to every Frenchman has a sacred and inviolable 
sound. The Mareschals, in particular, were disgust- 
ed with a contest, in which each of them had been 
left successively without adequate means of resist-' 
auce,' to stem, or attempt to stem^ a superior force 
of the enemy ; with the certainty, at the same time^ 
to he held up to public censure in the next bulletin 
in case of failure, though placed in circunistancea 
which rendered success impossible. These generals 
were more capable than the army at large of com^^ 
prehending the nature of the war in which they 
were likely to be' engaged^ and of appreciating the 
difficulties of a contest which was to be maintained 
in future without money, anununitien^ or supplies^ 
excepting such as should be extorted from that part 
of the country over which they held military' pos^ 
session ; and this,~not only agpiinst all the allies now 
in France, and the insurgent corps of Royalists in 
the west, but also against a second or reserved line 
of three or four hundred thousand Russian?, Aus- 
trittis, and other allied troops, whieh had not yet 
crossed the frontier. 

Besides, the soldiers with which an attack upon 
the allied army must have been undertaken, were 
reduced to f^ disastrous condition, by their jlatelcxr- 
^ed maiehes, and the want of succours and suppUea 

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pf .^rjrdesciiptiaii ; the ciavulrj- weif^ln & gt««t 
OMassre disnuNinted ; the regilmentB not bftif com- 
plck«i(} the horses unshod f tfiei^iysioftl condition of 
tbearmjr bad', anditi» tnorsl feetings^depvessed; and 
nnfid fereafenprise. The period seemed to haveah- 
yiived; beyond ^hidi Napoleon coald not- maintain 
butt^agj^e^ iiridiout destruction to himself, to Paris, 
eadf'to Franee^ These fientimentiB were conunonljr- 
enteiliaRifediainobg tbeiFrenob^general^yQite The3r 
Mt their attaohmtotto'Napeledn plaoed in op)»osi- 
tfi9n«io4;he4iity tfaej^'oweflidieir coai^r;^ by tbe late 
deereeiof the SiBnafte;. and they eoniSdered theicMse 
<Np>IVa«e! as Xh& nosorsaobed; They: haii t^eiivsed 
iiitel}igidncetfrom BobvnoiiriUe of what li&d pa^std 
at'Fajns^ and^donisiderinigptAe laxgepr^portioniof 'i^e 
cifiitfil wbi€h<had decdawed. against: Budaaparte, and 
that anioamoltioo Plurisniiiitihayepocoamned^iiiiiob 
effiuion of'IVeteb^blood^'kiid haver become the^4^'g«* 
nrl offibers agreedr they «oald not ^ (dUtow- if apolbon 
isvsuofavaft'attaok'On the city,: or agaidtt theaUtes? 
ifne^'o^- defence aroandut, both' because^ in a^miTit. 
Ittry point of tieV^. they: thoinghUKtbe^attienipt^ dea- 
perate, considering the state of .die «rniy^ atod- be- 
eMpe,>'iii ai:pdi^toal^/p6sitfoti^-'itdiey tegi^rdbd^H as 
eontra^<o«dibirr:dntyc:as'<atizMar'.' : > < j t: v. 
-. Ja^ltieiciigbtobeti«^i»ei >ti]e! Sd aod^ ddoi^ April; 
Csiriaincouit retumedi from biff mi»&ion t»« PalMSi 

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fie ictportvd^ that th« inUkB fNarsisfted m.tlietr.dfitfli:- 

he w»s;0f oj^inioiii thai Uie ^Qhmlfi fif;s>ieg«8a]r%. 
^he Empress^ as tlie gul^diaho&itfaeirsMi^.inigbt 
eY^ yiet be granted AvslariR^hfi tteieil^ was ftyoiir* 
able ta ««Qh an ayxai^ge-HDSAt^ and Russia isem»«d Ml 
•ineconcileably averse to it. But liieabdMAtiotbaf 
fiQQDS^paJCte waa a <|)rf»Un|kiav7:4Soiuii^0a« A« Uiis 
liQWsrcireiiiated among tlu&MRresfihal8>.ftt&kedxt]iem 
in iheir , xts^hxtiak* not. to mamh Agjahisls ^f?ali6^ ^ 
ta dieir Qpiiiion^ the war oi^tt te( be ebdediby this 
pSQQODi^ safeft6QQ orii,jtite>part cf N«pbleDii^».i . 
. Snens^rte : bad: not, probably , ^kjpeGted.ib ts ae^ 
'paDatioo between tbediittea of ajs^ldiimaiid.of a^db* 
^xmni ■ Om tbej4th. April, :he revieivedA fiact of Jiis 
tiKMips^: aiU&eased^ them* an; tbejdbploif nofi tlie wfaite 
eidourssib.Ilrance bysonie fitottons^earsdnfi^^remiMU 
editbemtbat tfae:t3ii«e<^calaiiredibookade!wm8 tiiat«f 
?mM€x^ and honduc^ lind tkat berantendeditoimaiMi 
eotbetCapttal^.to |>iiiiieh t^eiti« ^^ra/itfMoL 
been ntified; Henvias anaw^Bodibjoshoatioff^^Bana, 
^aitS:!'^^ aad bad nm reasimttn fean^al tKe::tsoa^s 
M>ald' he»tat£to;fiaU0w him iniUiriaBt effort, like 
orders were given to advance the. Imperial quarlers 
ffom^ Fontainhleau to.'Eisaonne.' < m ^ .. . ' . 
_. . But! after.. tiie jnvseW' »na8<<t»»r^ fBorthiac, Ney^ 
Jtfacddodd^ Ganlauidoiurt^ OndtnotvBort rand, i and 
^atjfaer ofiieera ofi the highest; rank^ followed the ^xn*- 

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218 LIFE OF 

peror into his apartment , and jexptained to him the 
sentiments which they entertained on the subject <^ 
the proposed movement, their opinion that be onght 
to negotiate on the principle of personal abdication, 
and the positive determination which most of them 
had formed, on no account to follow him in an at- 
tack upon Paris. 

There is no doubt that, by an appeal to officers^ 
of an inferior rank and consideration, young Seids, 
who knew no other virtue than a determined attach* 
ment to their chief, through good or evil. Napoleon 
might have filled up, in a military point of view, 
the vacancy which the resignation of the Mareschals 
must have created in his list of generals^ But 
those who urged to him this unpleasant proposal; 
were the fathers of the war, the well-known brave 
and beloved leaders of large armies. Their names 
might be individually inferior to his own; bul with 
what feelings would the public hear that he was 
deprived of those men; who had been so long the 
pride and dread of war ? and what was likely id be 
the sentiments of the soldiery, upon whom the nameiei 
of Ney, Macdonald, Oudinot, and others, ^erated 
Uke a war-trumpet. 

With.considerable reluctance, and after kmg de- 
bate, Napoleon assumed the pen; and, acquiescing 
in the reasoning pressed upmi him, wrote the follow- 
in^ Wordsy^which we translate slb litendly as possib^ 

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M showing Napoleon^s power of dignity of exprts-^ 
no0^ when deep feeling predominated over his afieo-i^ 
tati(»i of antithesis and orientalisai of composition : * 

^^ The allied powers having proclaimed that the 
£Biperor Napoleon is the sole obstacle to the re-es- 
tablishment of peace in £arope, the Emperor Napo- 
leon, faithful to his oath^ declares that he is ready to 
descend from the throne, to quit France, and even 
to relinqdish liie> for the good of the coantry, which 
is inseparable from the rights of his son,, from those 
ef the Regency in the person of the Empress, and 
fieomthe maintenance of the lawsof the empire. Done 
fUioar Pidace of Foontainbleau, 4th April, 1814." 

Caalaincourt and Ney were appointed to be bear- 
as of this important document, and commissioners 
to negotiate with the allies, concerning, the terms 
of MQommodation to which it might be supposed 
to lead* Caulaincourt was the personal represen- 
tative of Napoleon ; and Ney, who had all along 
been zealous foi the abdication, was a plenipoten- 
taary proposed by the rest of the Mareschals. 
Napoleon, it is said, wished to add Marmcmt ; but 
he was absent with the troops quartered at Essonne, 
who, having been withdrawn in consequence of the 
treaty of Pans, were disposed of in that position. 
Mftcdonidd was suggested as the third, plenipoten- - 
tiary, aa ftn officer whose high character best qua- 
li£ed;l»m to represent the army* Napoleon hesita-* 

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ati>bd td blEich tkhf^ in imy-ifatimtr or^bnidMitiidt 
x«lftioii; Hee<>h9it]«ed<biitmitti^»r, 8iaM^ <^SUid 
ftae. Biifce t^ T^iiAMdf»yV,.|feplttd«4HeiifiM|te£» 
•* lie is tcio^iaaeli diMui^6£liomii^«iil i^jAdokMge^ 
l?itii JroKjl^tffis fid^ily^ nn^^iii^fiit ;irl]iob.hf .ufadeiM 
t^l.?' Miit^dcUalMlit^doiiaU'iitmbi^^k^ 

Tt/liM tto t«i^ W6^ 4n cheuiiotioflJeiDg^idjmtii 

poIftt^iMlVtflif^y t^tM^to in^st oil Klpdleook^pbitiobal 
bfAii^t *^ Upoti^fiooe'^.^^Mid'ButMiwarteii^ 5« B* 
wiliit y^'CSMi to obtBiQ tiie betil tehw ftr Fipoca : 

jAnS<)uIli^l^ t!^ «Mam to arnlisdoe^iriiti tniaxf 
Vbd^dtye^^a^ii^ed.. Thri«ifhtbejMMle.8cleneBte- 
i]f^))A>^k^i$dli6tt»d hifiiki^if^h fl^mv^ss^MUse^gsvib 
#^ to'ft If&tujt^l ekotidmwlftBto M Httdi^»t)y «i^ 

ifiii f^d^ fiSr^feW ifiiiltfl€i&, abdithenx to<ft;kqs^^ iqi 
^ith thftt 8«^Ii^'oPperi«aiii^triri€fa.te kad^ fib afien 
fiHihd irresistible, Ue impUl^vlris Im'tbrfan xtf tklB 
ficild tb s^iQul the fiBddtitiiM tif^iNid>'sid^)ited^tQ;d^ 

t^ftt. '< ffet. aa^ maY^h^" «tf laid ; «' lei itt^fiiktelife 

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field (ttvse more ! We are sure to beat theffi» and to 
iarc peace 4m our owji twma.'^ The BmBent woidd 
bare been kiraiuable to a biatorical painter. Tbe 
Mnescbals were deqily a&cted, bat coold not giM* 
way. Tbey renewed tbeir argumenta on the wretdi. 
ed state of the antty^-^-^ea: tfa^' leliictaBce with which 
^ fol^iers w<H^ mQt§ ag/t^V^ the S^ate,-77<m ibf 
tnkfiv^vMim-^ifBaknKtimBxS^ en thfe^pko- 

ttOUify thiitBitte'1n»Qia be deistirpy^; ileac^tt^a. 
# <>#cf.mQreiii,th4r,i5ftlPW^,.j^ 
Ilk depaijt^en titeif^wmhiMajr, 

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. IitPK OF 


^ietarioaid others of the French MareBcheUs, give in their ad^ 
• k^mon to the PromMontd Cfcvemment^^Marmtmi enten 
.tftfo a eeparate Conoeniion; but cueists at the CkmferenceM 
held at Paris, leaving Sotiham second in command of his 
' Army. — The Commcmders have an interview with the Em^ 
perwr Alexander. — Sauham enttrs, witji his Armg^^dtHa tks 
Unes of the Allies ; in consequence, the Allied Sovereigns m- 
sist upon the unconditional Submission of Napoleon. — Jffis 
Behaviour on learning this resuU — emd rductant acquies- 
cence, — The Terms granted to him^ Consider aiiom as to 
their Policy. -^Disapprobationof Lord Castlereagh. — Crene- 
ral Desertion of Napoleon. — The Empress Maria Louisa 
returns to her Father^ s Protection. — Death of Josephine.-^ 
^Singular Statement made by Baron Fain, NapoleaiCs Se^ 
cretary, of the Emperor* s attenq>t to commit Suicide. — After 
this he becomes more resigned. — His Views respecting the 
Jbest Policy of ^ Bourbons, as his successors.-^Leaoes 

FontainbleaUf on hisjoum^ to Elba, on 2Sth ApriL 


The plenipotentiaries of Napoleon had been di- 
rected to confer irith Marmont at Essonne, in their 
road to the capital. They did so, and obtained in- 
formation there, which rendered their negotiation 
more pressing. Several of the generals who had not 
been at Fontainbleau, and had not had an opportunity 
of acting in conjunction with the military council 
which assembled there, had viewed the act of the 

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Senate, adhered to by the other puUie bodies, as de- 
eifflyely closing the reign of Buonaparte, d: as indi*- 
eating the commencement of a civil war. Most of 
them were of opinion, that the interest of an indivi<f 
dual, whose talents had been as dangerous to France 
as the virtues of Caesar had been to Rome, ought not 
to be weighed agunst the welfare of the capital and 
the whole nation. Victor, Duke of Belluno^ had 
upon these principles given in his personal adhmon 
to the Provisional Government, and his exampUi wm 
fiUowed by numy others. 

But the most impwtant proselyte to the royal 
cause was the Mareschal Marmont, Duke of Ba- 
gusa, who, Ipi^ at Essonne widi ten or twelve thou-^ 
sand men, formed the advance of the French army. 
Concaving himself to have the liberty of other 
Frenchmen, to attend at this crisis to the weal of 
France, rather than to the interest of Napoleon alone, 
and with the purpose of saving France from the joint 
evils of a civil and domestic war, he made use of the 
position in which he was placed, to give a weight to. 
bis opinion, which that of no other individual could, 
have possessed at the moment. Mareschal Marmont,, 
after negotiation with the Provisional Government 
on the one hand, and Prince Schwartzenberg on the. 
other, had entered into a convention on his own ac- 
count, and that of his corps d'arm6e, by which he 
agreed to march the division which he commanded 
within the lines of cantonment held by the allies, and. 


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9tt ^ LIFE OF 

tbus^ewmticed all idea of ftirtfaer pnweciittitg the 
wim On the oii|«r baod, th$ Mari^8(^l stiftuUiecl 
Ibr the^reed^m and' honbonlMe tigage of Napokbn'W 
pmoft, «h(>iild:be faU'iIfttb^e hand^ 3f die affieti. 
He obiabled alio a^tdran€«b,«ltfat Imeotp^ d'^arm^e 
thoold bo peiHiUtetf«oTietr«ttt i&to'Kormandy. T hia 
convetitioQ IMS Sgncidat'ChevlUy tipoh ^' April. 

the ^part of General ^annpiit ; but irby 'id ti^ 
eboice|)f;fl^^ide,''battrixt tbe Pvovisionai Gorem- 
ment and tbe Emperor, more a:do6(i(rtkm %d flmt gew 
neraLtban in any olbe^ offtfaepjareftcbals oir aiH^o*- 
viiies '^mhalftesmily after AmIc the veiy «ame slep ^ 
AmA tif t&e^Duke df Kagasa by'Qvat means pui fbr* 
ther*Uo()dshe3 out of ^mtton, ought it not ti be 
maitor of nyaidaig:(tt> borrow an 'oxprdssion of TaU 
feyrand^s oi a^siiBilar occasion^).tliatthe Mar^chars 
wateb weni-a ISsw-Boinutesfiikiet than tlose of hia 

^ ^ben Maedonald and Ney communicated to Map* 
mo]it)|hiiit iheywe^re bearers of Najpoleon^s abdica- 
dl{n> aild^ifaat he iras joined with tliem in Commis^ 
aidnvlbai'M^nfefiefaiA'ksked why he had not been subv* 
ttoatd to' at^iid ^witb ibe otliers at Fountainbleau^ 
aiXkA ttietdioiuA itbe convention whicb he 'had entered 
ittlo,:aB aeiingifof'bimdelf.' ^The JDuke of Tafentiim 
ei(^tulWte(Jl( withihim W the dUad vantage wliich must 
9(H^ from^ any ii^umon oii the pait df the principal 
ofiiecrs'of4l>earmy.' Respecting Uie council at iTon^ 


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tm,^ht&if, he stated it hftd been oe&Texied. uniter cir- 
eum^lttQces of such sudden emergency, that there was 
no tuiie to siunmon any oth^ than those Mareschali 
who ^ere close at hand» lest Napoleon had in the 
meftowhile moyed forward the army. The comnis- 
ooners o^trenied Marniont to susp^the execution 
of the siqwrirte eonvention^ and to conie with thein> 
to assist at the ctn&rmcm to be hdd at Paris* He 
consented, and mounted into Marttchal. Ney's car-- 
riage, leaving General Sonham, who, with all the 
other generals of his division, two excepted, w^re 
prity to the eonyention, in command of bis corp^ 
d^armee, which he gave orders should remain star* 
tionaiy. - 

When th^ Mareschals arrived in Paris, they found 
the -popular tide had set strongly in favour of the> 
Bourbdns; their emblems were everywhere adopt-^ 
ed 3 and the streets resounded with Vive 14 Hoi. The 
populace seemed as enthusiastic in their favour as. 
they had been indifferent a few days before. AH 
boded an unfavourable tetmipationforlbeir mission, 
90 ftp ail. respecsted the proposed Regency, 

The names and ^haract^rs of the commissioners: 
mstantly obtained their introduction to the Emperor; 
Alexander, ifbo received tfa^m with his natural eour« 
te^y. . ** Ota the ^i>^ral subject of their mission," he 
said^ «< he could not treat Init in concert with his al- 
lieisi,^ ' But he enlarged on the subject of Napoleon 
persoiiaUy. « He was toy friend,'' he smd ; " I loved 

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886 LIFE or 

ttid honoured him. His ambition forced me into m 
dreadful war, in whidi my capital was burnt, and 
the greatest evils inflicted on my dominions. But he 
is unfortunate, and these wrongs are forgotten. Have 
you nothing to propose on his personal account ? i 
will be his wiUing advocate." The Maresehab re* 
plied, that Napoleon had made no conditions for him^ 
■elf whatever. The Emperor would hardly believe 
this until'they showed him their instructions, whidi 
entirely related to public afi&irs. The Emperor then 
asked if they would hear a proposal from him. They 
replied with suitable respect and gratitude. He then 
mentioned the plan, which was afterwards adopted $ 
that Buonaparte should retain the Imperial title over 
a small territory, with an ample revenue, guards, and 
other emblems of dignity. *^ The plaee,^ conti* 
nued the Emperor of Russia, " may be Elba, cnr 
some other island." With this annunciation the com- 
missioners of Buonaparte were dismissed for the 

Mareschal Marmont had done all in bis power to 
stop the military movement which he had undertdiev 
to execute, thinking it better, doubtless, to move 
hand in hand with his brethren, than to act singly in 
a matter of such responsibility ; but accident precipi- 
tated what he desired to delay. Napoleon had sum- 
moned to his presence Count Souham, who com- 
manded the division at Essonne in* Marmont's ab- 
sence. No reason was given for this comitMlBd, noit 

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'Could any thing be extracted fiom the nftessenger^ 
which indicated the purpose of the order. Soiiham 
•was therefore induced to. suspect, that Napoleon 
had gained intelligence of the Convention of Che- 
viUy. Under this apprehension^ he called the <ither 
generals who were in the secret to a midnight conn*- 
calf in which it was determined to execute the Con- 
irei^on instantly by passing over with the troops 
within, the lines' of the allies, without awaiting any 
finrther orders, from Maxesehal Maimoat. The dl- 
vision was put in nioTementupon the 5th of April » 
about five oMock, and marched for some time with 
nmch steadiness, the moTement being, as they sup- 
posed, designed for a flank attack on the position of 
the allies ; but when they perceiyed that their progress 
was watched, without being interrupted, by a column 
of Bavarian trcM>p8, they began to suqpect the real 
pnepope. When this became known, a kind of mutiny 
took place, and some Polish lancers broke off from 
the main body and rode back to Fontainebleau ; but 
die instinct of discipline prevailed, and the officers 
wfK^ able to bring the soldiery into their new qnar* 
t^a» at Verswlles. They were not, however, recon* 
eilod to. the measure in which they had been made 
partakers, and in a few days afterwards broke out 
into an actual mutiny, which was not aiqpe»edwidi«. 
out. co^iderab]^ difficuUy . 

M.eapwhile the commissioners of Bumiaparte wwe 
acbnittftd to a conference with the Allied SoYeB&g^ 

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fIS i.irx.oF 

4Pi4 MiiiUteni in fiill <loiineil, biH^ widely it niay. bt 
joa^ectxxredf was induced tojthem sKxre as a tdm, 
that the allied might treat wiOi due respe^ the repceM 
aentativeaof the Frenleh army, than vith anjr. ^oorl^ 
pis)e on the jart of the lioTenngiis. of altering: ^Oie 
]dan to wMch they. had ipUdged tfaenuieliFea Iqr 4 
prodamatioii^ i^n the fidth of which thounuidi 
had abready acted. Hawevs:^^ the qoesdon, whMier 
to adopt theprojected legency, or the lestecatioii of 
the Bourbons, as a basb rf agreement, was aandtn^ 
ccd as a tabject of consideration to the meecxog. 
13ie Maresdials pleaded die caose of the Beg^neyi 
The Generak Bourntoyille and S^ssdles were Heaid 
in reply p the comnlissibnersfrom Foi^talisebleaot 
idiepy ere the debate had terminated, news arrived of 
die march of Marmont^s division to Versailles. The 
tommissioners were astounded with th^ unerpected 
intiedfig^ce ;' aiKl the Emperor took the opportnni^ 
to determine, that the allies would not treat with 
Btlonaparte save oik die footing of unconditional ab- 
dicatibn. With this answer,^ mitigated with the oiStk 
o£ an .independent principality for their ancient com- 
mander,, the Maretchals returned to Fbntainebleau ; 
while die Senate busied themselves to arrange the 
plan of a free .constitution, under which the Bour- 
ImAs were to be called to the thtone. . .^ : 

Napoleon, in the retireiaent of F4mtain#UeM, 
nmsed on theiutuve with fitde hope of advjmiige 
fnmi the missidh of the Maredefaals. He jUdg^ 

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tfaat the nfffer^^t, if they fistetted to ^he proposal 
9f « rc^eiicy> wouli csxIkoI the inoet fc^midaUe gutn 
raUfpes i^jauuf hi9 owA inteifinreiiee with the goveni* 
BfKH; ; a^d thut imdet! his wife Mana Lomaa, who 
hlHi. j:io faleot for piiblic buriness, Frftnce would proK 
bilbly be maaaged by an Aastiiah committee. He 
Ugain thought «f Ityiitg the chance of w«r, and might 
peohaUy ha^e settled on Ihe purpose moftt congenial 
to his nature, had not Colonel Gourgaud* brought 
Wsi lii0 Bews that ^e division (ff Mannont had 
ydssied into the enj^myfa cantoattents on the, motif ing 
0f the 5th A^. '< The ungrateAd man l^ he sliid, 
^VKit he is nK»e to be pitied than I am.'' He otkght 
to hmve beto Contented with this reflection^ for whleh» 
e^en if unjust to Ihe Mmreschal^ every one must 
|iave hadsympathy and exscus^. But the next day he 
pilhtished a i^ort of appeal to the army on the soleul- 
luty c^ a military engagement, as more sacred than 
tb» duty of a patriot to his country ; which he might 
iliore grac^uBy have itb^akied firom, since all fcni6w 
alteady to what height he earned the sentiments of 
40rbitrary powor. 

• - . When the Maresdials returned, he listened to the 
j|^»of thefflolttre of their negotiation, as a termina- 
tidn.whicb he had expected. But to their surprise, 
rachllecting his dinnterested behaviour when Aey 
piited, he almost instantly demanded what provision 
hadbeJehmadefiNrhim personally^and liow^bewas to 

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990 ^\v^ OF 

be disposed of? They informed him that it was pro* 
posed he should reside as an independent Sovereign, 
<< in Elba^ or somewhere else.^ Napoleon paused for 
a moment. *' Somewhere else !^ be exclaimed. ** That 
must be Corsica. No, no— I will have nothing to do 
with Corsica. — Elba ? Who knows anything of El- 
ba ? Seek oat some officer who is acquainted with 
Elba. Look out what books or charts can inform us 
about Elba."" 

In a moment he was as deeply interested in the 
position and capabilities of this little islet, as if he 
had never been Emperor of France, nay, almost 
of the world. But Buonaparte^s nature was egotisti- 
cal. He well knew how little it would become an 
Emperor resigning his crown to be stipulating for his 
future course of life ; and had reason to conchide, 
that by playing his character with magnanimity, be 
might best excite a corresponding liberality in those 
with whom he treated. But when the die was cast, 
when his fate seemed fixed, he examined with mi- 
nuteness what he must afterwards consider as his 
sole fortune. To turn his thoughts from France to 
Elba, was like the elephant, which can transport ar- 
tillery, applying his trunk to gather pins. But Na- 
poleon could do both easily, because he regarded 
these two objects not as they differed from each other, 
but as they belonged, or did not belong, to himsdf. 
After a night's amsideration, the fallen Chief took 
his resolution, and dispatched Caulaincourt and Mac- 
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Aonald once in<»e to ParU) to treat with the allies 
upon the footing of an unconditional abdication of the 
empire. The document was couched in these words : 
^-^* The allied powers haying proclaimed that the 
Emperor Napokon is the sole obstacle to the re-esta* 
b&hment of peace in Europe, he declares that he 
renounces for hinttelf and his heurs the throne of 
France and Italy, because there is no personal sacri- 
fice, not even that of life itself, which he is not ready 
to make for the interests of France." 

Notwithstanding his having adopted this course^ 
Napoleon, until the final adjustment of the treaty, 
continued to nourish thoughts of breaking it off. He 
formed plans for carrying on the war beyond the 
Loire— -for marching to join Augereau — ^for pene- 
trating into Italy, and uniting with Prince Eugene. 
At one time he was very near again summoning his 
teoops to' arms, in consequence of a report too hasti- 
ly transmitted by a general much attached to him, 
(Geaenl Alix, we believe,) stating that the Em- 
peror of Austria was displeased at the extremities 
to whidi they urged his son-in-law, and was resol- 
ved to support him. On this rep<Nrt, which proved 
afterwards totally unfounded. Napoleon required the 
Mareschids to give him back his letter of abdication. 
But the deed having been formally executed, and 
duly registered and delivered, the Mareschals held 
themselves bound to retain it in their own hands, 

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and to act upoa it as the only meaas of savuig Fxaooe 
St tbis dreadful cadsb. 

. Buonaparte reviewed his Old Guard in the court- 
yard of the castle ; for their numbers were so diminish. 
ed that there was space for them in that na]9K>w circuit. 
Their sealous acclamations gratified his ears as much 
as ever ; but whes he looked on. their diminished 
jwdcBy his heart failed ; he retired into the pidace, 
and summoned Oudinot before him# ** May I d«^ 
pend on the adhesion of the troofB ?^ he si^d-— Ou<^ 
4iiiot replied in the negative, and reminded Napo- 
ieon that he had abdicated. — ^* Ay, bfit under coi^ 
ditions/^ said Napokon. — ^^ Soldiers do not undar* 
^nd oonfitions,^ said the Mareschal ; *^ th^y leolc 
upon your power as terminated*^ — ^> Th&Oi on.thtffc 
side all is over,^ said Napoleon ; *^ let us wait th^ 
iiiews from Paris.'^ 

Macdonald, Caulaincourt, and Ney, soon «ftau 
'.words arrived at EontaineUeau^ with the tnea^ whieh 
they had concluded on thebases akeady aandunced by 
the Emperor of Russia, who had tahen the principal 
share in drawingit Jif. Under his sanction, the oom- 
'missioners bad obtained sueh terms as never before 
were granted to a dethroned monarch^and whidb have 
•little chance to be conceded to such a one in fiitiive, 
while the portentous consequences are jnreserved by 
history. By these conditions, Buonaparte was to re- 
main Emperor, but his sway was to be limited to 
the island of Elba, in the Meditmanean^ in extent 

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Itrcspty leagues, and oontainh^ about tmtint thou- 
Ux^d inbabi^nts.; He was to bp recogiused asoo^ of 
tbe ODOwned heads of Europe — was to be. allowed 
body'-guards, and a nary on a scale suitable to tbe 
iuaits of bis dominions i and> to maintain this 9).b^ 
•.revenue of ^ix miUitniii of francs, o^v and fiboi^ 
Jbe revenues of the If le of Elba, were setded on .him* 
Two millions and a half were also .assigned i^ pen* 
lions to his brothers, Josephine, and tbe.otber ms^^ 
bers of his family,---^ revenue more splendid than 
ever£ingof£nglahdhada|hispersoii$A£spo8al. It 
was well argued, that if Bounaparte.deseryed such 
advantageous terms of retirement, it was injustipe to 
dethrone him« .In other points, 'the terms of this 
Ireaty seemed as irtt^^oncikble with sound policy 
as tb^ are with all forn^r precedents. The tia9ne> 
dignity, military Awth0rity, and absolute power of an 
Jl^pspefor^ eonferred^oa the potentate of such Lilipiv- 
tiandwiaina,.were ludicrous^ if it was supposed that 
jili^leon would remain quiet in his retreat, andh^ 
sardous if he should seek the means of again agiti^ 
-ting Europe. 

It was no eomplimait to Buoni^arte's ta$te to in^- 
rest him with ihe poor, shadow of his forj^ea* fottune, 
wicefor him the most honourable retirement would 
have been one which united privacy with safety and 
commence, not that which diaintained a vaii» pamde 
aroand hiin, as if in moek^ity.ef what he had f<»ria^- 
lli&rbeen. ^iit time bixfUify sh^witd^ what ms^ m- 

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gored from the beginmng, that so soon m bis spiril 
should soar bejrond the narrow circle into whieh k 
had been conjured, the imperial title and authority^ 
the assistance of devoted body-guards and experien- 
eed councillors^ formed a stake with which, however 
smafl, the venturous gatnester might again eater 
upon the hazardous game of playing for the king- 
doms he had lost. The situi^on of Elba, too, as the 
seat of his new sovereignty^ so near to Italy, and so 
little removed from France, seemed calculated on 
purpose to favour his resurrection at some future 
period as a political character. 

The other stipulations of this extraordinary. trea- 
ty divided a portion of revenue secured to Napoleon 
among the members of his family. The most radonal 
was that which settled upon Maria Louisa and her 
son, the duchies of Parma, Placentia, and Guastalla, 
in full sovereignty. Except this, all the other stipu- 
lations were to be made good at the expense of 
France, whose Provisional Government were never 
consulted upon the terms granted. 

It was not till the bad effects of this singular trea- 
ty had been experienced, that men inquired why and 
on what principle it was first conceded. A great per- 
sonage has been mentioned as its original authw. 
Possessed of many good and highly honourable qua- 
lities, aiid a steady and most important member of 
the great European confederacy, it is doing the me- 
mory ^ the Emperor Alexander no injury to sup- 
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pose, that he remembered his education under hie 
French tutor La Harpe, and was not altogether free 
from its effects. With these there always mingles 
that sort of showy sensibility which delights in mak« 
ing theatrical scenes out of acts of beneficence, and 
enjc^ng in frdl draughts the popular applause 
which ihey are calculated to excite. The conta- 
gious air of Paris, — ^the shouts; — ^the flattery, — the 
success to a point hitherto unhoped for, — the wish 
to drown unkindness of every sort, and to spread a 
feast from which no one should rise discontented,— 
the desire, to sum up all in one word, to show m ao- 
17AN1MITY in the hour of success, seems to hare laid 
Alexander's heart more open than the rules of wis- 
dom or of prudence ought to have permitted. It is 
generous to give, and more generous to pardon; 
but to bestow favours and forgiveness at the same 
momait, to secure the future fortune of a rival who 
lies prostrate at his feet, to hear thanks and compli- 
ments on every hand, and from the mouths even of 
the vanquished, is the most fascinating triumph of 
a victorious sovereign. It is only the consequences 
which teach him how thriftless and unprofitable a pro^ 
digality of beneficence often proves, and that in the 
attempt so to conduct great national measures that 
they shall please and satisfy every one, he must ne- 
cessarily encroach on the rules both of justice and 
wisdom, and may occasion> by a thoughtless indul- 
gence of romantic sensibility, new trains of misfor- 

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SS8 u» or 

time t<> the whole dvilii^ w<»rlcL The dth^ actiyfi 
puftifft in the tveaty weipe the Ki% oS Fmm^ who 
had no motive to fscan with peculiar scnid^y a tseih 
ty.j/jamtkfA by his .ally, tJbd Jimperor Akitander., foA 
the Eflftperior of Austiria, who cpuld B^t &» deitb^ 
tb^ect to sdpulationaiin fiii^ur of his »oa4n Jiitr» 
. The M^eschahb ou the o&er handle gladfy tetA^ 
▼cfd what.pr6be]^ly. they tieyet w^i^d hA^ve.atipAlN 
ted* They wtoe awate that the ilrviy. wc^ild ho.icoo** 
llUiated with every mvek of tespect; Jte)w«Ter,7iii^l^ 
grutias^ which eoidd hid p^id to AeiirJifte i£n%)«r!Mr» 
aod perhdpa kiieiw ^iiQoaparte^fio well as, toi b^lieVe 
that he Bdight be girattfied by prefl^rdug the external 
iiuirk9 of imperial hdooiur, thoo^ upoh so Hmited a 
Sl:ate. There was one poWer whose represeiutatiTe 
foresaw the evils, which such a treaty might occaaion, 
iaa4 remonstrf^ed against them. But the evil was 
^90, and the partiodars of the treaty adjusted, be- 
fore Lord Castlate^^ came to Paris« Finding that 
jthe Emperor of Russia had acted for the best, in 
Ithe name of the other allies^ the English minister rb- 
firained from riskiijg the peace which had been made 
in such urgent circumstances^ by insisting. upon his 
i^bjections. He refused, however, on the part lof Jiis 
;gchreniment, to become a. party to the treaty farther 
than by acceding to it so far as the tutorial ab- 
iningeilietsits wex^ concerned.; but he pavtieulaify^ de- 
• ruined to ac1uio#ledgB| on <hie part of England;, the 

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tide u£ Bmperar, which the treaty confened on .Na- 

c. Yet .ifhen yve have expressed with freedom all the 
elgectioni to' vhich the treaty of Fontahiebleiiu seems 
haUe/ it mast be owned, 'that the allied soveteigM 
shbwed pdicy in obtaining an accommodaUon on b£- 
j^MtB^f terms, r%ther thaii renewing die war, hf 
driving Napoleon to despair, and inducing the Msh 
iMchals, frdm a sense of humour, again to unite 
themselves with his cause. '• , 

When the treaty was read over to Napoleon, he 
made » last appeal to his Mareschals, invitbg thein 
to fbllow him to the Loirs or to the Alps, where they 
wbuld'avoid what he felt an ignmninious composition: 
But he was answered by a general inlence. The 
general^ whom he addressed, knew bat too well 
thit any efforts which he could make, must be ra- 
ther in the character of a roving chieftain, support- 
ing his condottieri by the plunder of the country^ 
and that country their own, than that of a warlike 
monarch, waging war for a specific purpose, and 
at the head of a regular army* Napoleon saw their 
determination in their looks, and dismissed the 
council, promising an answer on an early day, but 
in the meantime declining to radfy the treaty, and 
demanding back his abdication from Caulaincourt ; 
a request which that minister again declined to com- 
ply with. 

Misfortunes were now accumulating so fast around 

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LIFfi Of 

Napoleon, that they wemed of force sufficieni t» 
break the most stubborn spirit. 

Gradually the troops of the aUies had spread as 
far as the banks of the Loire. Fontainebleau was 
surrounded by their detachments ; on every side the 
French officers, as well as soldiers, were leaving hia 
aervice ; he had no longer the power of departuig 
from the palace in safety. 

Paris, so late the capital in which his will waa 
^ law, and where to have uttered a word in his diapa^ 
ragement would have been thought worse thMi blas- 
phemy, was become the scene of his rivaFs triumph 
and his own disgrace. The shouts which used, to 
wait on the Emperor, were now welcoming to the 
Tuiileries Monsieur, the brother of the restored 
King, who came in character of Lieutenant-general 
of the kingdom ;— the presses, which had so long la- 
boured in disseminating the praises of the Emperor, 
were now exerting all their art and malice in expos* 
ing his real faults, and imputing to him such ae bad- 
no exbtence. He was in the condition of the hunts-^ 
man who was devoured by his own hounds. ^ 

It was yet more affecting to see courtiers, depend* 
&s^»f and even domestics, who had lived in his* 
smiles, dropping off under different pretexts to give 
in their adhesion to the Bourbons, and provide fi(^ 
their own fortune in the new world which had com- 
menced at Paris. It is perhaps in such n^om^ts, 
tihat human nature is seen in its very woir^t point of 

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Tiew ; siiice the baisttst ioid most selfish points ii^ the 
cbairacter) which, in the train of ordinary Ufe, may ne- 
ver be awakened into existence, show themselves, and 
become the ruling principle, in such revolutions. Men 
are then in the condition of well-bred and decorous 
persons, transferred from an ordinary place of meet- 
ing to the whirlpool of a crowd, in which they soon 
demean themselves with all the selfish desire of that 
own safety or convenience, and all the total disro- 
gard for that of others, which the conscious habits 
of polit^iess have suppressed but not eradicated. 

Friends and retainers dropt from the unfortunate 
Napoleon, like leaves from the fading tree ; and thost 
whom shame or commiseration yet detained near his 
person, waited but some decent pretexts, like a rising 
breath of wind, to sweep them also away. 

The defection included all ranks, from Berthier, 
who shared his bosom councils, and seldom was ab- 
s^t from his side, to the Mameluke, Rustan, who 
slept across the door of his apartment, and acted as 
a bod^ guard. It would be absurd to criticise the 
conduct of the poor African,* but the fact and mode 
of Ber^ier^s dqparture must not escape notice. He 
adced permission to go to Paris about some busi* 
Bess, saying he would return next day. ** He will 
not return,^ said Napoleon, calmly, to the Duke of 

e The man had to plead his desire to remain with his w^e and 
ftnOy, rather than return to a leTere personal thmldom. 

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240 UFJB OF . 

B«8ttno.~<< What T said the midstor, '^ caiLthew 
be the adkiis of Berthier ?"-^' I tell jrou, ye8-4io 
will return no more.^ The abdicated SovereigD had, 
however, the consolation of seang, that the attach* 
ment of seyeral faithful servants was only tried and 
partfied by adversity, as gold is by fire. 

The family-oonnexions, and rdatiyes of Napoleoii, 
as well as his fiEuniliar friends, were separated horn 
him in the general wreck. It will not beforgotteny 
that on the day before the battle of Paris; severd^ 
members of Napoleon'is administration set out wid» 
the Empress Maria Lom^ay to escape ftom the ip- 
pfoacbing action. They halted at Blois, where tb^ 
wiere joined by Joseph, and other membore of' t£« 
Bobnapartiie family. For sometime this reunion maiaL. 
tained the character and language of a'coundU of Rfe- 
gency, dispersed proclainations, and endeivoured to a government. Tbenewsof the taldng of Parish 
and the subsequent eveilts, disposed Joseph and Je^ 
mxde Buonaparte to remove themselves to the pro^ 
vihces beyond . the Loire. : ' But Maria Louisa refill 
sed. to accompany thein^ and while the point waiE^yeO 
contested, Count Schouwalow, one of the Atistrian) 
ministers, arrived to take her under bis protection.^ 
The ephemeral Regency then broke np, and fled in 
di£Perent directions ; ' the Brothers of Bncmaparte 
taking the direction of Switzerland, while Cardi- 
nal Fesch and the mother of Napoleon retreated to 

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MiffiA Lowitfa made mare tk«i one effort to join 
her htaibead, but they were diacouri^ed on the paitt 
of Napoleon himsdf, tvho, while he comintied to • 
raminate on reneiring the war, cottld not dedire to 
have the empress along with him in such an adven- 
ture. Shortly afterwards, the Emperor of Austria 
vidted his daughter and her son, then at Rambouil- 
let, and gave her to understand that she was, tat 
some time at least, to remain separate from her hus* 
bapd, and that her son and she were to return to Vi- 
enna along with him. She returned, therefore, to 
her father'^s protection. 

It must be also here mentioned, as am eztraordi- 
nary addition to this tale of calamity, that Josephine, 
the former wife of Buonaparte, did not long survive 
his downfall. It seemed as if the Obi-woman of 
Martinico had spoke truth ; for, at the time when 
Napoleon parted from the shaser of his early for- 
tunes, his grandeur was on the wane, and her death 
took place but a few weeks subsequent to his being de- 
dethroned and exiled. The Emperor of Russia had 
visited this lady, and showed her some attention, 
with which Napoleon, for reasons we csxmot conjec- 
ture, was extremely displeased. She was lunply pro- 
vided for by the treaty of Fontainebleau, but did not 
survive to reap any benefit from the provision, ad she 
shortly after sickened and died at her beautifril viUa 
of Ma lm aisou. She was buried on the 3d of June, 

VOL. viii. . d 

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242 LtFE OF 

it the village of Ruel. A vast number of the lower 
class attended the obsequies ; for she had well deser- 
ved the title of patroness of tlie poor. 

While we endeavour to sum the mass of misfor- 
tunes with which Buonaparte was overwhelmed at 
this crisis, it seems as if Fortune had been deter- 
mined to shew that she did not intend to reverse tlie 
lot of humanity^ even in the case of One who had 
been so long her favourite, but that she retained the 
pow^r of depressing the obscure soldier, whom she 
had raised to be almost King of Europe, in a de- 
gree as humiliating as his exaltation had been splen- 
did. All that three years before seemed inalienable 
from his person, was now reversed. The victor was 
defeated, the monarch was dethrone, the ransomer 
of prisoners was in captivity, the general was de- 
serted by his soldiers, the master abandoned by his 
-domestics, the brother parted from his bt^thren, the 
husband severed from the wife, and the father torn 
"from his only child. To console him for the fairest 
and largest empire that ambition ever lorded it over, 
he had, with the mock name of Emperor, a petty 
isle to which he was to retire, accompanied by thie 
pity of such friends as dared express their feelings, 
the unrepressed execrations of many of his former 
subjects, who refrised to regaj^ his present humilia- 
tion as an amends for what he had made them suf- 
fer during his power, and the ill-concealed triumph 

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of the enemies into whose hands he had been deli- 

A Roman would have seen, in these accumulated 
disasters^ a hint to direct his sword's point against 
his breast ; a man of* better faith would have turn- 
ed his eye back on his own conduct^ and having 
tmi, ia his misuse of prosperity, the original source 
of those calamhtes, would have remained patient and 
coBtrite under the consequences of his ambition. Na- 
poleon belonged to the Soman school of philosophy ; 
smd it is confidently reported, especially by Baron 
Fain, his secretary, though it has not been univer- 
sally believed, that he designed, at this extremity, 
to escape from life by an act of suicide. 

The En^peror, according to this account, had 
carried with him, ever since the retlreat from Mos- 
cow, a packet containing a preparation of opium, 
made up in the same manner with that used by 
Cotadorcet for self-destruction. His valet-de-cham- 
bre, in the night betwixt the 12th and 13th of April, 
heard him arise and pour something into a glass of 
water, drink, and return to bed. In a short time af- 
terwards, the man^s attention was called by sobs ^and 
stifled groans— an alarm took place in the chateau 
-Hsome of the principal persons were roused, and 
repaired to Napoleon's chamber. Tvan, the sur- 
geon who had procured him the poison, was also 
summoned J but hearing the Emperor complain that 

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844 i'lFs OF 

the operBtion of tbe potion was not quick enough, 
he was seized with a panic terror, and fliq^ from the 
ptdace at fuH gaDop. Napoleon took tVe remedies 
r^domfliended, and a long fit of stupor ensued, witb 
ptoftise perspiration. He awakened mucli exhaust^ 
ed, and surprised at finding himself still afive ; he 
sttd aloud^ after a few moments' reflection, " Fate 
wiU not hate it so,^ and afterwards alppeas^ re- 
cdnciled to undergo his destiny, without GA^ilar at- 
tempts at pcrsonai vioJence. TEliiere is^ as we hare 
already hinted, a .ffifFere&ee of opinion cbncernii^ 
the ctfuse of Napofeon's SIness, som'e imputing it 
to indigestion. The feet of his having been v^ 
much indisposed is, however, indisputafble. A gene- 
rri of IJbe higher distinctiotftrnnsadted bushieis&r with 
Napoleotr on the morning of the I'Sth April. He 
seemed pale and dcgiected, as ftom recent «ffd ex- 
hausting iffaress. Hrs only d^ess Was a ni^t-gown 
andisfippers, and he drank fS^om tiitie to time a quan- 
tity of tisan, or some such liquid, which was placed 
beside hhn, saying he had sufered severely during 
the night, but that his complaint had teft Mm. 

After this crisis, and having ratified the treaty 
which his Marescfaals had made for him, Napoleon 
appeared' more at his ease than he had been for some 
time before, and conversed frankly with his atten- 
dants upon the affairs of trance. 

He owned, that, after all, the Government of the 

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Bourbons would best 91U FnuQce^ as tending to re- 
po«eile «]1 parties. ^' Louis/' he said, ^^ has talents 
and means # be k old and infirm ; he willnot, I think, 
choose to ffve his name to a bad reign. If he is 
w^, he wijl ocjcupy my bed, and content himself 
i(kh chaogiqg the sheets. But,^ he continued, ** he 
Bap»t trefit the army well, and take care not to look 
b$£k on the past, otherwise his reign will be of brief 

.£|e aiho mentioned the inyiolahUity of the sale of 
tb^ ]]ifat»epMd domiaini^ as the woof iipon wbjicfi tjkr 
whole web diSfi^ed ; <sa% one t^bread of ilj, he sp^i^ 
«ad 4ie whcjle will be unrayelled* Qf the anci^tno«- 
Ufsse And pecyiJe of fashion, he spoke in ^bittered 
kii^lMlgct, «aying they were an English cobny in' the 
mid^ of Franoe, w}m> desired only their own piiyi- 
Xtgm^ Aud would act as readily for as against bim* 

*' If I were in Louis's situation," he said, '' I 
HQUld QMDt keep up the Imperial Guard. I myself 
:haY# ta%at$4 them too weU not to hxxe insured their 
j^tAcibment ; a^d it will be hU poUcy to dismiais' 
them, gi^g.goqd pef^oons to such oiBcers andiK^L- 
diew.aa Qboese to retire &om service and preferment 
in th^Aili^ ofkem who incline to remain. Thje 
dotMi^ W abould <j|iioo^ another guard from the ar- 
tty At larger'" 

Alitor thes^ res^Arkable observatioim, whicib, in 
fact, contained an ^tlcipatian of nm^ ^M 9&^^ 

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246 LIFE OF 

ward^ took place. Napoleon looked around upon his 
officers, and made them the following exhortation : 
— " Gentlemen, when I remain no longer with you-, 
and when you have another government, it will be- 
come you to attach yourselves to it frankly, and 
serve it as faithfully as you have served me. I re- 
quest, and even command you to do this ; therefore, 
all who desire leave to go to Paris have my permis- 
sion to do so, and those who remain here will do wril 
to send in their adhesion to the government of the 
Bourbons.'^ Yet» while Napoleon used this manful 
and becoming language to his followers, on the sub- 
ject of the change of government, it is clear thai 
there lurked in his bosom a persuasion that the 
Bourbons were surrounded with too many difficult 
ties to be able to surmoimt them, and that Destiny 
had still in reserve for him a distinguished part in 
the annals of Europe. 

In a private interview with Macdonald, whose piurt 
in the abdication we have mentioned, he expressed 
himself warmly satisfied with his conduct, regretting 
that he had not more early known- his value> And pn)- 
posed he should accept a parting gifi. ^* It is only,^ 
he said, anticipating theMareschal^s objections, '* tl^ 
present of a soldier to his comrade.'*' And indeed 
it was chosen with great delicacy, being a beautiful 
Turkish sabre, which Napoleon had himself received 
from Ibrahim Bey while in Egypt. 

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N^ioleon having now resigned himself entirely to- 
his fate, whether for good or evil, prepared, on the 
20th April, to depart for his place of retreat. But 
first he had the painfiil task of bidding farewell ta 
the body in the universe most attached to him, and 
to which he was probably most attached, — ^his cele^ 
brated Imperial Guard. Such of them as could be 
collected were drawn out before him in review. Some 
natural tears dropped fVom his eyes, and his features 
had the marks of strong emotion while reviewing for- 
the last time, as he must then have thought likely, 
the companions of so many victories. He advanced to. 
them on horseback, dismounted, and took his solemn^ 
leave. *^ All Europe,^ he said, '^ had armed against 
him ; France herself had deserted him, and chosen, 
another dynasty. He might,^^ he said, ^^ have main- 
tained with his soldiers a civil war of years, but it 
would have rendered France unhappy. Be faithful,^ 
he continued, (and the words were remarkable,) ^^ to 
the new sovereign whom France has chosen. Do not 
lament my fate ; I will always belliappy while I kno^ 
you are so. I could have d^ed — ^nothing was easier 
—tut I will always follow the road of honour. I 
will record with my pen the deeds we have done to- 
gether. I cannot embrace you all, but I embrace 
your general,"—- (he pressed the general to his bo- 
som.)-*-'' Bring hither the eagle,"— (he embraced 
the standard, and concluded,) — '^ Beloved eagle^^ 

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JMB IA9E or 

i«ay die kuBe« I bestow m ye«i Umg x^floond iii Ihe 
.b^m of tb# hnve i-«-Adfeii, my duldaent— ^dioii^ 
my brave ooiiipfaikMia,-^Siisroi»d me <»ae aianh— 
Adieu." Drowned in grief) the i^efeetw edldMiB 
iieerd the fitieindl ef tbeir detbrooed leaden ; Bif;^ 
and murmucs biohe from theic nmloi, but liber emo- 
tion burst out in no tbreats qr cemomiMMet. Tbey 
j^gpeared resigned to tbe Uas of tbcar gtfiexal^ and 
to y&^f libe biin» to iV(eo€VMity . 

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Commissioners appointed to escort Napoleon — Be leaves Fon- 
■kHHesbkau on theWA ApriL — His vUenview tvith Auffereau 
at Valence, — Expressions of popular dislike towards Na^ 
poleon in the South of France — Fears for Jiis personal safe- 
ty, — Bis xywn alarm, agitaiion, and precautions, — He ar- 
riviss at Fr^us-'^and embarks on board fh/R Undu/Med^wiih 
the British and Austrian Commissioners, — Arrives at Biba 
on 4/A May — and lands at Porto Ferrajo. 

Vvas Iris unpleasftnt journey, Kapoleon was at- 
tended' by Bertrand and Drouet, honouraMy fmtSrflil 
to the adverse fortunes of the master iv4io had been 
their bene&ctor when in prosperity. Pour delegates 
fnun <Ae aillied powers accompanied liim to his new 
domfniom. Their names were, — General Scbouwa- 
loff, on the part of Russia; the Austrian General 
Sblfter; ColondSir Niel Campbell, as representing 
Great Bzitiain ; and the General Baron Traehsesa 
Wisidb^arg, as the commissioner of Prussia. Napo- 
\(Nm reoeived'fhe three first with 'much personal civi- 
Mty, but seemed to resent the presence of ^he rcpre- 

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260 LIFS OF 

sentative of Prussia, a country which had been at one 
time the subject of his scorn, and always of his ha- 
tred. It galled him that she should assume an im- 
mediate share in deciding upon his fate. 

He received the English commbsioner with par- 
ticular expressions of esteem, saying he desired to 
pass to Elba in an English vessel, and wsEb pleased 
to have the escort of an English officer. ^* Tour na- 
tion,'^ he said, ^' has an elevated character, for which 
I have the highest esteem. . I desired to raise the 
French people to such a pitch of sentiment, but ■ y 
He stopt, and seemed affected* He spoke with 
mi^ch civility to the Austriai;i Qeueral Eohler, but 
expressed himself somewhat bitterly on the subject 
of Russia. He even hinted to the Austrian, that 
should he not be satisfied with his reception in £lba« 
he might possibly choose to retire to Great Britain ; 
and asked General Eohler, whether he thought he 
would not receive protection firom them. ^^ ^f^y 
sire,'^ replied the Austrian, " the more readily, that 
your migesty has never made war in that country." 

Napoleon proceeded to give a farewell aodi^ace.l^ 
the Duke of Bassano, and seemed nettled when a^ 
aide-de-camp, on the part of General Bertrand, an- 
nounced that the hour fixed for departing was arriv- 
ed.. " Good," he said. " This is. something new.-^ 
Since when is it that our motions have be^J^gulat- 
ed by the watch of the Grand Marescbal ? We will 

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not depart tail it is our pl^Mure^perbaps we will not 
depart at all." This, howevOT, was only a mmnen** 
tary sally i>f impatience. -k. 

Napoleon left FontaineUeaa the 20th April 1814, 
at eleven p^dock in the morning. His retinue occu«> 
pied fourteen x^mriages^ and required relays of thirty 
pairs of post-bcnrses. On the journey, at least during - 
its ^emmencement, he affected a sort of piiblidty> 
sending for die public authorities of towns^ and ioh 
vestigating into the state of die place, as he was wont 
to do on former occasions. The cries of Vive^FEm^ 
pereur were &equa:itly heard, and seemed to give 
him fresh spirits. On the other hand, the mayors 
and sub-prefects, whom he interrogated cojicemiiig 
the decay of many of the towns, displeas^ him by 
ascribing the symptoms of dilapidation to the war, or 
the conscription , and in several places the people 
wore the white cockade, and insulted his passage with 
diouts of Vive le Rai. 

In a small burack, near Valence, Napoleon, upon 
24th April, met Augereau, his old companion in the 
campaigns of Italy, and in some degree his tutor in 
.the art of war. The Mareschal had resented some 
of the reflections which occurred in the bulletins, 
censuring his operations for the protection of Lyons^ 
When, therefore, he issued a proclamation to his 
army, on the recent change, he announced Napoleon 
as one who had brought on his own iruin, and yet 

d by Google 

tefdaot^ie. An ingrj interview to«kphcQ, and tbr 
fidfewing wovds are said to ha^ lieen excbsngad bt^ 
tween them ut^^* I have thy pDodamattifm)'' aaid lia^ 
fcOeon. '' TbouJiast''-^^' Sire,'' replied 
4ie Mavesehal, ^' it is jrouwhohaive^hdKagradFjMnfie 
and the aiXBj^hgr aairrifioing bolb to a£wntac«piiit'qf 
.anUtioiu"— '' Thouhaat chosen tlgsieif <a nowjua- 
4ec,^ said Napoleon.-*-^^ I ha^e no aeoonai to sender 
4» yoa^ojktbaiJb scoxe,^ leplied die ^nend.^^^^' Thou 
jiaet nO'OMuage,^ replied Buonapaaste.-^^* 'Tia thfMi 
-haat ncne,^ se^lied tbe genend ; aadrtuncdlii&badi, 
wiliioiiit ai^ mark of ireepect, on his late master.^ 

At Montelimarty the esiled Emperor htuoi tjbe 
last ttopiessiofls of regard and qrmpath}^ He vas 
noir appmaobing Provence^ at region of which he 
>had- ne^^er poasessed the aSKBetions, asd* was greet- 
^ wiA exeoratioBS and 'Criea of^**^'' Fenudi >tfae 
Tynmt'?— ^* Down ^vritb the butcher of our children T 
Matters looked worse as they advimced^ On Mon- 
day, 26th Aptil^ when Sir NieliCanqibdlrbturing set 
out before Napoleon^ anrvraid^at A^r^on, &e offi- 
eernpon guard ansdouriy inqnired if the esoort jtt- 
^endin^^heSmporer w«sofL6ti«ngth sufficient to ne- 

* Itineraire de Buoniaparte, p« 35. Augereau was an old re- 
pablSdm, and iHid'bdett rendy t(> oppose Siimttpasrte- on ikto^aay^ie 
^^Mili99A4la».l^fkAWe B#dy. He flubmUt«d to-i»im duriiig.)p» 
reign, but was a severe censurer of his excessive love of conqtiest — 
See Vol. vn. pp. 49^2-49$. 

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Mt M popilktr jBBttiribftttee, wMdi wa» abendy on 
Ibot at tli^ HewB of Mb «mvat The Elf glii^li com^ 
Miemnerei^e$^!eA Mm to protect the ftasage of Ntu 
{MflieoB by every Hieans postsible. It was agreed that 
Ale fresh horses shotifi be posted at adifl^nt qtiaif- 
fet (ffihe fowTL fiioBi that wherelt wa» natural to hare 
expeeted the diange. Yet the mob £seovered and 
sunroutided them^ and it was wi Ar dkBetJty tiiae Na^ 
poieon im&stfredfroBi popukr fiuy. Siffiilar dafigers 
Mlended hiiia elseirhere, and', in orde^ to aroid as- 
sassinatioin, the Ex-Emperor of France was obfiged 
.to disgtiiise himscflf as a postilKon^ or adiomestic, an- 
xiouGfiy altering ^fhom time to time the mode of his 
ch^s^^ ordering t^e servants to smoke in his pre- 
sence ; and iimting the commissioners^ who trareU 
Isd wM iAm, to whistle or sing, that the incensed 
pegpte mi^ not be aware who was in die carriage-. 
At^^^gott, «he mob brought before him hfs own effigy 
duMt>M with %lood, and stopped his carriage tffithey 
displayed it bcffore his eyes ; and^ in shorty ftom Avig- 
non to La Calade, he was grossly insulted in every 
«own and i^tage, andy but fer the afnxious interference 
pf the commissioners, he would probably have been 
torn to pieces. The unkindness of the people seem- 
to ni«ke much impressiida on him. He even shed tears. 
We Aowed ako more feat of assassination than seem- 
ed coo;sisteut with his approved courage ; but it most 
be recollected, that the danger was of a new and pe- 

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054 LIFE OF 

culiarly bomUe deaeription^ jmd calcuktod to appal 
many to whom the terrors of a field of battle were fa.- 
miliar. The bravest soldier might shudder at a death 
like that of the De Witts. At La Calde he was 
equally nervous, and exhibited great fear of poisoo. 
When he reached Aixt pgerMrtiowg woe tdses h^ 
detadbuHMDta of gens d'armes, as well as by partiesrof 
the allied troops, to ensure his personal safety.* At a 
chateau called Bouillidou, he had an interidew with 
his sister Pauline. The curioaty of the lady of die 
house, and two or three females, madechem Also find 
their way to his prsfrence. They saw a g^demsai 
in an Austrian uoifimn. ^^ Whom do 3^ou wish to see, 
ladies ?^—^<' The Emperor Napolecm."—'' I am Na- 
poleon." — " You jest, sir," replied the ladies, — 
*' What ! I suppose you expected to see me lock more 
mischievous ? O yes--^con£ess that, since fortane is 
advise to me, I must look like a rascal, a misceeant, 
a brigand. But do you know how all this hto happen- 
ed ? Merely because I wished to place France above 

At length he arrived at Frejus, the v^y port .that 

* This, indeed, had been previoiuly arranged, m troops in oon- 
siderable numbers were posted for his protection at Qreaoble^ Gap, 
and Sisteron, being the road by which he was expected to have tra- 
velled ; but, perhaps with a view to try an experiment on his po- 
pularity, he took the route we have detailed. 

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received him, wheD, ooBoii^ fvom Egypt, he wm on 
die verge of commencmg that sstonishing career, now 
about to terminate, to all earthly appearance, at the 
very point from which he had started He shut him- 
sdf a solitary apartment, which he traversed 
with impatient and hasty steps, sometimes pausing to 
watch from thewindow the arrival of the vessels, one 
of which was to transport him from France, as it then 
seemed, for ever. The French frigate, the Dryade, 
and a brig called the Inconstant, had come from Tou- 
lon ta Frojus, and lay r^wiy to perform this duty. 
But, reluctant perhaps to sail under the Bourbon flag. 
Napoleon peferred embarking on board his Britan- 
nrc M^esty's ship the Undaunted, commanded by 
Captain Usher. This vessel being placed at the di- 
rection of the British commissioner, Sir Niel Camp- 
bell, he readily acquiesced in Napoleon's wish to have 
his passive in her to £lba. It was eleven at night on 
the 28th ere he finally embarked, under a salute of 
twenty-one guns. ^' Adieu, Caesar, and his fortune,"^ 
said the Russian envoy. The Austrian and. British 
commissioners accompanied him on his voyage.* 

* The Prussian Commissioner wrote an account of their journey, 
called Itiueraire de Bonaparte, jusqu^a son embarquement aJP're- 
jus, Paris, 1815. The facts are amply confirmed by the accounts 
of his fellow-travellers. Napoleon always reckoned the pamphlet 
dfOeneral Truchsess Waldbourg, together with the account of 
De Pradt's Embassy to Poland, as the works calculated to do him 
most injury. 

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2M TilWE OF 

Daring ttaefMsage, BMiii^«rte fletmdlto lecirrcr 
hid spirite, aad ecovven^ with great firmidui«»^ vid 
Mae irith Ciqitaui UriieT oad Sir Nui CampbdL 
Tlte subject chiefly led to high«4ol0iiied gtatamests 
«f the Mheaies which he had beev oempelledto iemm 
ufMOoecttted, with severe atrictBses en Mb encmteB, 
and Bomch conte|npt finr their meaai ef eppoaki0D> 
The feHowiwg particulaars are amoniig^ and^ no* far 
as we know, have never appeared : — 

He was inqoisidTe about the discipline of the ves* 
sel, wbieh he oommenckd higUy» but aesured Cap- 
tain U«ber, that had his power lasted jfar five yeats 
longer, he would have had three hundred sail of the 
line. Captain Usher naturalfy asked how they were 
to be manned. Napoleon replied^ that be had resold 
ved on a naval conscription in all the sea-ports and 
se^-KXMist frontier of France, which would man his 
fleet, which was to be exercised in the Znyder Zee, 
imtil fit for going to the open sea. The British of- 
ficer scarce suppresBed a mnite as^ he replied^ that 
the marine conscripts would make a son^ figure in a 
gale of wind. 

To the Austrian envoy vJ^apoleon^s constant sub> 
ject was the enlarged power of Russia, which, if she 
could by any means unite Poland into a healthful 

Perhaps he was sensible that during this journey he had behaved 
beneath the chacacter of a hero, or perhaps he disliked the pubUea- 
tion of details, which inferred his extreme unpopularity in the 
South of France. 

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•nd int^al part of her army, wovld, he staled, 
OTenrhekd I^irope. 

On a subaequeiit occmsm^ the Emperor fiivouredt 
bis auditor with a nev and CuriQus history of th^ 
lepewal of the war with England. According to this 
editi«wi> the Isle of Malta waa a mere pretext. Shnrl*- 
lly after the peace of Amiens, he said^ Mr Adr- 
dington, then the English Prime Minister^ proposed 
to him a renewal of Mr. Ktt^s commercial treaty with 
France ; bnt that he, Napcdeon, desirous to encott* ' 
rage the interior industry of France; had refused to 
enter into such a treaty, excepting upon terms of re- 
fl^ocity ; namely, jthat if France received so many . 
milliras of English import, England was to be obli* 
ged to tale in return the same quanti^ of French 
productions. These terms were declined by Mr Ad* 
dington, on which Napoleon declared there should 
be no treaty at all, unless his principles were adopt- 
ed. '^ Then,"" replied Mr Addington, as quoted by 
Buonaparte, ^' there must be hostilities ; for, unless 
die pe<^le of England have the advantages of com* 
merce on the terms they are accustomed to, they 
will force me to declare war."*^— And the war took; 
place accordingly, of which, he agsun averred, Eng* 
land'^s determination, to recover the advantages of 
the treaty of commerce between Vergennes and Pitt^' 
was the real^cause. 

^* Nou)^ he continued, kindling as he spdke, 
England has no power which can oppose her sys-^ 


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2A8 LIF£ OF 

tern. She can pursue it without limits. There witt 
be a treaty on very unequal terms, which will not 
affiird due encouragement to the manufactlires of 

France. The Bourbons are poor devils ^^ he 

checked himself,^— ^^ they are Grand Seigneurs^ oon^ 
tent to return to their estates and draw thdr rents ; 
but if the people of France see that, and become 
discontented, the Bourbons will be turned <^ in six 
months."^ He seemed again to recollect himsdf, lik^ 
one who thinks he has spoken too much, and wa& per- 
ceptibly more reserved for the rist of the day. 

This curious ebullition was concocted according to 
Napoleon^s peculiar manner of blending what might 
be true in his narrative, with what was intended to 
forward his own purpose, and mingling it with so 
much falsehood and delusion, that it resembled what 
the English poet says of the Catholic Plot, 

." Some truth there was, but miz'd and dashM with lies." 

It is probaUe that, after the peace of Amienft, 
Lord Sidmouth might have wished to renew the 
commercial treaty $ but it is absolutely false that Na- 
poleon's declining to do so had any effect upon die 
renewal of hostilities. His prophecy that his own 
downfall would be followed by the English urging 
upon France a disadvanti^eous commercial treaty, 
has proved equally false ; and it is singular enough 
that he who^ on board the Undaunted, declared that 
entering into such a measure would be the;destruc« 

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tioii of the Bourbons, should, while at St Helena, ri- 
dicule and censure Lord Qastlereagh for not having 
secured to Britain that Commercial supremacy, the 
gnmting of which he had r^resoited as the probable 
cause of such a result. Thus did his colouring, if not 
his facts, change according to the mood of the mo* 

While on board the Undaunted, Napoleon spokQ 
with gseat freedom of die fiudlity with which he had 
outwitted and defeated the allies during the last 
campaign. ** The Milesian Army,^ he said} ** had 
giv^i him most trouUe. The old devil, Blucher, 
was no sooner defeated than he was willing .to 
fight again.*^ But he considered his victory over 
Schwartaenberg as certain, save for the defection of 
Mannont. Much more he said, with great appa^ 
rent frankness, and seemed desirous to make him* 
self in every respect agreeable to his companions on 
board. Even the seamen, who at first regarded 
him with wonder, mixed with suspicion, did not e»^ 
cape the charm of his affalnlity, by which they were 
soon won over^ all excejpting the boat&^ain Hinton, 
a tar of the old school, who could never hear the 
Emp^ror^s praises without muttering the vulgar but 
expressive phrase, " jETwrnfett^."* 

■ ■■■ M ' I ' 1 " ■ . ' ' ' ' * 

* The honest boatowahi, howerer, could understand and value 
what was sdiid in Napoleon's merits. As he had to return thanks, 
in name of the ship's company, for 900 lonis with wMch this £nu 
perar presented them, he wished '' his honour good health, «gi 
better luck the next time." 

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260 LIFK OF 

With the same good humour, Naprieon admitted 
9»j sUgfat jest which might be passed, even at hia 
own expense. When off Corsica, he proposed that 
Captain Usher diould fire a gun to bnng-tp a fisb^ 
ing-boai;, from which he hoped to hear same n^msi 
Captain Usher excused himself, saying, such an act 
of hostility towards a neutral would denatiorMbn 
her, in direct contradiction of Napoleon^s doctrine 
oimceming the rights of nations. The Emperor 
laughed heartily. At anoih^ time, he amused him*^ 
self Hay supposing what admirable caricatures his 
voyage wotdd give rise to in London. He seenoed 
wonderfully ikmiUar with that species of satve, though 
so peculiarly English. 

Upon the 4th of May, when they arrived within 
si^ of Porto Perrajo, the principal town^ of Elba, 
which has a very fine harbcutr, they found the island 
in some cqnfusion. The inhabitants had been le* 
oendy in a state of insurrection against the Frendi; 
which had been quieted by the governor and Ae 
tioops giving in their adhesion to'the Bourbcm go* 
vemment. This state of things naturally increased 
Napoleon^s apprehensions, which had never entirely 
subsided since the dangers he underwent in ^ro^ 
vence. Even on board ihe Undaunted, he had pe- 
quested that a serjeant of marines might fleep'^acli 
night on the outside of his cabin-door, a trusty do- 
mestic also mountihg guard within. He now show- 
ed some unwillingness, when they made the island. 

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to the ship running right under the batteries ; and 
when be first landed in the morning, it was at an 
early hour, and in disguise, having previously ob- 
tained &om Captain Usher, a sergeant's party of ma- 
rines to attend him. 

Having returned on board to breakfast, after his 
incognito visit to his island, the Emperor of Elba, 
as he may now be styled, went oh shore in foi^ii, 
about two o^clock, with the commissioners, receiving, 
at leavisg the Undaunted, a royal salute. On tlst 
beach, he was refceived by the governor, prefect, 
and other official persons, with such means of honour 
as they possessed, who conducted him to the Hotel- 
de- Ville in procession, preceded by a wretched band 
of fiddlers. The people welcomed him with many 
shouts. The name ci Buonaparte had been unpo- 
pular among them as Eo^ieror of France, but they 
anticipated considerable advantages from his resid- 
ing among them as their own particular sovereign. 

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262 LIFE W 


^Ihot^-^NapoleavCs mode of life and occupation there, — EffeeUi 
produced hy Ms residence at Elba upfm the adjoining Kmg^ 
dom of Italif. — He is visited by his Mother and the Prin- 
cess Pauline — and by a Polish Lady. — Sir Niel Campbell 
' the only Commissioner left at ESba^ — NapokomCs Comersa^ 
- tions on the State of Europe. — His pecuniary JD^ficulties-^ 
and fears of Assassination — His impatience und^ these 
'causes of complaint. — Motley nature of his tkmrt — He 
withdraws himself vnthin Courtforms from intercourse 
with Sir Niel GampbeU. — Symptoms of some approaching 
. crisis. — A part of the Old Ouard disbanded, who return to 
France.'-^Napoleon^escapesfrom Elba. — Fruitless pursuit 
by Sir Nid CamjMl ' - .. 

Elba, to the limits of which the mighty empire 
of Napoleon was now contracted, is an island oppo- 
site to the coast of Tuscany, about fflxty miles ia 
circumference. The air is healthy, excepting in the 
•neighbourhood of the jsalt marshes. The country is 
mountainous, and^ having all the florid vegetation 
^f Italy, is« in general, of a romantic character. It 
produces little grain, but exports a con«derable 

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quantity of vines i and its iron ore. has been famous 
«ince the days of Virgil, who describes Elba as. 

Insula inexhaustis chalybum generosa metallis. 

There are also other mineral productions. The 
island boasts two good harbours, and is liberally pro- 
ductive of vines, olives, fruits and maise. Perhaps, 
if an empire could be supposed to exist within such 
a brief space, Elba possesses so much both of beauty 
and variety, as might constitute the scene of a sum* 
mer*night's dream of sovereignty. Buonaparte seem- 
ed to lend himself to the illusion, as, accompanied by 
Sir Niel Campbell, he rode in his usual exploring 
mood, around the shores of his little state. He did 
not fail to visit the iron mines, and being informed 
die linnual produce was 500,000 francs, ^' These 
then," he said, ^' are mine.^ But being raninded 
that he had conferred that revenue on the Legion of 
Honour, he exclaimed, " Where was my head wh^n 
I gave such a grant ! But I have made many fool- 
ish decrees of that sort.*^ 

One or two of the poorer class of inhabitants knelt, 
.and e\ea prostrated themselves when tfiey met him. 
He seemed disgusted, and imputj^ this Jiumiliating 
degree of abasement to the wretchedtiess of their edu- 
cation, under the auspices of the monks. On these 
excursions he showed the same apprehension of as- 
sassination which had marked his journey to Frejus. 

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Two couriers, well armed, rode before him, And.ttx;- 
amined every suspicious spot. But as he climbed a 
mountain above Ferrajo, and saw the ocean approach 
its feet in almost every direction, the expression br<Jce 
fi-bin hitn, accompan^ with a good-humoured smile, 
^ Ij; lidust b^ confesi^ my isle is very little.^^ 

He ptofesfied, ho#ever, to be perfectly resigned 
tb Ms fate ; l)ft^ i»jx>ke of himself as a miii politic 
it^y dead^ and claimed credit for ^hkt he i^id iipo& 
jmbUe kfiUirli; as haviiig no remaining iiiteresi ia 
th^m. H& pf cffessed his intettiomi were, to devote 
bimi^etf (^inclusively to sciencfe and literature. At 
H^^er tiindd, he said he would live in his little island^ 
like a Justice-'bf teace ita a cbiintry town in England. 
- The btUii'aeieir of Napoleon, however, wii little 
fctiown to hittteelf, It* life seriously thought that *is 
k^ei^Am ftnd poWerfdl mind fcould be satidfled with tfife 
Iftrifetlg^tidh of abstract truths, or amiised by the 
i(6i«ul'j&'bf lit^arjr i*esearch. U^ c6h>t)ared His ab- 
dication to that of Charles V.^ fdrgfettitig that Ihfe 
Austrian Emperor's retreat was voluritary, that hfe 
hidi tuhi ttfVardife Bifechahicil piirsuifs, arid that 
*Vfe4 Witt tbeft^ metos <if sdlacfe, Ghdrlfe^ bgciiii^ 
^IttijoiitetitW with his retirement. The^hatabt^<tf 
BiionipiH^ Wft8> 61A the cotiltaiy ^ singiiytly opfykina 
t© a stritfe of i^eclifeidii. H4d fi^cfjiensities bontHiiiM 
to be exAfetly bf tbfe hfOft^ descrij^tidti kt^ feBSi,^ i^mk 
had 60 Wng tefrlfi^ dhd disqiiifeted Eurbge. To 

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change the exteTnal. ftte of what^ja srtmad Mm ; ,U> 
itsagine ext^iiisiye alterations, iritbout aectiniteljr coft^ 
^ideriiig the means I>j vhich tbey w^reto be acebm- 
filislied ; to wdirk. within his petty province subh al- 
iarations as^its Hmits permitted \ to resume, in shor<, 
idpon a sniaU sbale, those changes which he bad at- 
tempted iipom that which was mdst magnifie'ant.; to 
>iippl)r to Elba the sy^i^m of pbliby Which, hk hwi 
fexmrised so long in Europe^ was the only mode in 
whieh be seems^ tb have found amusement and eaieir- 
cise for the impatient energies of a temper, acdistbm- 
ed from his early youth to work upon others, but apt 
ik> become lethargic, suUen, and discontented^ wfaep 
it-iir^s cdmpelled, for want of other exercise, to recoil 
upon iteelfc • • 

• During the first two or tiiree weeks oFhisresidisiiee 
ifi the island of Blba, Napf)leOii had already phmsed 
iinpitiv^mehtd, or alterations and im^otations at least; 
whicfai had they beeh to be carried itito etectttfdii 
vi4t^ the roettti^. which lie possessed, \^ould hav^per- 
hiips Uken bis lifetime to execute. It was no nt^m^ 
der, indeed, ac(;ustdit)ed as he h^ been to i^pj^ak the 
*«iidv ftnd to be obfeyed, and tb consider the im- 
]^bv§tn^falS l^hich he ttl^ditated as those which be- 
feame t^ hl»ad o^it great empire, tha|^ he SfaouMiiot 
Il4v6 i>feefa abte to recbHect that his present ojierationls 
i^^^ied a peltjr iait, ^Here magnificence if as to be 
Mltlfd, iidt only by iitiliiyi biit by tJie want of fiinds. 

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966 LIFE OF 

In the ooiunse of two or three days' travellings with 
•the sMne rapidity whidi characterised his movemeBts 
in his frequent progresses through France^ and show*- 
ing the same impatience of rest or delay. Napoleon 
had visited every spot in his little island, mines, 
woods, salt-marshes, harbours, fcnrtifications, and 
whatever was worthy of an instant^s evmsideralion, 
and had meditated improvements and innovations 
Tespecting every one of them. Till he had done 
this he was impatient of rest, and having done so he 
laeked occupation. 

One of his first, snd perhaps most characteristic 
proposals, was to aggrandise and extend his Lilipu- 
tian dominions by occupation of an uninhabited is- 
land, called Rianosa, which had been* left desolate 
on account of the frequent descents of the corsairs. 
He sent thirty of his guards, with ten of the inde- 
pendent company belonging to the island, upon this 
expedition — (what a contrast to those which he had 
formerly directed !) sketched out a plan of fortifica- 
tions, and remarked, with comjdacencjr, ^^ Euiope 
'Will say that I have already made a conquest.^ 

In an incredibly short time Napoleon had ako 
planned several roads, had contrived means to convey 
water from the mountains to Postp Ferrajo, designed 
4;wo palaces, one for the country, the other in the 
city, a separate mansion for his siBter Pauline, staUes 
.£>r one hundred and fif);y horses, a lazaretto, build- 

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ings for accommodation of the tunny-fiaheiy, and salt- 
works on a new construction at Porto Longone. The 
Emperor of Elba proposed, also, purchasing various 
domains, and had the price estimated ; for the in- 
clination of the jNToprietor was not reckoned essen- 
tial to the transaction. He ended by estabUshiag 
four places of residence in the different quwters of 
the island ; and as his amusement consisted in con* 
stttdt change and alteration, he travelled from one 
tp anodier with the restlessness of a bird in a cage, 
which springs from perch to perch, since it is 
prevented from winging the air, its nattoal element. 
It seemed as if the magnitude of the object was not 
so much the subject of his consideration, providing it 
afforded immediate scope for employing his constant 
and stimulated desire of activity. . He was like the 
thorough-bred gamester, who, deprived of the means 
of depositing large stakes, will rather play at small 
game than leave the table. 

Napoleon placed his court also upon an ambitious 
scide, having more reference to what he had so long 
been, than to what hi actually now had been reduced 
to, while, at the same time, the furniture and internal 
aecommodations of the imperial palace were, meaner 
by far than those of aa English gentleman of ordi- 
nary rank. The proclamation of the French go- 
vernor on resigning his authority to Napoleon,, 
was well and becomingly expressed; but the spiritual; 

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368 LIFK OF 

mandate of the Vicar-general Arrighi, a relation of 
Buonaparte^s, which was designed to congratulate 
the people of Elba on becoming the subjects of the 
Great Napoleon, was extremely ludicrous. ** Ele< 
^ted to the sublime honour of receiving the anoint- 
ed of the Lord,^ he described the exhaustless wealth 
which was to flow in upon the* people, froni the 
strangers who came to look upon the here. The ex-^ 
hortation sounded as if the isle had become the re8i-> 
dence of some nbn-descript animal, which was to^^be 
sho^n for money. 

The interior of Napoleon's household, though re- 
duced to thirty-five persons, still held the titles, and 
aJFected the l*ank, proper to an imperial court, of 
whidt it will be presently seen the petty sovereign 
made a political use. He displayed a national Aag; 
having a red bend dexter in a white field, the bend 
bearing three bees. To dignify his cs^ital, having . 
discovered that the ancient name of Porto Ferrajo 
was Gomopoli,(^ e. the city of CSomo,) he command- 
ed it to be called Cosmopoli^ or the city of all na- 
tidiw. * 

His body-guard, of about 7OO infantry and 80 ca- 
valry, seemed to occupy as much of NapoleonV atten- 
tion as the Gtand Army did formerly. They wet* 
cotistantljr exercised, especially in throwing dhet iaild 
«hells ; and, in a abort time, he was obse^ed to be 
anxious about obtaining recruits for them. This wa« 

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00 diffieolt matter, wli^re all th^ world had 'so* lately 
bei^flm arms, ^nd engaged in a'|nx>fe9MOB tfaicb 
many, doubtless, for whom a peaceful Ufe bad few 
charms, laid aside inth regret, and longed to resmne^ 
As early as the month of July 1814<, theve was 
a eonsiderablB degree of f ermentlttion • in Italy, to 
wUch the neighbourhood of Elba, the resideilce of 
several fnembers of the Buonaparte family, and the 
sovereignty of Murat, occasioned a general resort 
of Buonaparte's fifiendsand admirers. Eveiy day 
this agitation increased, and various arts were re- 
floated to for disseminating a prospect of Napoleon^s 
future return to power.- Sundry parties <i( recruits 
came over to Elba from Italy to enlist in his guards, 
and two persons employed in this service were arrest- 
ed at Leghorn, in whose possession were foimd writ- 
ten lists, contaiimig the names of several hundred 
persons willing t6 serve Napoleon. The species of 
ferment and discontent thus produced in Italy » was 
mtLch increased by the impolitic conduct of Prince 
itospigliosi, th)e civil governor of Tuscany, who re- 
festablii^hed i)[i their full foarce every form and regu- 
Ifittoii formerly practised under die Dukes of ^ Tiia- 
cai$y, broke i^ the establishment of the Musaeum, 
which had been instituted by Buonaparte's sister, 
ahd while he returned to all the absurdities of the 
(M government, relaxed none of the imposts which 
the Fretich hiwi laid on; 

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270 LlFi OF 

Napoleon's conduct towards the refugees who 
fbimd their way to Elba^ may be judged from the 
fbllowing sketch. On the 11th of July, Co}ombom, 
commandant of a battalion of the 4th regiment of 
the fine in Italy, was presented to the Emperor aa 
newly arrived. *^ Well, Colomboni, your business 
in £lbaP^ — ** First, to pay my duty to your Majesty; 
secondly, to offer myself to carry a musket among 
your gpiards.^— •** That is too low a situation, you 
must have something better,^ said Napoleon ; and 
instantly named him to an appointment of 1200 
francs yearly, though it appears the Emperor himself 
was then in great distress for money. 

About the middle of summer, Napoleon was 
visited by his mother, and his sister the Princess 
Pauline. At this time, too, he seems to have expect^ 
ed to be rejoined by his wife Maria Louisa, who, 
it was said, was coming to take possession oi her 
Italian dominions. Their separation, with the inci- 
dents which happened before Paris, was the only sub* 
ject on which he appeared to lose temper. Upon these 
topics he used strong and violent language. He 
said, that interdicting him intercourse with his wife 
and son, excited universal reprobation at Vienna — 
that no such instance of inhumanity and injustice 
could be pointed out in modem times — ^that the Em- 
press was detained a prisoner, an orderly officer con- 
stantly attending upon her — finally, that she had 
been given to understand before she left Orleans, 

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that she was to obtain permission to join him at the 
island of Elba, though it was now denied her. It 
was possible, he proceeded, to see a shade of policy, 
though none whatever of justice, in this separation. 
Austria had meant to unite the child of her sove- 
T&ga with the Emperor of France, but was desirous 
of breaking off the connexion with the Emperor of 
Elba, as it might be apprehended that the respect 
due to the daughter of the House of Hapsburg would, 
had she resided with her husband, have reflected too 
much lustre on the abdicated sovereign. 

The Austrian commissioner, General Kohler, on 
the other hand, inristed that the separation took 
pbce by the Empress Maria Louisa's consent, and 
even at her request ; and hinted that Napoledn^s de- 
sire to have her society was dictated by 6ther feel- 
iBgs thm those of domestic affection. But allowing 
that Napoleon^s views in so earnestly desiring the 
omipany of his wif^ might be political, we can see 
neither justice nor reason in refusing a request, which 
would have been granted to a felon condemned to 

We have not thought it necessary to disturb the 
narrative of important events by noticing details 
which belong rather to romance ; but as we are now 
treating of Napoleon in bis more private character, 
a mysterious circumstance may be mentioned. About 
the end of August 181 4, a lady arrived at the Isle of 

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279 uv£ o¥ 

Eiba» fron Leghorn, with a bpy ^bou| five or six 
yemmM.' fibeiiasreodvadby'N^fKdsSn^itKgiMi 
alt^tiop, but at the sane time vith:«« idr bfmmh w- 
cmjTy and was lodged in a 8llla'^^«nd tbryretiiisd'TiHil, 
in the Jiiost remote oorser oftbe ialaadf fraCi UStmeif, 
after remainiDg two dajrs^ ilie re^eialiaiikeft' im-Hm- 
pies. TheEIbesenatarallyeoiMiiiliedtliat^ittiiMat 
have been the Empress' Maria Lonis4«iidiiferrseRi. 
But^beindividnalwas kno^nby^tboaoftear Kapoleon^s 
person to be a Polish lady froiq WarsM/aaMttbe bo^ 
wife die c&pring of an* intrigue bel^xt bet a^Na* 
pdlaim seventkyears before. The oaaseoffa%risp^y 
depntoveiii^ibt be delibacy towards Miirttr Louisa, 
and "dib^ftffr of affotdihg the Co«n of Vienna* a i»e^ 
teift for eomintiing the reparation, of whieh- Nhpo- 
leon ooBiplahled. Infact, the Austrians, in dbfeUce 
of thmr owif eondtiet, imputed irrfegularitica:^ t^at 
of Buonaparte ; but the imth of tfaes^t^ai^esSffon&l 
be ho edifying nujbject of mvoitiglitioilr. 

'About the middle of May, Baron- Kohjer took 
farewell of Napoleon, to return to Vienna. - He* was 
an Austrian general of rank and reputa^on ; a par^ 
Iticular fttend and old schoolfellow of PrinoeSdiwart- 
zenbejrg. I'he scene of Napoleon^is parting wfih this 
gentleman was. quite patfhetic on the Emperci^a-Mde: 
He wepC as he embraced Geh^ni' KoWer, atfd 'en- 
treated him t(> procure. If possible, hisre-nnion with 
jiis wife 'and fchitd — called him the piseserver of his 

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Cfb^regrettad^Us poverty/ irMcb' pvei^eiitod lu» bt^ 
stowiag OD Ittin some Talodble tdeeaof MOMBliraiict 
-^fiiHiBy, Mdiiii; tka Austmm geimal in kb annt, 
he lidLd him there for scMne time, nyetiiig caprw 
fkn ef the warmest attaehmenC. Tlsn seiifliUIity 
edsied bD upon one ade ; finr an EngKah gentleman 
who ^riltteased the Bcenoy haringadEed Kohler after-* 
wards what he was thinking of while looked in Ae 
Emperor^ emfaraoes^^^ of Jndaa Iscarioty^ aaiwor- . 
ed Ae Anstrian. 

After iSae departure of Baron Kohkr^CohMml Sir 
Nid CampbdU was the onlj one of the femr eooamb^ 
aeners 1^0 contintied to remain at Elba hy orders of 
the BnAA CaUnet It was diffieidt tosaj wkit Ins 
office really was, or what were his instractlons. - He 
had neither power, title, nor means, to intevfete with 
Napoleon*s motions. The Emperor had been reoeg^ 
nised l^ a treaty — ^wise or feolish, it was too late to 
ask^ — as an independent sover^rn. It was therefore 
only as an envoy that Sir Niel Campbell coidd be 
permitted to reside at his court ; and as an enroy also, 
not of the usual diaracter^ for settling affiors xxmceni- 
ing the court from which he was dispatched, but 
i^ a capacity not generally avowed, the office, namely 
of observing tlie conduct of that at which he wasp||t 
to reside. In fact. Sir Niel Campbell had np JKMm/ 
or ostensible situation whatever, and of this the 
Frendi minis^ of Elba soon took advanti^. Dron* . 

VOL. viir. s . 

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Aitnli dixMt hiA to matiniit theie after thftt 

^Mdbt would be respecUUe. 

tWmd^ 4mN^ fa4vi>c^P5 iW^W?er of Sir NW 

y^mvA :^tk mm^ €|<mfid^ce yppu, iiu)?% #»^ 

flOMUv ceciMi. that hia ardent tenmeKaoicaiC wlsben 

N^L (;;^iiq^ ]^ad m aMdiei^^ ot tbreft ]|tfyi|)[f^dii- 
of a sedentary posture, walked from on^.^d of the 

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hapff^ be Mid, tkat Sit VHel MtialAe* int^Hb^ 
pimr Tomp^e ta O^imet^ (t# desMjf^ MMlcly, tiMf 
ideft, tfait Itt^ Biuiftiqpalrte, laiA AiMhdr )iMi^A'<if 
daMfebng file peac^ «f BiMpd.> '' I Autk/" htf 
eMliiM»d, ^ ef Aolhiiiif teysM»i tie ^t»g«^tt^filll«> 
ides. I could Ysme a^ipcffuA A0 witr f^ MMtty 
yettrs^ tf Ibaddioatii* XM»tfbiradttfM»ed<ptilMV 
ofcc^ivd iridic AOtfaBig Mitniy fiwity^ t»fififfCM/^iitf 
Uonse^ any: eows, asod my ^iMflify;'^ AeT tlMff ifi^ke 
i& die h^^luet terns ^ the^ Stt^h^^haMiMMf, pft><^ 
tesfeb^ it had aiwiq^ bad* bis dadmi' admiMtev, 
nslwiORMiBdxtqpp tbt abuse dit<^iid fl^^s# it^i^iMli 
nanei Ife requested she Britirfl ento]^ tD^liUK M^ 
due' in fmco^g Um^ ani Ei^i^ GtamixMNii-4^ i» 
ap^ Mib Hitxtoa,. tbc' beMwain^ m^- n¥i pteaii*, 
te'fcRTeascttinpaiB^itbia'euibgy with hb^fiivvixrite 

Ibi die rert ef die oowvenwticip die SIboie Empe- 
Ter iWMfpiisbsiily norei seisous Me' iit^foired' widi> 
eafcniess after the:real state of Franoe.* Sir Nidf 
Cami^balt i^onbedi bitri tbat alll die raAiniatioa be 
badtbeett aUe to ooUsbt, ascribed) gtea6 iriaiam aad 
SMdemdeii^io* die soveDdignt aiid' geveriiiiieiit;; but 
aUoiied that those iffaobadlbBf good sffdintlaeitta,/ 
the [nnsoners of war- ^Am bad lagtomedr from abroad, 
audi g^mi paipt of tBe army indie MMined^elaabodicH, 
wfftreMttiaitaid}edt<^!^ltoie<)m Ttt^mwetrvBuoiiaparte 

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i to «dBit.tlie stability of the thimie, iUfqpttrt- 
td MM it^was by tbe Mttreschab and great officen ; 
but be derided tbe idea .of affording France the be** 
nefit of a firee oonstitution. He md^ the attempt U>. 
imitate that of Great Britain was a farce^i a cari<?at^re. 
It was imjiossible, be observed, to imitate thie two 
Houses of Parliament, fer that respectable- famiU^ 
lUce those composing the aristocraqf of Englandj, did 
not now esdst in France. He talked with Inttcsmc^ of 
the cension of Selgium, and of France being dfpriTfld 
of Antwerp. He himself spoke, he observed, ^^» a 
, spe^fbr, without hop^ or interest, for he had qone.; 
but ^W to have mortified the French showed an 
igiaorance of the national character. 'J'heir chi/of . 
feeMnj^'was for pricU and glory, and t^e allies need 
not lopk forward to a state of satis&ction and Iran- 
quiMjity under such circumstances as Frmce was 
now placed in, " The French,'* he said, " wemoon- 
quered' only by a great superiority of number, there- 
fore were npt humiliated ; and the^opolation had not . 
sttJSefed io the .extent alleged, finr he had aTwigrs 
spared tnar Bves, and exposed those of Italians, (prer- 
mans> and other foreigners.'*' He remarked tha^ th# . 
gral^ude of Xouis XVIIL to Great Britain was ofr 
fensi ve tq Fri^ce, and that he was called in derision , 
the lUm, of England's Viceroy. 

tn^ibe U(tter months <£ 1814, Sir Niel CAmg^ ; 
began ib become sensible that Napoleon, desired to. 
f 3(clude fiim from his presence as much as he possibly 

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covldf without posidvci nldeness. He hither fuddeA-> 
ly entrenched himself within idl the' forms of aa im- 
perid court ; and without affording the British enVdy 
any ii1)s6lute cause ik complaint, or even any title to 
reqtfire^'explanation, he contrived, in a great mea- 
sure to debar him from opportunities pf converts* 
Tidn?^^^His only opportunity of obtainmg access to 
Napbl^^ was oh his return from short absences td 

li^ohi and Florence, when his attendance oil tb6 

^ . . . •• t. -jct 

lev^ was matter of etiquette. 

Oik such occasions, the tetlor of Kapoleon^s ^roph^:- 
cieiB'Was ininator}' of the peace of Europe. ^ He a^k^ 
perpetually of the humiliation inflicted upon Franoei 
by taking from her Belgium and his ^aVpuiite obje<5t 
Antwerp. On the 30th of October,' while enl^ging 
'otk' these topics, he described the irritable fedii^ of 
the nation, saying, every 'man in !^rance conddered 
Ai Khine to be their natural boundary, and nothing 
couM alter this opinion* There was no want, he said^ 
of a^^pulation in France, inardal beyond any other 
hatioh, by natural disposition, by the cohs^uencet 
of the devolution, and by the idea of glory. I^uis 
iti V.V according to his account, notwithstanding; all 
the misfortunes he had brought upon t^e nation^ 
was still beloved on account of the edat of hi^vic* 
tones, and the magnificence of his comrt. . The Jytt-. 
tie oJf'lElosbach had brought about the ReypludoiL 
Louis XV ni. totally mistook the charact^ of tne 
French in mipposing, that either by argument, or by 

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278 LI^^ OF 

r/e^oixig, pr ipdidgipg them wi4 » fre^ cdi^tufbi^ 
l^e qc^ul^ induoe dieni^ to /fin]!^ inlo a stale ^peto^ 
^wduBtry. Ho innst^that thePakeorWeWflg>- 
.to^^6 presence at Farig was ai^ insult fm ift^Wic^kA 
lotion i that veiy strofig ^cpx;! pre^i^edfe ih^ ttmbr 
t^., fsid a^^t tjie Ring ha^ ]b»t |ffw ^JigodB, fHfiHr 
in ^e^urmjr or ijrognf the people. Bfrjlmi|i«4io KH^ 
D^ighjt try tp get rid of # piprt of fhea^uirliy^lntti^ 
i;^i][^ to Saint Doniipeo, but ibM, he <A»8fri^» 
would be soon seen through ; he hit^s^ l)i||l fiiadk^ 
i» 4De}Anebply tri^» with the loss of 30^000 foen, 
irjhich had proved the inutility of suph expediliws. 

I|e then eheched himsdif^ find f^ndeavpured tp 
^hpw that; he had no personal feelnig or«expe0ftkm 
fipm the re^olptions he fb^etol^- *^ I ain a deeeifBed 
jman^'^ he ^aid; ^*I wi^s born a soldier; I fk^^ 
fpprfffted a thr9ne ; I have descended feom i^ ; I m 
j^ftp^ed for any fate. They may tsan^ppift'iM to 
fl flift^t shorp^ or they inay put mp to death \^0i 
I ff^l sprea4 ^oy bospm ppen to the p<xuard. Vfbm 
P)erelj General Bppnaparte^^ I had property of aqr 
own jMjquiriBg-^I am now deprived of a^.*" 

Off another occasion, he deseiibed the ftnapiftin 
IVance, which he 82|id |ip hi|4 learned ftom ihewna- 
fjK^^tence of his guards with their native trpcmery.aM 
SQ far ffrgot t^^ chan^ptpr qf a defo(;^p«non, aa to 
i^y plaj^y^ that the prfi)9pnt ^«|^^ct|on woidd'brea|c 
pft frith aB thie ftqy of tbe fmvft^ iwohiiion j 9^ 
rfq^^e hi^ own reaurrpctlon. " For then,'^ he added, 

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mkf^ fifr ^1^ DM Mpotfis umm « nil ^ IMH*^ 

TUi i^ittiM 9f OMMMatidA w«i p«illip9 like IbM 

pmUftm Item ite ^MtiA MmMumm. fir NM 
Gtfifbd^ duMI^ tot witbmit efttfiMiak^ (M«pi* 
ciMw, jvidgtd hf upon the whole, unlikely itlit hA 
iMiamt^a ti^UhbiK eooenttic» tfnleiM i l^iqpttng 
ffijM&ig AMkU l^iMimt lM«tf on the pm of ItfMW 

Ni^lMi held die tame ipeaeB olP Imgaikgt to 
odim«kt«tiytttlheBiikkhniUttt» Ho^widEl- 
Ue^ MA^^atamM (in apfi&Hitt^,) to the flittM^ 
^Mis^Mngeift whom clliiositykd to Viiit hte 
ofhifl xetilimMll Ail Dkielesim m^t htfWdett^ili 
the gttieiii of SUflAritii } gMned to c»lii^ 
tttied ctvM* HI eMied, iad to be now chiefly fftid&m 
to ej^illiin endh |iMsi^ of fab ^0 as iMt th^ binlt 
eoiiitrti£tio& df the ^otlcL Iti gitittg ft^ Utiii ^Mi^ 
ilttw«n to du»e ^ho iMnVersed #M IdiBiMAdup^ 
daily td Sc^liihnkOli of itid:, Buoif Hj^artd feluld ti 
lea^ wmHB of cominni^eatitlg to.the ptMc.ittiti 
ttpliHAIidlM G^tioeffting hm ]^ Hfe, it» w»» iMt 
ealctiIali^to8enrehiiiwiAe». In dieoeh^j^«libu;ed, 
inatend df da^ii^, the sdiette ^poimiu% ttt {Mi- 
aonefs is SfAt^ A6 fittaMKM at Jatfa, the tttutAir 
drthtt]>iAeireiEi(^Mto, andoill«t'<!l^^ Ah 

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tfpnBd jfmyi poim^» a^nst be f8^0i«aUj*l«ilmad Ui jqr 
thoie wbo k«v^ tbe rommuc pleawire^iof JifgnJig jton 
I^^ hi»rOir» ^ai^.t MiUer <e£tio9»4»€bi» inrtiiniJiiw 
)i9fi9»t^Wcirc^ledm £«ix!QII94 wd» 19 ihticpMit^ 
«ty,tQi#ee,ftQA A^inuie the OftpliTfi ^cmmgili^iwm 

lilw<gr* . . »..^ ■ >!'. -r 

A« the win^tet apprdaqhed^ a change w$a^ diaofv* 
ifdM^ in. l^tipekw's inawei^ flR^ Tliral* 

tcsatiQiis which be had plaimed in. the miImA^jw 
hT^afifiamP him 4u9 WB0 intADpsI ;. he^ mnonMed, 
ji^iHtliJkiie; k> t«i»e> ibe fie^tevQ exerime in vbiek he 
he^.l«&ait.iii4^lge4« Qfwd a oatmge^i^itberAhmhifi 
.h<mf«M4,aMoh.ppc$^mi|%inlo fitp of 4eep<ri»ii^ 
i te»f b tw » qw^lad wi4h gloomy aniietir. . . 
.: ^e^ hefiiimfb :#l#P»-8id^^ to imemim^syrto 
ifihidi jbe^ JM hitheyfio been a 9ixmgm hmg. thut 
:ari8iiig fi^om pecnp^ ineonv^nieiii^f^ He had: 
filled. Anti^ eaLpenaefs n;^ iaqprn^^ eag^nieiB, 
.alld^ wi|b$tfNt ;«^Wiig the. amount of hU r^B^wf^m 
agiWBt iih^.c^ «f the^.pr<V^>wl alteiatim«! IC^he 
iVeadymoney whiiA he favpi^t from, Fjraoee MfpeM 
IQ ha:ire becpiomi exhaitttad^ and to raige tj i^pg^ ig» 
.h«uimw«o4t4 ijbe iBheUtrnpte of hk i44ii4 .^ Jf7 
^^4^ M^mopth o£,J,m^ the Gontrihtttiou <of ^e 

^eftMiiMli)illidt diieimtntp It vam refresenied to him, 
that to poor were the inhabitants of the island, in 

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of WAiit of Mile Anr theb wuw fiv 
waHtlm TpiM'i thftfe^they woudd be drifen to the unaa 
«riK«|MM«ta)t8 jf the veqttiflittfMi skocdd lie pmiAsied 
4tt^ - la » ii #li lo ^f 4hfe viHagiMi* the ^iig>g<ll«ere>s of th« 

ltet|loiftf i»toi0-»OBit>»d '•ad JiM»lted» Niq^MloMi^M 
Jrift^sidf^ «eiit pMTt'of hirtfoopcr to^qttftHer tipaii^lhe 
1niiii{<irib'pi^aiMHi#fy>- and- to be «:^poited -by^iem 

al ficee eo9t, till the oontiibiitiens should b^ ftiA 

'«niii8, ii^e^vecogttte IB his geimtiBteDt^f thb 
^i AiiWi i' c ^inte, ^ Mne wisdom, aaad the MSie 
i»M^>*l7 whieh Bmnapnte wen sad lest theseu- 
l^i^^iitfHb^ W0fld« The j^atis of improYemettts md 
•'iAtftimftf ^^uiielioeitk>ns whidi' beJbnoed^^ were pm- 
^Mbiy^drygoofd iii dieteselres; but he pvoeeeded to 
the enecvAm of tliet' whieh he hect reedted with 
lor «MiBii ii)ld too reckless predpiuitlilii; toetadch 
*^ •(•deftaftiMlioii to work Us own fleMnre^ and 
4ilo l^e oeneem-fdi' die fedk^gs of oAem. 

The coiBpoiiiti<fii8 proving a wieak resooKee, as 
^Acy ¥ere scarce to be extracted from themismMe 
iiAanders^ Napoleen- had recourse to others, ^N%ich 
.muat ha^e been peculiarly galling to a man of hb 
iMMglHy q^t. Bntashisrerenueysofarastsngibfe, 
'Ad n^t exeeed 300,^0&'fianc8^ and his^eigp^nditvre 
avMBliBd to at least^ a million, be was^ compellad to 
ilo^erlli^i^wa&d^s^of most of his retinue; to reduce 
.tlte:wii^ofd^toiiier8toone4oifrthi tiehmia^ money 

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f89 VIVE OF 

by the uie of the proviMeps hni wf fi»>tlie gaw i aei ? 
nay, ef«n by seittng « tnia of btan ertHhey t^dK 
Dttke of TiiM«y. He dUpwed, dm^ eCijirf m 
ptrty, m hvge honee nhieh had heett inerilM ft b»i- 
rack, Md be went ike iMilh rfmriiwragt^jiwJe 
cf the T<nniJioiM«l FMo Bnn^ 

We hawi mU, thlNepJeert ilMpilientii li^«Mi>> 
coee vMteeew pwHi ooouReafe mm lefiiift Mragj^ 
nalioti, was the origmal cauae of theae pecuaiaiy 
diebeam. Bat diey are nol leaile be Imptttei to 
the mAdr aad vnaotAy eaMliiil4>f die SWodiatik- 
l%e Fiendi adniitirttataoii woe, ef ai 
Mel latiaiaMy^bouiid m cGtmamus^ faennav 
aB4 folkjy to aee the tieaty of EatittamVkm^ m 
ftrariagthefcMitfltool by ivhich Lode XVIIL mpaat. 
ed bisfettcned tfaxoae, diitiiiolly obMrved tamttJb 
Nlpokeb. The fiucA article of that tteaty ^mu 
iddei an aanuiiy, er refaaue of tiM> ndHiens fhn» 
hundred tbeiuiaiid fraMs, to be Mgisteied on ^ 
Great Betfk of Fraace, and paid ivilho«t abetement 
or dedoeiioa to Napdeeu Baoaftparte. TMa aa^ 
noal pto^rion vm atipalalfed by the MaMwiNib, 
Maedmudd aad Ney, as the pme of KqpoleMi^ »- 
s%[iiaiaoii, and the Freadk arimsters oooid Mt io» 
faaea dadaiatioift of payment iridioat grose kijQslke 
to Baom^wiayaadattheaaaietiBie^abfetfeiwalt 
to the allied penrers. Hemt^Utm, ftr larm Ms 
peasieii beiag paid with Ngidarity^ ire hai^ aetn a& 

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litpolBW fiiper flnaimd m sisgk 1 
^MJmtmaA^th. Hie Britiih ftrifcat nA t gnM i g 
fcovvpHMti tlw ISiJKwyiw 'ym^ hmmutA by pecu* 
gmr9 k, iODt QBBB tam nywurfly , «• 
> ''^ ihKjif iImw liffiiiiliiiii iiiwii 

J7 #<ipUe «f fldMVff «wr to fftaiiw skk Mi 
l»ili «i«i«irl%l €ki»flMUk «iRBHD«K jaa»e»» 

^^^^^ PV'f T^M^^^T ^^'^Sw ^^r '^^*^^^^T^J l^WPir ^P*^PW^^ W#^^Pp H^^^^^Kp. m^W 

§aitf iMtW M iVto iNit 4ftiM» v)m fWt. TJmt 

^■S^^^^P^^* ^T^^^^ ^^^'^ ?^^"^^^^W»** w^* tB^W^^^W^ »H^^^(R. «^HUP^Pv4%M^ 

due until the ye«r was eliqpeed ; a d^enoe which we 
BHUtt considCT as evanve, smee tuch a pensioa k of 
^ aUnii^iuUiry i^tur^ the termly pajments of whii^ 
oif^bt to be paid fat adfwioe. The tnljeel was 
meiifloii^ again and again by Sir Niel Cav^bell, 
bm it^oas a«6 a{ifmr that dtt Fienoh adiwinimra» 
tkin de ri a ted from a course, which, whether addng 
froin a qpint <»f meiin levei^^ <» iSroift inwiaa» «r 
i(w» being thenadTaa tmbaffaasad^ wasM onee'db- 
hcffiourdble and iipfolitic* 
Qthn: iqpfreheneioQa igptatej Bn aaa part rfa msA 

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884 . ^ tiFB OP 

He AffTed the A lyria c piratet, and i^uestad' tlic 
uitefAmiceef Eiiglii]idfailibbetaa£ H«4)rii«ftMl, 
or>affe(^ed to bdie^ tlia« Bndttit, the G^^tMMr of 
Cornea, who had hem a captain ^of Ohooaliif; llie 
fimid of Geoifps, Pichegni, kcuftm sMt^tiifilfei^^ 
Lotiis XV'IIIth^a adaiofetiatiM, IbrtHe pAiq^itf 
hmag UmaMMiiiBtod, and ifaatfiUfttg ^i^^tta 
^irtm di^atdhod thm Coraica to* ERmi ftr'titfteptfiH- 
poao.* AboTO ally he pMtendid^to h^^lbfbivMtt^^a 
dab^pi todiBpirnse with tlie'tretityof PlMMdnO^a; 
and te.imnove him' ftom hib ^^htoe of Mttkge^; to^ M 
kifAsoBod at Si; Hi^a^ or St LncSe. It h i^^r- 
po(B«iU» tiMit'th««e<feasnB were not aledgeth^r flS^ 
ed$ ibr though ikisre k not atf iota^ a4d(^iM^^t(lttd- 
iiig to flbow that Aei^ was teas^il for beli^vfiig^^e 
allias enttfitaided such an iin#6rthy'thouglft, yet%e 
rlport ^w«ia npeHd iNftry generally through Ftaki6e» 

* Buonaparte had particular reason to drea4 Brulart. This 
ChMxtth diiftf had been ofie of tlicr nutnberft who laid down tfa«ir 
uqm 9^ 2Hi|i9lc9« Urasktug t^ OoiiMikile« and «io*liad\%flni 
permitted to reside at Paris. A friend of Brulart^ adl^^^^Qi^ ^<^ 
nozioQS thari himself, was desirous of being permitted to return 
horn ikiglftiiii to wUdi h* kad eaugratiMl. • He i^^led to Hbpo- 
leon thro^gh Biinlart, who waa directed. by ^ Empoi^cnr |o rmm 
rage his friend to come over. Immediately on his landiiu^ |jo| 
Wnnntj ^ Wk» >Miied and executed. Brullurt fled to £n^land in 
grief and .i^Wt <^^ N»|B lP»94».fil»9 Wa^t of.4^^ 
death. In the height of his resentoient he wrote a laatter to Nib- 
polebii, thveat^alng him with dteth'by hishand. ¥he ^collection 
of dpa aiiiiMa aUnoed lBaaapitta» vHxt^ he fttana^fBMan le 
near him as Gorsioa. 

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I<id[j« aad ilie JMedittrnMny and was encounigad, 
jkMihd«w»by tJhoie who.denawd oBoe mora te.placs 
BuQMfWstQ ui.iuitkiii.. HeeertMalyeacprtavdgraU 
Mfld(^<(ia^ wilQeel, »onietinie$ dedaring he would 
4rtB||4i]i||8ib^tmM to the ]|Mit ; mnetimes «flbc«ing 
IQ M^fm Aft I^ 'V<i9 ^ ^ M&t ^ reside .in £og« 
l|Wdtii» 9iy^V^^ wUf b he ptjaleiided not to didike 
pqy^Hyt ^bite he.h^d out «ulKoiient reaiom to 
jfil^^,fiM^rfKwm f)fom being adopted. '* He oen- 
4yd[^^ he^md, " be sbonid have peESQMl.lfterty» 
aiid.^he«»eens oS.Ttmonag pngudioeaMicnaitied 
ngf^ptt his >charlK:ter, which bad not yet tbeen Mfy 
fji^Mpd up r bat ended with the ineaaiiatmi> tibat^ by; 
re»d|iig^4n £i||^4f be would ha?e eaiiertcoitinui« 
nic^tiim with. Fiiance, where thera w«re ^Ibiir a£ bb 
garty to every single Bowbonisl, And wbenihe bad 
ediaaated tbe8e.topic% be Fetumed to^ eaaiplamis. 
of^the hardship and cruelty of depriving him. of the 
sodety of his wife and child. 

Whil^ Buonaparte^ chafed by poverty, and these- 
odiet eulfects of conplaint, U wa e n to d too by the 
rertlessness of a mind impatient, of restraint^ gave^ 
vent U>. cocpressions which excited sueptoiooy and 
ought to have recommended precaution, his court , 
began to assume a very singular appearance, qoke 
tbe)i Q |m»qi to of diat usually exhibited in the courts of 
petty soveragns upon the continent. In;tbe latter > 
thi^re i«,#ui air of antiquated ipuvrity/wbich pcarvades 

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286 htr^of 

tbe vlwle esttMisluiieBi^ mA •Udea^pmiB to si^ffef 
theivaBtofflpIeiidiNiv^aifdofittdpM^ 13iehe»v)r 
tppsrstoB diiigiiod Alt tte* go¥inil&0iit of as inde-^ 
peadent state^ttappfi^d to'die intii i igenic mr of ivfti^ 

whole cmirae of busiiiats^ goeft iio«rlf ttdcttttiMtt'. 
ly m, aid 9» that appemnuM «te mioMiiiMfii^ui'dlitf 
•Uvtyteofftmud griMdew, IhtsoiKmij^ «d M« 
eouflriltm dimm netAer of ti^itJMm, cMmttcw^, 
or «Dy ollMr polHtcii olgwBti 
TheCout of Poito £\migo>i«to tli0 MWMrof dH( 

80firiH§ of tie MOM of Cwnopoli) wMck Napolooir 
Mdiedtoiupoie'Oivit. itiM»Sk§AeoourfofagfM€ 
hmtr^A, filled wftbntUtary^ geot-^d^nD^s^pdlleo <MS^ 
oan of lAtirtBf refugeet of «rery natioDy o ^i te eU i tttet 
attd'dqptad»iit»npov t&o couft^ domaattcs and ad-^ 
icemvien^ all conwcted witb Bnoiii^nrte^ md M^ 
ing or expecting some bemfitatlri^handt ftu»tots» 
of eviefy kind weiq bnaszed about tbi^oogb tliis^ mA^ 
edhmooimcnmds, m tbif^mm^ie^i^^ Sash- 

pfdous dbametera appear^ and di5a|)peBMi agtim^ 
without afindiiig my trace of tbeir ymstey^ 4k d^ 
jeist* The patt was filled widf8hip»froiiidUipaitMf 
kah^ TfaiaiBdBedwa8'iieee8saqruis«|ffify 
wi^pMrvBabna, iHlen cmwdodrwilfc-woh a» «nftittb 
degiee «f 4population ; mA^iil^Mie^vsexaidsettiit^iiti^* 
tHm; vMited Porto- FcBs^o^lKHptlia iraiioiliialolimi 

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NAPOLBON: yimr^PAaTE. 967 

^^mm^(».$ticii^^ by csm^ 

trary winds. The four armed vessels of HMfdmmf 
^4.|^f flB^t^m b^knigiiig to the wnnceof the sumts, 
"nm miPtm^ &HP1fAiu v^y^ges 10 every part ci 
ili}y» ,w4 blQ9«|^t oifeir or xseHimed to ib^ oMoliBeiit, 
It«}ie||fb. Si^ym^ Frenchmei^ «aid Greeks^ vho 
Kfcgfi^ aU I«i4v% y«ifKve no reason for their conii^ 
iJIK ^? d^B«gtiip?9^ DowBioo Ett^j m monk vho 
had fMj^iip^ ftom 1ms eeftveftty and one TbeolegQe»a 
Gaea^^ iq^se cAWderedf ae agienbi of Mme eonae- 

fflnoia^ift . M9ttftng thlA flrom. 

The «t|iatm of 8ic Niel CmidbeU wee ilow vciy 
^hfimi^ivg* Napokottt affie^ing to* be mere teiMh 
fioqi^. the9^ evej? of his dig»ity,iioti evily eaedudedihe 
Boiisb €9yoy from his qmn preseaace^ but. e^ea 
liir^ obstacles i« the wi^ of his yi6iti«g hiamethec 
mi Wt^. It.was» iheref<KDe^ qnly from inAenriewa 
mtk Nupofeon Imsalf that he could hope to get 
a»y iufofiAatioii), and tei obtain these Sir Nidt was, 
as already noticed, oUiged to nhtt&it himself bom 
the^isla^d of £lbi oc(Mi(»ia)ly» whidi ^lye him an 
fffprtimty of desbriJig an aud»enGe> ae he vent ai^y 
wfA tglswmA* At 4iaeh: times as he imiaanedon the 
illlpd, he i^ifBk (iseeontenancedk and aU attention 
#||bdrwn fiiom him ; but in a way bq artfitl^ as to 
xen^r iii imposii^ lor him to make a form^lc^io-^ 
j^sim^ eqpeciaUy aa IwJkad no avowed oflMul <A«»c- 
le^ aodr vas snisethuigin the »luationi of a guei^^ 

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28ft LUS OF 

whoie umnTitod nlninoii has plaoed btmftt lab knd-^ 
lonTs Hicrcy. 

STmptoois of flOBie a|n">Mchii|g ^atesliopheco^ 
not, h^^werer, be cooe^aled from tbe l^ntUi retideat. 
Napoleon had intenriew« with his nothcr, after 
which ghe appeared deeply distressed. She was 
heard ako to tolk of three dq^utations wfaidh he had 
received from, France. It was besides aoeounted a ciir^ 
ciiBistaBee of strong suqyicion, that ^Bsehaq^es «id 
forlooghs were granted to two or three hnndied d 
Napoleop^s Old Guard, by the s^e^foun of whom, as 
was too late disooireied, the alle^ance of the mili- 
t«ry in France was corrupted and seduced, and their, 
minds ptepured for what was to ensue. We cannot 
suppose that «uch a immber of persoiis were posi-* 
tively intrusted with the secret ; but every one et 
them was prepared to sound forth the praises of the 
Emperor in his exile, and all entertained and disse- 
minated tbe persuasion, that he would soon appear 
to reclaim his rights. 

At laq^ Mariotti, the French c<hi8u1 at Leg- 
horn, and Spannoki, the Tuscan governor el that 
town, inlbrmed Sir Niel Campbell that it was cer- 
tainly determined at Elba, that Bu<maparte, witb 
his guaids, should embark lor the. continent. Sir 
Niel was at Leghorn wfami he received this ifitel- 
Ugcace, and had left the Partridge sloop of -war 
to cvnize round Elba. It was naturally concluded 

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that Italy was the object of Napoleon, to join wtth 
his brother-in-law Murat, who was at that time, 
fatally iSr himself, raising his banner. 

On the '^5th of February, the Partridge having 
come to Leghorn, and fetched off Sir Neil Campbell, 
the ippearance, as the Vessel approached Porto Ferra- 
jo on her return, of the national guard on the batte- 
ries, ibstead of the crested'grenadiers of the Imperial 
guard,' at once apprised the British resident of what 
had Jiappened. . When he landed, he fouifd the motfa^ 
and sistdr or Buonaparte in a well-assumed agony of 
anxiety about the fate of their Emperor, of whom 
they aflected to know nothing, except that he had 
steei^ towards the coast of Barbary. Hiey appear- 
ed eifiremely desirous to detain Sir Niel Campbell 
on shore. Resisting their entreaties, and rqielling 
the more pressing arguments of the governor, who 
seemed somewhat disposed to use force to prevent 
him ttcm re-embar£ing, the British envdy'fe^i^ed 
his vessel, and set sail in pursuit 6f ^e advtotufer. 
But it'w^ too late; the Partridge Only obtitihed'a 
disfokt sight of the flotiHa, after Buonaparte and Ut 
forces Had knded. 

TKe chilnges which had taken! pHice In V^aitce, 
and had encouraged the present most during action^ 
fcrm the subject of the next chapter. ' ' ' 

VOL. vm. 

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(ttjK) MFE OF 


lUiroifieet-^Reatoration tfthe Bourbons displeasm^ to the 
' Soldie^ilnU9aUtfaeU>rytoihePeojde.'--'Tel^ 

to France gr<mted by the JJlies.-^Disconient about the man- 
ner ofcortcediriQ the Charter, — Other grounds ofdissatisfac^ 
, 4ioiu — Appr^Umkms. test the Church <Md Crown JJtmdt 
should be resumed. — Resuacitatiou of the JxtcobinfaicfiwU'-r-y 
Increased DismtUif action in the Army, — The Claims of the 
■ Emigrants mooted in the diamher cfT>degates, — Mareschal 
MacdonakPs ProposaL — Financial JhfficuUies.^^'^Ilestne* 
tions on the Pressi — Reflections on this.sulff'ect. 

. We mttst now look bade to tbe ]fe-os|«bIidiixteitf 
of the Bourbons upon the throne in 1814, an ey&kt 
which too]^ place under circumstaaees so unoopinQi^A 
fjB to excite extrayBgantexpectntions of national &^ 
city; expectations, which, like a pteinati|i« i^ndpi^ 
fuse diapl|ky of blossom, dimtnish.ed the <^b9;n^. of 
the fruit ripenings md exasperated the d^ltppoiQtr 
ment of over si^nguine hppes^ For a certain tiioe 
all had been g^y and rose-coloured. The Frenek 
possess mone than other nations tbe art of enjoys 

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rag the present, without looking back witii regtet 
on the pasty or forward to the future with unfa^ 
vourable anticipations. Lous XVIII., respectable 
for his literary acquirements, and the practise of do* 
mestic virtues, lyniable also from a mixture of bon^ 
Jtommie, and a talent for saying witty things, wa9 
received in the capital of his kingdom with acclama- 
tions, in which the soldiers alone did not cordiall^f 
join. They indeed appeared with gloomy, sullen, 
«id difieontented looks. The late Imperial, noW 
Royal Giialrd, seeined, from the dark ferocity of 
their aspect, to consider themselves rather as the 
captives wha were led in triumph, than the soldiera 
who partook of it. 

But the higher and middling classes in g^eral, 
excepting those wh<3( were direct losers by the de- 
thronement of Napoleon, hailed with sincere satis* 
fectioQ the prospect of peace, tranquillity, andfreedom 
fmai vexatious exactionsv If they had not, as they 
could hardly be supposed to have, any personal iesi 
fcr the representatives of a family so long strangeri 
to France, it was fondly hoped the absence of thi* 
might be supplied by the unwont^^d prospect of ease 
and security which their accession promised. The al- 
lied monarchs, on their part, did everything to favour 
the Borbonn family, and relaxed most of the harsh 
and unpalatable conditions which they had ani^exed 
to their proposed treaty with Buonaparte ; as if i6 al-' 

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kw the legititnatte heir' the credit with his people, of 
having at once saved their honour, and obtained for 
Uiem the most advantageous terms. 

The French readily caught at these indulgencei^ 
and, with the aptitude they possess of acccmimodating 
their feelings to the moment, for li time seemed to in^ 
timate that they were sensible of the full advantage of 
the change, and were desirous. to make as much of it 
as they possibly could. There is a stoxy of a French 
soldier in former times, who, having insulted his ga^ 
neral in a fit of intotication, was brought before him 
next morning, and interrogated, whether he was the 
person who had committed the offence. The ac« 
cused replied he was not, for that the impudent ra^ 
cal had gone away before fotir in the morning, — 
at which hour the culprit had awaked in a state of 
sobriety. The French people, like the arch rogue in 
question, drew distinctions between their preisent and 
lEbrmer selves, and seemed very willing to deny theit 
identity. They were no longer, they said, either the 
Republican French, who had committed so many 
atrocities in their own country, or the Imperial 
French, that had made such devastation in other na« 
tions ; and God forbid that the sios of .either should 
be visited upon the present regenerate race of Royal- 
ist Frenchmen, loyal to. their native princes, and 
ftithful to their. alUes, who desired only to enjoy 
peace ateoad and tranquillity at home*. 

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Tbese professioDs, which wereprobablyserioi^'&r 
-the time, backed bjr the natural anxiety of the monsrcb 
to make, through his interest with the allied powert^ 
the best terms he could Ibrhis country, were received 
as current without strict cb^aminatioiK It seemed that 
Buonaparte, on His retiremeBt to Elba, had carried 
%wkf with him all the loffences of the French people^ 
like the scape-goat, which the Levitical law directed 
to be drimen into the Wilderness, loaded with the sins 
of the children of Israel. There was, in all the pro* 
eeedings of the allied powers, not only moderation, 
but a studied delicacy, observed towards the feelingis 
of the 'Bx'&^h, ^bich almost savoured of romantic 
generosity. They seoned bb desirous to disguise their 
conquest, as the Parisians were to conceal their defeat. 
The treasures of art, tiiose spoils of foreign countries 
Tvhich justice loudly demanded should be restored to 
^heir true owners, were confirmed to the French na 
tion, in order to gratify the vanity of the metropo^ 
lis. By a boon yet more fatal, announced to the 
public in one of those moments of romantic, and 
more than questionable generosity, which we have 
alluded to, the whole Friaich prisoners of war in the 
mass, and without inquiry concerning their princi- 
ples, or the part they were likely to take in future 
iitt^rttalditisiMs, were at once restored to the bosom 
of their country. This was in fact treating the French 
nation as a hecdlsss nurse does a spoiled chfld,'wh«^ 

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she puts into its hands the knife which it cries for. 
.The fatal consequences of this impiovident indnl- 
l^ce appeared early in the subsequent year. 

The Senate of Napoleon, when they called the 
Bourbons to the throne, had not done so without 
making stipulations on the part of the nation, fl»d 
Also upon their own. For the first purpose «h^ 
iramed a decree, under which they *' called to the 
throne Louis Stanishius Xayier, brother of the last 
King)** but upon condition of his accepting a consti«- 
tution of their framing. This assumed right of Ro- 
tating a constitution, and naming a king for the na- 
tion, was accompanied by another proTision, dedarr 
jng the Senate hereditary, and confirming to than- 
^Ives, and their heirs for ever, the rank, honours, 
find emoluments, which in Napoleon^s time they only 
enjoyed fpr life, 

The Kbg refused to acknowledge the right of the 
Senate, eithcjr to dictate the terms on which he should 
ascend a thypne, his own by hereditary descent, and 
p} whicli he had never forfeited his claim ; or to«n. 
gross, as their ovn prelusive property, the endowr 
ments povided to theii? order by Buonaparte. He, 
therefore, assumed the crown as the lineal and true 
representative of him by whom it was last womi 
^nd issued his own constitutional charter as a con^ 
pession which the spirit of the times demanded, ^d 
yhi^h he had himself no desire to withhold, 

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The olgections to this mode of proceeding wer^ 
tactically speaking, of no consequence. It signifieA 
inothing to thepeopleof France, whether the constitii^ 
%\m was proposed to the King l^ the national rcpre^- 
^cntatives, or by the King to them, so that it contain- 
ed, in an irrcTocable form, a full Ratification of the 
national liberties. But for the King to have acknow- 
ledged himself the creature of the Senate's election, 
would have been at once to recogniso evei^ epbeme- 
^ tyranny, which had started up and fretted its part 
on the revolutionary stage ; and to have sanctioned 
all subsequent attempts at innovation, since they who 
^mke Wngs and authorities must have the inherent 
right to dethrone and annul them It should not be 
forgotten how the British nation acted pnthegreat oc- 
caaons of the Restoration and Revolution ; recogni- 
sing, at either cri»is,therightof blood to succeed to the^ 
crown, whether vacant by the murder of Charles I., 
or the abdication of James II, In prinoicle, too, it 
may be observed, that in aU modem European na. 
tions, the king is nominally the source bojh of law 
and justice ; and that statutes are promulgated, and 
sentences executed in his name, without inferring 
that he has the despotic right either to make the one, 
or to^alter the other. Although, therefore, tlie con. 
sdtution of France emanated in the usual form of a 
royal charter, the King was no more empowered to 
recaH or innovate its provision*, than King John i9 

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S96 j-iwjor 

abrogate tbose of the EoglUh Magna Ghaita. Moq- 
jneuTt the Kmg's brotb^> had pronsped in bisnam^ 
iqpou bis solemn entrance to Furis, that Loitia wouU 
zecog^9e the basis of the constitution prepared bj 
the 3enate. This pledge was fuUj redeemed hy th^ 
cbarter^^nd wise men would have been more aiv 
zious to secure the benefits which it be^towpd^ than 
scrigmiously to cavil on the mode iiyfrhich they had 
been conferred. 

. Jn .fact> Louis had adopted not only the form most 
consonant to ancient usage, but that which he thought 
jDOst likely to satisfy both th^ royalists and the re- 
yolutionary party. He ascended the throne as his 
statund ifigbt ; and having done sOf he willingly grant- 
ed to the jpeople, in an irrevocable fom, the substan- 
tial principles of a free constitution. But both par- 
ties were rath^ displeased at what they considered as 
Jost* than gratified at what they gain^ by this ar- 
xangci^etit. The royalists regarded the constitu- 
4aon, with its concessions, as,a voluntary abandonment 
of the royal prerogative, while the revolutionary par- 
ly exclaimed, that the receivjng the charter from the 
JEking as. an act of his will, was in itself a badge of 
aervitude:; and that the same royal prerogative 
which had granted these priyilegefi, might, if re- 
cognised, be supposed to reserve the power of di- 
minishing or. resuming thepi at pleasure. And thus 
it ill,. J;hat folly^. party-spirit, pride, and passion^ can 

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fBmtejptsetit tb« best measures, and so far poison tlie 
fiiblie mtnd» thiat the very granting the object of 
tbeur desires shall be made the subject of new com^ 

• The fimnation of the ministry gave rise to more 
Mrioufl grounds of a^nrehension and censure. The 
ii^rio«» offices of administxation were, upon the r&- 
ttoraUon, left Si possesdon of persons selected from 
those nrho had been named by the Proyisional Go- 
¥eniment. All the members of the Provisional State 
Council were called to be royal ministers of the state. 
Many of these, though possessed of reputed talents^ 
-were men hadcnejed in the changes of the Revolu- 
tion ; and were not, and could not be, intrusted with 
the King^s confid^ice beyond the bounds of t^e pro- 
vince which each administered. 

Talleyrand, Minister for Foreign Affairs, whose 
taknt» and experience might have given him claim 
to the situation of Prime Minister, was unpopular 
ftibm his political versatility ; and it was judged, af- 
ter a time^ most expedient to send him to theCpn- 
gress at Vienna, that his diplomatic skill might be 
employed in arranging the exterior relations of 
Fratice with the other powers of Europe. Yet the 
absence of this consummate statesman was of great 
prejudice to the King's affairs. His having preser- 
ved life, distinction, and frequently power, during so 
many xevoliitionary chat)ges^ proved^ fK^cording to the 

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«ff3 LIFE OF 

-phrase of tbe old Earl of Pembroke, that be was bortt 
of tbe willow, sot of the oak. But it was the opmioid 
i>f the wisest men in France, that it was not fair, eon- 
sidering the times in which he lived, to speak of big 
uttachment to, or defecticMD from individuals} but to 
consider the genial conduct and maxims wbicb be 
recommended relative to tbe interests of France. It 
has been truly said, that, after tb#%r$t errors and 
ebullitions of republican zeal, if he were measured by 
this standard, be must be judged favourably* The 
councils which he gave to Napoleon were all caloa«- 
latedy it was said, for the good of the nation, and so 
were the measures which he recommended to tbe 
King. Much of this is really true ; yet, when we 
ihipk of the political consistency of the Prince of 
fiencventum, we cannot help recollecting the per- 
sonal virtue of a female follower of tlie camp, which 
consisted in strict fidelity to the grenadi^ company^ 
Dupont was promoted to tlie situation of" Mini- 
nister at War, owing, perhaps, to the persecution be 
bad undergone from Buonaparte, in consequence of 
bis surrender at Baylen to tbe Spaniards. SouU 
was aftewards called to this important office ; b^w 
recommended, it would be vain to inquire. When 
Napoleon heard of his appointment from the Eng- 
lish resident, he observed that it would be a wis^ 
and good one, if no patrUdic party should show 
itcelf in Franit ; but^ jif such should arise^ he inti* 

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nated pbinly tliftt there would be no room for tlio 
JBourbons to rest faith upon Soulfs adherence to 
iheir cause ; and so it proved. 
'. To add still farther to the inconveniences of thi« 
jBtate of administration, Louis XVIII.had a favour- 
ite, although he had no prime minister. Count Bla* 
cas D' Aulps, minister of the household, an ancient 
and confidential attendant on the royal person du- 
ring his exile, was understood to be the channel 
through which the King'^s wishes were communicated 
to the other ministers ; and his protection was sup- 
posed to afford the surest access to the favours of 
the crown. 

Without doing his master the service of a premier^ 
or holding either the power or the responsibility of 
that high situation, De Blacas had the ftill share of 
odium usually attached to it. The royalists, who 
jvessed on him for grants which were in the depart- 
ments, of other ministers, resented his declining to 
interfere in their favour, as if, having satisfied his 
own ambition, he had become indifferent to the inte- 
rest of those with whom he had been a joint sufferer 
during the emigration. The opposite party, on the 
other hand, represented Count Blacas as an absolute 
minister^ an emigrant himself, and the patron of emi- 
grants ; a royalist of the highest class, and an enemy, 
of course, to all the constitutional stipulations in fa-* 
rour of liberty, Thus far it is certain, that the uur 

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300 L|F£.or 

popularity of Monsieur de BlacM, with ill ranks i 
parties in the state, bad the worst possibl&influMice 
on the King^s affairs ; and as his credit was ascribed 
to a blind as well as an obstinate attachment on the 
part of Louis, the monarch was of course inTolved 
in the unpopularity of Uie minister of the househokU 
The terms of the peace,, as we have already hint^ 
ed, had been studiously calculated to recommend it 
to the feelings of the French people. France was, in« 
deed, stripped of that extended sway which rendered 
her dangerous to the independence of other TSxaa*- 
pean nations,. and reduced, generally speaking, i^ 
the boundaries which she occupied on die Ist of 
January 1792. StiU the bargain was not harshly 
driven. Several small additions were left with her on 
the side of Germany and the Netherlands, and on 
that of Savoy she had the considerable towns of 
Chamberri, Annecy, Avignon, with the Venaisson 
and Mont Belliard, included in her territories. Bat 
these concessioiis availed, little ; and looldng upon 
what they had lost, miany of the French people, a& 
ter the recollections had subsided of their escape from 
a dreadfiiil war, were naturally, however unreason-^ 
ably, disposed to murmur against the reduction of 
their territories, and to insist that Belgium, at leastf 
should have remained with them. This opinion was 
encouraged and pressed by the Buona^Mtrtists^ who 
considered the cession of that country with the mora 

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VAPot t g iiiroW APARTK. '301 

cUt'^, I)ec8ii8e- it was understood to have been a 
point urged by England. 

Tet if England played a proud, it was also a ge- 
nerous part. She had nothing to stipulate, nothing 
of which to demand restitution, for she had sustained 
no territorial loss during the whole period of hostili- 
ties. The war, which had nearly ruined most other na- 
tions, bad put Britain in possession of all the colonies 
of France, and left ihe latter country neither a ship 
nor a port in the East or West Indies ; and, to sum 
the whole, it was not in the power of united Europe 
to take from England by force any one of the con- 
quests which she had thus made. The question, there- 
fere, only was, what Britain was voluntarily to ced^ 
to an enemy who could give her no equivalent, er- 
eepting the pledge to adopt better principles, and to 
act no longer as the disturber of Europe. The ces- 
sions were such iu number aiid amount, as to show 
that England was far above the mean and selfish pur- 
pose of seeking a colonial monopoly, or desiring to 
destroy the possibility of commercial rivalry. All 
was restored to France, excepting only Tobago and 
the Mauritius. 

These tocrifices, made in the spirit of peace and 
moderation, were not made in vain. They secured 
to Britain the gratitude and respect of other states, 
and, giving to her councils that character of justice 
and impartiality which constitutes the best national 
strength, they placed her in a situation of more in-* 

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30)S LiFK ur 

flueace and emiaence in the dviMsed worifl, than the 
uncontrolled possession of all the cottoh-iieMs and 
sugar islands o£ the east and vest could eret Kaire 
raised her to. Stilly with respect to Fnmee kk ptP- 
ticular, the peace was not recomtaeBied 1^ the emi^ 
nence to which it hftd raised TJngland. The riVsit^ 
ly, so long tanned national^ and whid^ had" beeft 
so carefidly festered by every atate paper or poHtidii 
atatemeiM; which Buonaparte had permitted ta ht 
pdbfisbed^ rankled eren in generous and faonoitral^ 
minds ; and so prejudiced are the views of passion^ 
tliat by mistaking each other's national feelings, ther& 
were many Frenchmeh induced to believe thu^ 1^ 
superiority attained by Great Britain^ was to a cer- 
tain degree an insult and degradation to France.- ' ^ 

Everything, indeed, which ought to havei soothed 
and gratified the French people, was iit last, by irriJ 
tated feelings and artful misrepresentation, convert-* 
ed into a subject of complaint and grievance* 

The government of Napoleon had been as com-^ 
pletely despotic as it could be rendered in a civili-^ 
aed country like France, where public opinion #br^ 
bade its being carried to barbaric extreme. On the 
contrary, in the charter, France was endowed with 
most of the elementary principles of a free and libeJ' 
ral constitution* The King had adopted, in dP 
points of a general and national tendency, the prin- 
eiples proposed in the rejected constitutional act of 
the Senate* 

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. Tlie Clmaber of Feen and Chamber of Depotiet 
^ffart the titles apjdied to tiie aiistocratical and popu- 
lar biaodi^ eftlie constitution, instead of the Senate 
iHid Legi^tive Body. Their puUie duties were di'» 
vided semething like Aose of the Houses of Peers 
aadCoBitnoixist ia Eoglaad^ The independence of the 
|fdicial ^rdcr wan xecognised, and the military were 
i^ppfinaed in thinrnmk and revenues. The Chamber 
4)1 Peers was to be aotainated by the king, with power 
Id bi& Migeisty to create its members for life, ^ hete^ 
^Ktary, at his pleastire. The inootne of the suf^^ess* 
ed Senate was Iresumed) aad vested in the crown, ex- 
opting confiscated property, which was restored to 
die lawful owners. The Catholic religion was dfr* 
claied to be that of the state, but all other Chris- 
lian. sects were to be protected. The King'^s au- 
thority was recognised as head of the army, axid the 
power of making peace aad war was Tested in him 
exclusively. The liberty of the press was establish- 
ed, but under certain restraints. The conscription 
fras abolished— -the responsibility of ministers reeog^ 
nised ; and it may be said^ in general, thiat a consti<. 
tttttoD was traced out, good so far as it went, and sots* 
cq>tible of .receiving the farther improvements which 
time and eaLperience might recommend. The <ch'ar- 
tcr #as presented to the Legislative Body by the 
iKitig iu person, with a speech, which announced that 
the principles which it recognised, were such as had 

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304 i.rFB or 

been adofrted in the tiill of his unfinrliautte bio^her, 
Louis XVL 

Yet thoiigli thk cliaTter contained a free wxrea^ 
der of great part of the royal rights wUch.tbe oM 
race of ^Hiibons had enjoyed, at wdl aa of all tfa^ 
arbitrary pover which Napoleon had oaui^d, we 
ha^ seen that it was unaeceptaUe to an aCtite and 
influential party in the sfiate, who disdained to ao^* 
eept security for property and fireedom under the 
ancient forms of a feudal diarter, and ccmtended 
Aat it ought to have einanated directly ftom the 
will of the SoTereign Peopled We have no hesita^ 
tion in saying, that this was as reasonable as the coa^ 
duct of a spoiled child, who refuses what iB^gwen to 
hinit because he is not suflfered to /aA^ it; 4>r the 
wisdom of an hungry man, who shoidd quarrel widi 
his dinner, because he does not admire the shiipe of 
the. dish in which it is served up. 

This is the eommon*sense view of the vakjwti . 
If the constitution contained the necessary* guaraa-^ 
tees of political freedom and security of life and 
property ; if it was to be looked to as the penaaoent 
settlement and bulwark of the liberties of France^ 
and considered as a final and decided arrangemepti 
liaUe indeed to be improved by the joipt consent ct 
the sovereign, and the legal representatives of th« 
sulgect, but not to be destroyed by any or all of these 
authorities, it was a matiter of utter unimportance 

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%li6(}i«» the ^yst^m was constracted in the farm of a 
dian^t granted by the King, or that of cohdltione 
dictated to him by the subject. But if there was to 
be a retrospect to the ephemeral existence of all the 
Frendh conatittttions hitherto; excepting that under 
which B^ovaparte had enthralled the people, then 
perhaps the -qaestion might be entertained^ whe^ 
ther thefettddl or the reyolutibnary form was most 
Hkely to be innovated ; or, in other words, whether 
the conditioiis attached to the plan of government 
now addpted, was most likely to be innovated .upo9 
by the Sing, or by the body who represented the 
peo^e. .... , 

•Assuming the fatal doctrine, diat the party in 
whose name the ' conditions of the conaitutipn are 
expressed, is entitled to suspend^ alter,, or recaH 
them, sound policy dictated, that the apparent power 
of granting should be ascribed to the party least aUe 
and willing to recaHorinnovat&upon the grant which 
he had made. In this view of the case, it might be 
reckoned upon that the King, unsupported, ut^ess by 
theRoyalists, who were fewinnumber, unpopular from 
drctimstances, and for the present divested, excepting 
nominally, of the great iilstruinelit of achieving des- 
potic power, the undisputed Copmand, namely, of the 
army, would be natdrally unwilling to risk the eon-» 
tinuaiice of his authority by any attempt to innovate 
upon- dibseoonditians, which he had by his owa 
vol,, viti. u . 

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906 LI9B OF 

charter assured to tlie peqplo^ On the contMfy, 
conditions formed and decreed by the Senate cf 
'Buonaparte, might, oit the popular party's resaning 
the ascendency, be altered or recalled by the Ghaai- 
bers with the same levity and fiddeness whish %\i» 
people of France, or at least those aettng as'th^ 
representatives, had Ho often dii^layed* To give 
permanence to the constitution, therefore, it iras*befit 
it should emanate from the party most interested^ 
^reservingit,andleastable to infringe it; andthatm- 
doubtedly, as iPrance stood at llie lime, waa the sove- 
reign. In Great Britain, the constitution is acoonut^ 
ed more secure, because the King is the souzee of 
law, of honour, and of all 'ministerial and executive 
power; whilst he is responsible to the natioH throt^ 
his ministers, for 'the manner in which that power is 
exercised. An arrangement of a different kind weail 
expose the branches of the legislature to a discotd* 
ant struggle, which ought never to be contemii^Ated 
as possible. 

The zealous liberalists of France were induoed> 
however, to mutiny against the name under whii^ 
th^ir free constitution was assigned them, and €« 
call back Buonaparte, who had abolished the y&j 
semblance of freedom, rather than to accept at the 
hands of a peaceful monarch, the d^ree of liberty 
which they themselves had acquired. The advaii^ 
tages which they g^ned will appear in the sequd. 

Thus setting out with varying and eoatradietory 

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tifkakm of the lutture aod oagki of Ae new constU 
ltttmi» the parties in the. state oegazded it xtther at 
A &itEre8s.ti> be stlacl^ andrddfendedy than aa.a 
pm^/kt in if hid» all men were ealled to wottship. . 
•. The Eiench af .this period udf^ be div^ed into 
three dastinct and active partie8*--BoyaIiBt8 ; .Uh^ 
f«ls of eTexy shade, downtoRcpnUiicans^ and.B^lo«- 
napartirtff . dknd it becomes onr dutj to say a |eir 
jsrosda coneem^ig each of these. . 

The RoYAXisxSy while, ihey added little lea) 
ntranglh to. the Eiag by their namfaers^ attoacted 
Bmcb jeahNtt.dbsenration fr^m ^leir high, birth and 
equaily h^ preteDsions; .embroiled his a&ix& by 
dteir imprudeiiit aeal. ; epibittered his peace by their 
jm^ and natural cijanplaiiits ; and drew siispiiaonvon 
his J governm^t at eitery effi»n; .which, he made, to 
«B»re and relieve -dienu They consisted chiefly: of 
the e&aifpant Nobles and Cl^gyi . 

The former class w^atB greatly reduced in nnm- 
bar by war And exile ; insomuch, that to the Hkmse 
af F0ta^9 coflsistiBg of one Imndnfdand serenty, 
and upwards, the ancient nobles of France sup 
]died only thirty. The rest were the fortunate mare* 
sdiak and generals, whom the wars of the Beyoln* 
ti&n had raised to rank and wealth ; andtfae states^ 
mHAy many of whom bad attained the same station 
by less honourable means of elevation. The old no« 
blesse, aftw their youth had beea exhausted, th^ 
fertnnes destroyed, and their spirits bro^n^ while 

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308 Lirs OF 

fidbwing thvough foreign countriei the advene teit^ 
tunes of the exiled Bourbons, beheld the rettor»- 
tion, indeed, of the mosan^hy, but were theniselires 
recalled to France only to see dieir estates occupied^ 
and their hereditary ofBoes aroimdthe person of the 
monarch filled, by the fortunate ciiildsen of the Rev^ 
lution. Like the disappointed English cavaliers, th^ 
might well complain that though none had wished 
more earnestly for the return of the legitimate prince, 
yet. none had shared so little in the. benefits attend- 
ing it. By a natural, and yet a parverse mode of 
reasoning, the very injuries which tlie nobility hud 
sustained, rendered them the objects of suspidon to 
the other ranks and parties of the stater. They hsii 
been the companions of. the King's exile, were, con- 
nected with him by the ties of friendship, and had 
near access to his person by the right of Ubod. .Could 
it be in nature, it was asked, that Xiouis ocmld see 
their sufferings without attempting to Telieve them ; 
and how could he do so in the present state of Franee^ 
unless at the expense of those who occupied or aspi- 
red to. civil and military j^eferment, .or of those who 
had acquired during the Revolution, the joiitional do- 
nuuns which those nobl^.ojQce possessed ? Yet the 
alarm was founded rather on sufipicion than on &ct8. 
Of the.pteferment of emigr^^ts in the army, we shall 
ipeak.hereafter; but in the civil deparuneiits of tlpe 
state, few of the old noblesse obtained ofS<^., To 
take a single example, iU the course of eleven months 

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tlieve werefdiirty-aeTen prefects nominated to the de* 
ptrtments, and the Hst did not comprehend a single 
me of those emigrants who returned to France with 
Louis ; and but very few of those whose exile had 
termioated more early. The nobles felt^this exclu- 
aian from royal fiivour, and expressed their com- 
pbdnts, which sooie, yet more imprudently, mingled 
with threatemng hints, that their day of triumph 
night yet arrive. This language, as well as the aiv 
of exdusiYe dignity and distance which they afibcU 
ed, as if, the distinction of their birth bang all that 
they had Irft to them, they were determined to en- 
fesce the most punctilious deference to that, was care- 
ffiHy remarked and recorded against the King. 

The noblesse were supposed to receiye particular 
mcouragement from die princes of the 'blood, wMIe^ 
npoii the whole, they were rather discomragcd than 
brought forward or distinguished by Louis, who, as 
Many of them spared not to say, was disposed to act 
upon the ungenerous maxim of courtbg his enemies, 
md neglecting those who could not upcHi prmeiple 
become anything sare his friends. They did not, per^ 
haps, make suffident allowance for the great diffi- 
culties which the King incuixed in governing France 
at so critical a period. 

The state of the Clei^ is next to be considered. 
T4ey were, generally speakii^, sincerely attached to 
the King ; and had they been in possession of their 
T^venues, and of their natural influence ixpon tha 

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810 I'tFS OF 

{mblic mind, their attachmenl would hure been 06 
Ae ulmoM oonsequeDee. But iirithoiit'thifi nnfluence^' 
and without the wenteh^ or «t lesst the iudqaeiideiice^ 
(to which it partly rests, they were a& isselen, ^pdHni^ 
cally qieaking, as a key which does- not fii Ae loek 
to whicfi it is applied* This state of things, unfor* 
tlinate in many reqiecis, flowed fiom a maran adopt^: 
ed during the Rerohition, and fi)Uow«d by Buaiba^' 
piorte, who had his reasons fiir fearing the inflteno^ 
of the clergy. << We will not put down tbe tedlA^ 
ttuiical estJddiAment by force ; we wilt starrer it to 
death;^' Accordingly, all -grants and bequest to lim 
church had been limited and qualified by so' vaaxy 
conditioius and restrictions^ as to intercept that mode 
ef acquisition so fruitful in a Catholic country ; wriiile,. 
on the other hand, the salary allowed by the state lo 
each officiiaing curate was only £ve Hundred 'livre9 
(^26. 16b. 6di) yearly. No doubt eadi community 
were permitted to subscribe wfaai theypleased in ad- 
dition to this miseraUe pittance; but in France, 
whjen the number of those who care for no religion 
at all, and of those whose zeal will not lead them Ae 
length of paying for it, is deduced, the remainder 
will affi>rd but« small list of subscribers. The con- 
sequence was, that at the period of the restoration, 
many parishes were, and had been for years, without 
any public worship. Ignorance had increased in aii 
incalculdiyle' degree. ** We are informed,^ was th^ 
communication from Buoni^rte to one of his pre- 

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fedi^ ^^lluit (UtBgerous bbdu are distributedin your 
dapivU&ent.'' — " Were the roads sown with them," ^ 
im the answer reliuned by the prefect^ ^* your Ma- 
jwly.need not fear their influence ; we have not a 
man who would or could read them."— -When we ' 
add to this the rdbxed state of public morals, the 
pijns taken in die banning of the Revolution to era- 
dieaie the sentiments of religion, and render its pro- - 
feiBors ridiculotts, and the prevalence of the military 
character, so contipicaous through France, and so 
unfirroomble to deyoti(m ; and when it is further re- 
msBibered that dl the wealth of the church had fallai 
into the hands (^ the laity, which were fast dencUed 
to retain it, and trembling at the same time lest it 
should be wrested from them, — the reader may, from 
all these causes, form some notion of the low ebb of 
csligion and of the church in France. 

The disposition of the King and Royal Family to 
resfeoie the formal observances of the Romish Church, 
as well as to provide the suitable means of educating 
in ftiture those designed for the ministry, and other 
rdigious institutions, excited among the Parisians a 
Ibcliqg of hatred and contempt. It must be owned, 
also, that though the abstract motive was excellent, 
there was little wisdom in attempting to bring bade 
the nation to all those mummeries of popish ceremo- 
nial, which, long before the Revolutbn, only subsist- 
ed through inveterate custom, having lost all influ- 
ence on the public mind. - 

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31$ LlFfi OF . 

. T))i8 general feeling was increased by particakr 
events. Alarming tnmulta took place^ on the subr 
je^t of enforcing a rule unworthy of Christiitoitf' 
apd civilization, by which theatrical perfbrmecs Are 
declared in a constant state of ezoommunicattoi}. 
The rites of sepulture being refused to Mademm* 
selle llaucour^ . an actress, but a perpon of decent 
character aj^d morals, occasioned a species of insmr* 
ration, which compelled f^om the gpyernmenl an 
qr^er for in|;erring her with t;h^ usual forin^, 
. The enforcing of the more regular phservatipn of 
t)ie Sabbat]^^ an order warranted alike by rehgion luid 
gpp4 morals, gaye al^ great off^npe to the inb^- 
^ts of the cfipital. The solemp obsequies per&i:in^ 
ed for the death of Louis XVJ.and his unfortupafe 
Queen, when their remains we|*e transferred from 
their hasty grav^ to the royal mai^leuiQ at. Saint 
Penis, — ^a fraternal action, and connected with the 
forms of the Catholic Church,— ^was also copalrned 
to the King's prejudice^ as if, by (he honpur p%id lo 
these poor relics, he had intended to mark his hatred 
pf the Revolution, and his recollection. of the in^r 
ries be had sustained from it. Some hf^iHwrs. and 
attention bestowed on the fei^ surviving chiefs, of La 
Vendee w^e equally the subject of misr^presi^nt^on* 
In short, whatever Louis XVIII. did, which had 
the least appearance of gratifying those who had lost 
njll for his sake, was accounted an act of treason 
against freedom and the principles of fbe B^V'^u^bn. 

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■jtaie of ihe drcdmstances we hare nodttd faid^ 
hemty&9 so much c&ct ujpon the public feeling as 
Ae fear which prevailedy that Louis in his venera^ 
tifm fi)r religion and its members, might be led to 
Stavk some scheme of resuming' the church lands, 
vhicli, having been coniscated by the decrees of the 
Nataonal Assembly, were now'occiijHed hy a host of 
pMfirietors, who watched, with vigilant jealoiisy, in- 
cs^^ent mearanree, vhich they feared mij^t end in 
i^umption of th«f property. Imprudent priests add* 
«d to tlus distrust and jealousy, by denunciations 
tgsioiit those who hdd eVurch lands, and by refus- 
mg to grant them absolution unless they made 
restitution or compensation for them. This dis* 
tmisi spread far wider than among the actual pro-^ 
prietors of national domains. For if these were 
liireatened with resiunption of the property they 
bad acquired under authority of the existing govern^ 
ment for the time, it was most probable that the di-^ 
tine right of the clergy to a tidie of the produce of 
the earth might next have been brought forward,—* 
a.daim involving the interest of every landholder 
and -farmer in France to a d^iee almost incalcu- 

It is plain, from what we have stated, that the 
Royalist party, whether lay or clerical, were so little 
in a condition to be effectually serviceaUe to the 
!^ng ia the event of a struggle, diat while their ad- 
Jierence and their sufferings claimed his attachment 

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aikd gratihute, ewitf iriftc wkich lie afinrded tbiem 
of those feelings was cahnilatrtd to rmimhi&fffma^ 
meat suBpected and uii{»piular. 

Whilst the RoyaUstis radier sapped and encumlmv 
od than supported the tloene towhielitlieya(cHieved» 
iik&x erconi were en-^ftdly pointed out, cifcakUed, 
and exaggerated, by: the Jaodbin, or, as diejr called 
ihennelTes, the Patriotic party. Thia fiu^on, nudl 
in mimbeni, bat fiormldatde fibin their aodadty, ifcek 
visaaaf mdibB dreadful reootteetion of their fermer- 
fower and prmct^les, ooneisted ef ex-generals, whoim 
lautek had fii^ with the rq»aUic ; ex-milnteia 
and functionaades, whose appointments AUd influence 
had not survived die downfiill of the Directory ; men 
of lettera, who hoped agrai to role the state by means 
of proclamations aiad jeomals $ imd phflesophers^, to 
whose vanity or enthusiasm abstract principles of 
unattainable liberty, and undesirable equality^ were 
dearer than all ihe oceans of blood, and extent of 
guilt and misery, which they had already cost, and 
w^ likely again to oocitision. It cannot be denied, 
thai, in the discussion of the original rights of hu^ 
manity^ and constitutions of society, several of this 
party shewed distinguished talent, and that their la* 
hours were calculated to keep up a general love of 
liberty^ and to promote inquiry into the princ^les 
iqpon which it is founded. Unfortunfttd^y, howeVa, 
their theoretical labours in framing constitutions di- 

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veited thnr atteation ftovT^e eoiential points of 
governnent, to its mere external fonn, and led them, 
fiff example, to prefer a republic, where eve^ spe^ 
dm of violence was practised by the little dictator 
of the day, to a limited monarchy, under which life, 
person, and property, were protected. The chie& of 
this party were men oi that presumptuous and uiu 
doubting d|»s, who, after having failed repeatedly 
in potitical experiments, were as ready as ever again 
toundert^ke them, with* the same unhesitating and 
self-deceptive confidence of success. They were never 
satisfied even with what they themselves had. done ; 
fys as there is no end of «ming at an ideal perfee- 
tkm ill wy human establishment, they proceeded 
with alterations <m their own work, ai^ if what Butler 
s^yfli of rdigion had been true in politics, and that a 
fbrm of government 

was intended 
. . For nothing else but to be mended. 

Blmger did not iqipai the sages of this school. Many 
of them had been familiar with, and hardened to the 
perib of die most desperate revolutionary intrigues, 
by Aeir fiunHiar acquaintance with the qnrings which 
set each in motion, -and were ready to recommence 
dieir desperate ld)ours with as little forethought as 
belbngs to die labourers in a powder mill, which has 
cxpioded ten times dmdng their remembrance, mkd 
destmyed the greater number of their comrades. In 
the chaMicter of these self-entitled philosoi^iers and 

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316 • iifE or 

busy agici^toYs, vaBity as well as egoAmi yrertlemSng 
principles. The one quality persuaded them, that 
th^y might be able, by dint of managemetit^ to avert 
danger from themselves ; and the other rendered 
them indiiFerent respecting the safety of others. 

Buriog the govemrneut of Buonaparte, this jaco- 
biuicri party was repressed by a strong hand. He 
kiiew, by experience of every sort, their res^ss, itt^ 
triguing, and dangerous dispoi^tion. They ai«o knew 
and feared his strength, and his unscrupulous use of 
it, The Feturo of the Bourbons called them into life, 
like tbe sun which thaws the irosen adder; but it 
was only to show how they hated the beams which' 
levivecl them. The Bourbon dynasty, with ft& die 
remembrances it combined, seemed to this factimr 
t^e very opposite to their favourite revolution ; and 
they studied with malignant assiduity the degree of 
liberty afforded by the national charter, not in order 
to defend or to enjoy it, but to discover how it might 
be made the vantage-ground for overthrowmg: both 
'the throne and the constitution. 
. €arnot and Fouche, formidaUe nameer, and reve* 
Irutionists from their youth upward, were the'oifteH-^ 
siUe leaders of this active paarty^ a&d most of the 
imrviving revolutionists rallied under their stand- 
a&dis. These agitatocs had preserved some infl^ 
©aoe over the lees of the people, and were surety 
fiad .the means of augmentang it in the momtenfe 
$(: popular commotion. The rahfaie of a great town 

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if de«MKxmtio»l aad rerolutionary by. nature; far 
deir vanUy, is captivated with auch phrases as the 
aovereignty ^ the pe<q^e» their seose «f poverty 
amUkentioiis fury tempted by occasion for up- 
roar,, and diey regard the restraints of lawa and 
good QDder as their eonstant mid natural. enemies. 
Xt is upon, thia envenomed and oorrupted. mass qf 
evil pasatona that the experimental philosophers of 
die Revolution have always exercised their chemical 
akill. Of late» however, die intercourse between the 
philosophers of the Revolution and this class of apt 
and dpcile scholars had been considerably interrc^t- 
ed. Buonaparte) as we have hinted, restrained with 
a atrong hand the teachera of the Revolutionary 
school ; while> by the eclat of his victories, his lar- 
gesses, And his expensive undertakings, in which 
teany werkmeq were employed, he debauched from 
them great piurt of their popular disciples, who may 
be said, with the inconsequence and mutability be* 
leipgin^ to their habits, princii^s, and temper, to 
have turned imperialists, without losing, their na- 
t>iral. aptitude to beqome Jacobinsagain on the next 
tempting ofqMnrtunity. 

; The party of Imperialists, or Buonapartists, if we 
lay the army out of view, was small and unimpor- 
tant. The puUic functionaries, whom the King had 
displaced from the aitoiations of emolument which 
they- b^d under tlie Emperor, — cDurUers,. prefedas^ 
commissioners, clerks, and commissaries,— •whose pce^ 

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318 LIFB eF 

sent means and fiitare hopes wen cat o^ wtgee of 
courae disobliged end disconteiited BieB, who loittBd 
witii a languishing eye towardf the iskiid of Slba. 
The immediate family eonneziens, fiiYOiirites^ and'mi- 
nisters of the late Emperor^ eonfidedt in iJie wesbh 
whieh most of them had acquired, and resenting At 
insignificance to whid diey were ledaced by tlie le- 
storation of the Bourbons, lent to this party the «eC>- 
▼ity which money, and the baUt of |i^tical intrigtie^ 
can at all times communicate. But the real and tie^ 
mendouB strengdi of the Buonapartiste lay in the atf 
tachment of the existing army to itsab£cated general; 
This was the more formidable, a« the cirewmstanoes 
of the times, and the prevailing mifitaiy chinractev at 
the French nation, had raised the soldiers from Am 
proper and natural character of servants of the state^ 
into a distinct deliberative body, having interesta^ 
their own, which were in their nature incompatible 
with those of the commonwealth ; since the very pro- 
fession of arms implies an aptitude to a state of war» 
which, to all other ranks in the state, the army iu 
self excepted, may indeed be a necessary ami* vm* 
avoidable evil, but never can be a real advantaged 

The King could not be accused of neglecting to 
cultivate the affections, soothe the prejudices, and 
gratify the wishes of the army. The fieust is, lliat 
the unprecedented difficulties of his situation forced 
him to study how to maai^ by flattery, and by the 
most imprudent indulgences and fiivours, the oi^ 

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]Murt.of his wtgec^, whe, moeoidiiig to the rules of 
dB wdl-gofvemed states, ought to bei subjected to ab- 
fiohite aaAmty^ Every effi>rt was made to giattf|r 
the feelings of the troops, and the utmost exertions 
me made to remoimt, re-establish, and re^lothe 
diem. Thdr raaks were aa^eoited by upwards of 
liR0,OGO prisoner of war, whose minds were in ge- 
neral actuated by the desire of avenging the disbo* 
nomr and hacddiip of their defeat apd captivily^ 
sad whose presence gvff % incseased the^xliscontent 
as we& as the strei^h of the French army* . 

While the King cultivated the affi^^ions of the 
eooamon soldiers with very unperfect success, he was 
more fortunate in attaching to himself the Mares^ 
ohals, whom he treated with the utmost respect afld 
kmdness^ They were griltified by his attentions, and^ 
having W)st of them some recent reason to compkin 
d Nsflmeon, it is possible, that had they possessed 
dieoiute, or even very extensive interest with tho 
army, that disturbance in the state of the nation 
which ensued, could net possibly have taken place. 
But'while Napoleon had preserved tdwards the Ma- 
reschals the distance at which a sovereign keeps sub-^ 
jects, he was often fiMdailiar with the inferior officers 
and soldiers, and took care to keep himself in theii^ 
eyCy and occupy their attention personally. He de-> 
fsied that his generals should resemble the hik of 
dre sword, which may he changed at pleasure, while 
tlie-«nj was the Made itself, and retiwed the same 

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390 1-IF«0F 

ttmperj notwitfafrtanditig tnicfa pn$ial alteraCi<»n 
Thtts^ tbe direct and penoiml interest of tUe "Em* 
peior superseded) in the soldier's bosdm, Mllsttadh*^ ' 
neiit tD Ms lieoteoanttf^ ^ ".'"■-•' \ 

H wetdd be wasting tinie tosliov reic^nl^^irfa^tite 
FreMh army iboidd faa^^e 4>een attaehc^^' inijf^^ 
Thejr eould not be supposed td fbrget iS^l^f isjii- 
rM? of socoess whiebL. thej had pttt^sued' iittS^ fab 
banner, the penrioni^ granted in fere^ 'icotriitri e s 
whb^ were now retrenched, and* the licensed' ^lun^der 
of t&eir EmperorVunceasin^feiinipaigns. AtplHesent* 
tbey 'OOb^^i^^ the King pi^oposed to redute tfieir 
mmber» so eoon aiShe could with safety, and hfin^hx-^ 
ed ilKBti" very existence was about to be at stiiAei 

R»r was It-only" the selfish intereists of ttie:;iri^D^ 
whteh«aidetfed tB<ftn discoiiteptedrf Tbe igibnt!$et)f lib*^ 
noana&it was tatied, or iMher thevamty dirsShistj 
aseeiiideiiey and national tiggrandiseine^^bnb^iMlslli )ft* 
spir^d^by* Buonaparte into- nU classes efMs*d31^|Betd, 
though' rtify were chiefly ^herishrfhy BiiS^^iJ^ 
nion^in anus* -According to; their 0pii^ibn,life^iSry 
of Vraiiee^had rts^n with Buonaparte, and k&ifd^^fli 
him fbr everi not, as they fdntfly cont^tiAed^tli 
the 8upori(Nr^£)^ of the enemy, but 1^ the tr^flffie 
of Martaf^t, fdid^ha.other generals whdti^f4a(H^(^ 
trusted* Thts^ntiment passed from thd rftiitts oHhe 
soldiers in'tOfdtliev dasji^fli of sociHy, a8^0P ^| MS Pfe fe 
kfr^jranee dee]ply suiiceptlbre of Iv^act i^'f 6j^hi^(M 
to them as natiooul glory ; and it was agai^ e^oed 


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\ die fl»Ui«r»ftwA fldds, iRMii wofkihefh 
ftm^fMnofitftoiiK All l»iB«& to agms^niihl dMy 
had iMtMi'Ae BooriMH ftoni the bnidrairibn^. 

luid dedini tlie tmtM&m of the ««Mttt «iiidly 
KM ewbinid iPiA thviwineciM of RraaoO'iAiiui 
the noM^ fiaoti ; and tbit, 4K«ml^y» 4i» 4^ 
art tf MoQunr, ai liompnaiit of die Idigdoiay hid 
been to older die mtrender of qpiravdaaf Mijr fiir<- 
toreaaea bc^oad Ae fionden, irbiidi Bnntiapwb^ U 
was Jamppeacd, wxidd h»?e wndeitd die meaaiof <e^ 
aefwikc die oenqMrts, of idadh fotttM «r MMh* 
eqr had for A diocihmft Um* The intaMaiUliiHowai 
of dw icaiHp a&eiwa to fiwl hn eiam ift dM wd^^ 
(Sipaiee tfkHai«:piera»GeB» to whidi FtflMeiiad im» 
tide eOTwflwtog milittty nawpatiem. tlie hwfedrtt 
the gi»eacuBaBat wodU el leaetendeeveut >u^ leoea* 
fpn Bdgnax^w eonvetiasnit iuiVmam, MdnUishr 
ae iktf ffqntendad^ idB imhiii liev MMwal hmmO^- 
nea» aertttl for a tiiae to iambet the ae l a dfa agit ; Ittt 
when k ima pevMined phnniyy dut the goMnttn^ni 
of Feanoe mdw eoidd nor Unadd eitg^ge te Mlier^ 
nel Mr, fi»r this or a»f other xdffaet^ dm dliooniittl 
of the OMj heoatae tmnreen!, and thay^ an|^i be 
pTOH i nm cf d rino for my ihfUHTie tfr antwhitiiiih 
Amoffg dw aald iaf a, due h^ liiiyiiiM Gimde 

VOL. Vlll. X 

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. . WFK. OF. 

wq[e.dirtiiig«i»h<rt for theur.tyiUen enmily. to the aev^- 
t^<iwd»<^,t^^ being c ^ pi mwl ^toii 

d«Qpirati^.pf. 4^e;I;qg^<of . JiouQiir 1ik4 l^mR^irtn- 

Viinp^iliiyi^il^,, B^ttb^COMy»ep rfyom o(6g ff f1ff8jtbe 

4^4. Iu4 ))eei^ wdy 4«^«SiirCa)qai9lft Of oeral \^ 
^]^pg ; . an^'lhe fjni^,foim dWeovered^. or «ttp|M>- 
«d4,.ti^ji^8cgrered5» dmt imd^ tlMur 'frnpicAfthfr 
tiij||M$9^^j;f^ <Vf ^e MViy wer£ JiWy to b«|fiUed by* 
tt)9^^9ayo!;fa^^ whos^ ViiiitiMPjr a^nrioe^yii^ cq^ 

si|[}<^^lf8}faAvi]pg^iMen contiiittedt. while thegr ^W/Qre* 

iKHWl^iM^Wt?^ <;fWQH!St;i«i<^ was tbi^ e?Eiftted jb^(t9lfm> 

t«f^kW«lin|.to.,4i^^o«0^ oC Bowibon, wd thupQ^nitia 
^A^UvHW^^Tm 4CiiD8l .that family^ hul^t atitt i« «he 
mPF%i^^Wmr Tbe.tmth k, th«& the A^tms^ 
iVMSt^it^e^j^lieim«>ltiid diejealouay^^ 
l9fls(^l^^ .w^ioim aUuned theexcliaMv^.faiiMiM|g9 
ofrteft^ §fr»v4«lir<»wm .l«ft Ae EinglM «Mm»ao 
»iriyJpi?id<y t i»<W» Msidehta of ipritttud^^iAaf^^ 
<Miasilbe,pmiii»pf fllihsiiteiiee torUaamimH fimids 
a»A nj1 K titei ti y »^y.'gp>^^ itimmmgr*. 

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fhafiy ireqiectt und^sirsble. Old moi, past the age' 
of service, or young men Whd had never knowii'it, 
fi«re/)tf tSrttte ofti&esd'elaiias, placed in iittolMtbns, 
t6 iiMi9i 'Mto'iicWid wtdftiiM contJeiY^ diey Imd 
IxM^t H ^Oe fagr A^ lauteh and tbeit Hcan; The 
Hl jj iUiiim 'dP flie snperannttated (emigrants; wiicr 
^fk!t& ttmi'^m/dUi to ritliatidBrill-smted to^ age 
tAA iMMHy^ rtAsed 'tlfe ' ridicule and cont6itipt* (it 
Btkbt^pa^rteTsisMMienj wUIe tlie patrician batigiitl- 
11^; IMI yoaArfiil presumption, 6f tbb jrdcmger M^ 
Mdfl^^eiieiMd tiidr inffigiifttion* The agdEMr'aitfl 
iMends bf Buonaparte suffered not thesrpiuisli^io 
cool. ^< There is a plot of the royalists k^SAst fdOj*^ 
was iaeessan^ repeated to the M^iigfailiettU, b^n 
uMifli^esene^ officers' iv^iinp60M. '<^ThtfBMr-£ 
bods eaunet think themselves safe'^ile those wh6 
dMMd'ibe triumphs of Napolecm hiH^ d Aer honocur 
i«*^rtdM«ee. Yoor rinks aref snli^ecttd t0 Ab ^Mi- 
teaild^^doiards, ^nrho have never^dnrwn a s#mid iii 
bMtk^ ev #hahave served only in the eDsl^rMtHbands 
of -fitolid^y^s^ among the insurgent Ghookis aod Vetr- 
dettttsi; What seenrity have yon agaifeist'beibg aiSb 
baaidMlM aday'fernotice? Andif theoMigafisiitor 
the^gtrHttnment lo you bind tbem^ asil^ weidd'seeni; 
Ml stigiitly, ^ritt you* consider yotm'to Aem as il^M 
strie«9f description }^ Sudi insinuatiM^ ai^d* suidi 
nwosiiiiyj aaflamed th» preyiacBfces of^th^iiway ; dis- 
afteiioii spiead generidfy through Aeb taahs^ an^ 
hmg befinre the bold attempt of Napoleon^ his fiMser 

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flipMifigr wereidbnosi umyMHi^ IM^^ «d him 
in'tbetedovevy of liil pdwer. 
Tim ttite of n^yftpMlMi p»fm in fll^NiMe we 

pol^latira wet^«8omefwlM :mSlibNM^<»f^ fm^ 
flea^ udes^ in «MiMDi» of mciMiM ^Fiiti»Mia 
it«te ftre to tk^ peopfe itt kffge irteHbe^f^teSkace to 
Ihe ocean. Huit irUdi (nredooiiBiM ftrllM(i»^ 
rdltt:tbe:tUleiii its owii41tl«tioti; .thett^tl^illto 
hmhfiAim^ ibe nmv^ aie wader^i Higju a n ifc tuflo^fw 
fli^ {Wpple ^France 9t ^lofgemi^elmMi^t^ikt 
AefMAjHcan^r or JmoUom. -fhty yadrtiita ft9o^H#fcI 
aajunpteiiioii ^ lhcr1i<»^N)lBof t1i9^^ffialtty<««M 
Md>y.lbMt|p0fitieal£«attoi^ u^ftgrniOgm^fOm- 
wM.fbiiti ivith itRor. Tlief m«e MflMeXkNK 
niilMvtbl^ ; kecaiise Ihejp dreaded the nealkmnteper 
«fJiJunvbag«ve«aitetot]iWfacl^ anAiaaiMiMit 
while Im va^ at therhead oTtbe FreiodhsomeMMMi, 
tbcijstaie ofrwarmnat be petpetual. IPhey dMl&tlal 
bb tenncd fioj^altbta,: ftr they^ eaoipcehaiided , mmj 
widr vinmijm iiamie of BoilHi^ 
and a refy kvge ^ i roportioa; of the totality had ^htir 
fatnab and pm^terity m iiMunalely lemrnaU^iiitb 
the R^olittioiv thaa they wece not .^fl|mKA)]^tf- 
fiiid aay.aiitnieiwDorto the:fe>>eitid> Bihiw»t^ iAe 
ttMmnrdqr/niteaBJaeiitrfretuig. 'J'^ 

• : Ppgn AearhtoKiitfagThiii qflPianflhttep^ ph a aw iy 
JfaiiaaUM/annfctttai' orCotaattenai^^ aad^tle 
l apaia im i i t|«#feiitliaftrf thpfliciiof.pio|»aty, fob> 

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sf Mid tdKMiMy iKtpid i^ett ef ilia Sii^'dtp 

A hin^lok^lMar aolenttt aad fhfir tli|iijTi< hit wtih 
««lioaii w|^ b» comderadrtt Jthe gUMDiB^ • 
l^jtiuppflii^ irilh tbe other nMiom of JBaropo. Bn^ 
thqicJIVfriod Old dopieailed 4hili ooniyBrjierQhiK 

wjg.JHHrdfJ «r the oigeot of the.pitiipet;o£.thq 
UoQ(l«:lfo iioM%,.wdtbe.clas](L The jmfeB^. 
efnmy.ef the capgtJtwtkWiriietg w«»Teete4> uiM^ 
Itod dffinipij ead tba^ ireftdied with, doubt 4wi 
feer.e^ei^rilip which the emignvt adbilily adders'' 
f§ nfe<ieiil diqpaed totehe for Tecoreiyofttheiv Ibr- 
Mt.««fcte. . ^ 

. Xte tfaiii sttigfcii the modentQ puc^ were seim^ 
Ihidy ieriimt, md.thB|wooeei£afK whiiAiittfdkiphM 
i»Aei<aiuql}iptirf ])|Bp^ |hsew etiikiiig ligKtoi^ 
ihehlfMbe of the puhficoniiid* We nsaqt, thioraAve^ 
(wm A0 Jeeeder's 4U*eiitixmin 4;bit diieetieti* 
. '44;pet^ dciot; eonioertiiiig^ pteeedeoot^ had eritMuil 
¥Ki% 9^41^ called Duroaoy hMTOeii;thp w^wrar of 
the paruk aiid (he mayor of the cofa^^ The: 
aaajor fanaaebi the affiar ,fae&if the d^u^aber «f pe*^ 
palatethy a vkdett petitieny in ^diifih .)ie genendiaad^ 
his oonniihdiit i^gatnat. the whole bodjr qif ettiigiaiftay 
.«h«»«rher.aerai9^'of dMnog to pfaK^ thiemiekea 
aho1wlllaeoila$kllAedA^t^enl^ aQ}^,i^).tr^t^PTBMe 
araHwqpwed epmiliy* Xhe Chamber, 80th N^* 

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1814, dmled die^laligiiif&of tbeptlitmiiM 

tm^Tnm^^ ^ iiiMBifion thAt.ihcre yiiifffiifl n Awrlrfmii 
■ecBEet^^toD, whidb :teiided tfluaow ibf .j0^ oCfdiiH 

iiln inriiMnianif HiiiniinrirtiHft'TTtlli rtJhp r ^iifgi •. ^f& 

poftinil to inprefltevesy dawof ,Fj:mc)m^^ 

llKe.Ku)y,i«r evflRy./gi«ii)ii«r .of <mksc9» ImUm llir 

The daima^of tlie..e9uaraiit&* fioi nf fftnTiii a i Bi uf 
tlim.4>^t«d poDitalgr, were^ »h0trMbe%» sM. jml 
m^iliduIiitaUe.iif^ thfijk:qf the Kiog.^to^tlia.thipiMu. 
But the ppJBtical oanaidantiam in «bich tli^tifmr 
]iiyQl?j^»,.i9eQdq»d. any .0eoaal attflnpt .tOv eufqim: 
those jpUirna Jtbe. anre 4Bign8l.«f eiTil icip;;p».,,^9^ 
^ar aln)09jt certain , to end in .a secQiu} ^pfiAmfK99^' 
both of tl^ ]»gr4 fiuiuiy and their ftOoweqi*:) liiiAia 
^ 4Uenii9a, goxenunent jBeems to havotootjudiiipriqui^ 
ly.for some means pf compromise vbich T%ighfi a£^' 
fiard iielief. to the emigrants, without iimgqritting'ieiii 
that article^ of. the charter wbieh . ratifiod ^e^«ate ef* 
nat^iml domMnilr' Mo niiem r . Femmd bai^Bht foi-* 
ward in the ClfaiiAber of Dei^ates, a nolioii foa^ 
Mater^itiQ? of ,^uch ^stat^s of .emigrwts ,m yei ro^* 
mained unsold/ But this involved a^aesiion iicapcet ? 

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^ ilig<i!ie rights of tWmuidi more immero 

pcMf ««MferAs ^1^ more fiMiiiiatr b^ 
Inidlit Hmt^AM&'ti ^fikxvMxiihia^bik^ 

n«lfk)ti»'!ft*l«ni»og8e« ' /....;;.«;..;. 

; ''U*liii86^'pi^po8al» cAed 'ftrwiird Momiottf; Bfati 
biA;'%Ktf1charg«d Femmd^ wMi :fhe fiEtal^pui^iote^ 
oPoj^sttiiig^iUb d<Mr tm tUe ra^ i^oct '3f ^biiid' 
domaute; "'*' JUxeady,^ c»ntittued the orator; *^^ tfii* 
t#o eiaSeififies of the kii^otn have re80tmdfed4i9t& 
the^^ctfds of At ministef, as ^vrUlt tlie )SHp^ ^i^^ 
piMi^aeHhe dmilderi)oIt. Tlie eftct ^#)^li ih^y 
ki^e^^nidttced lias been so rapid imd 8o geiieMf^SSiaV 
aSb'^B^ilNtintEiAlBtioiis have been at oncie sttsffen^dd, 
A ^eAd dktrtei and ezdetndye'fear Uavig otosed a 
stagMatiM, the elKcts of which even tike royal ttea- 
si]iy4ii0 fett. The pro^^tietors of satidhal iproperty 
catf^4ila^ sell or mortgage thefarestatek They 
aiejAi^dfiBlly reducedto pdrerty : in Ihe very bosom of* 
waiMfi^'- Whtooe arises this cidamity P Tile cause 
of it li^e dedhmttoh of IheiMmster, that the pr6-' 
perlyth^'pdssess d6ti not lt*gaILy belong to theml ' 
F<»f ithl«}iiV< ih fact^cthe imiseqitence of his assertion, 
that'^lflhe lawirecogntses fo ibe exnignemts a right to 
prope»IJi^'*hich $in$yi existed.' '' * 

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988 LIF£ OF 

3!hcL jMlchwIod .MtMiMhik MaodtaiM, a f^^^f ^ 
ai iKioii«(^.jMMic^< ami ftmi/mM^hwrnrndnAOi^ 

la jIm mte» ariAwia^ iriiMi^ 4^^ 

until aftwr^jrctireilfrQii Mniaiifi^irlifriiiiMy iiwuyjl 
teihaiMiaiaU. JOwMawadhgy^iitiiwicirfitlw 
«Bta|A^ffi:i)ie sale uif tA^ ^miaiiili^aniiii, bIibm 
hi^fiinMMa Ib9 iMh aftuMUg^ <hai 

itilQdrUii«lb€.qHMtiaift of Am sMorltfvt'iBaMiMi^ 

iMWirilWUt^nwH tiltfi " y firfiii ^ V VHriKvaJieig^fth^ 
cjEtt jMtoiimwwm, aenia iiqfKiteat^cflMteiitoiM aC- 
fiK^teiiiielll^AtPMidvm tettJietfriiaaia^fllittietif 
pmlaiitvp«M»iir»wIio migb^ltmr ^xpusod tfiom a il yt i 
t^UM Hai^^raoaedad^ in a^very elofat&t itran^^la 
evhgim Mfiecauimt of tha ^anigvaai^f to «|aaw 
raifjctofeg theiit faamwi^ «oiBfaanaii<lbr '^diobttaiii- 
foUqnca, haaoor for tfaeir fidalitgr^ aad pgoPirftd>t» 
ofaaate9|Jtti9tdK axislaioaof thasaoMfropriat^ni 
aaikmagiiaiau 4IB lip aitatta idodi Judhbaev ae- 
qiaia9 fay 4«iinah phcml Aamin a^aJt a a tfan ^^liUii 
ought not to exist He tharefiMa pvopatadtlMtt the 

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B«tioD should aMisfy the daimfi of these unfortunate 
geatknenv if net in lUl, at least npm 8«eh tetma 
df compofll^ aa had been applied £a aiAft nitiontf 
ohBgaiMna. Upon ^a footing, be cdcidated that 
aaaniaiiliBf cf twdveari^ieiia ef^Hvres yearlj^ iNndd 
piftpffilhe cli&m itf the tmovs emigraalaofMI de» 
seK^Maopa* H^nesct dreir a pietwre of the distreased 
▼eteiM flaMieni; pensioners of the state whu had 
been ledneed to diettass by the diseontinaance of that 
pan^SB^boiight wtlSi thehr blood ina ihonsaiidbnk- 
tkav Thfee miliaas more of fiviea he oompttted im 
nop c aaar y ta disahaige iUs saeied obligition. 

There was wisdom^ nianlkiess, a$d geMMMity in 
die plan af Maresobal Maedonald ; imd, omM if fatore 
been carried into dedsive eitaei^n. It wodd have 
greatly appeased the fean and jealauneif <ef the pro- 
piialairS' of national d<nnains» and abdNMi Jn iai|iar« 
tiafity betiri^t the clatms of die ess^fints aa4 thoae 
of Ae amy» which ought to have oMdfiated bolh. 
Unhq^^, iunda were awanting, and the n^al gow 
vmBBDWtf 60 hf from tidng able to incor a new ex- 
pense of fifte^ miHiottS yearly, was not in a condi- 
tion to disdbarge the varions demands upon Aeai, 
without continuing the oppressive tax of Les ^k^Us 

It is, indhedf on iht subjaet of foance Md ta:r^ 
lsoB» lAiat almost lA revdutions among ciTiKzed 
nationa Imhto beoi ftund ft> hinge ; and th^re is seafce 
any ^ging hew long actual oppression may be en^ 

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330 LtFE OF 

dared, so tong as it spaires the purse of ihdividuars/ 
•r bwi'^riiy afceaV^ itca, eibiHWifife tnoBt'hecesbary 
oljji«ttV^Mf«<*^e *>stirrection. 'Wftlid&lftlieTlea^ 
tanltibtf4)Nbe E^nii^s, th^DiftafVouads^^^ 
U^0 t«bMdl Agmmi ihem'i %''wiis l i lff fe rt a'^ ittoh 
fb«A^l^bio6d' drth^ Swi^s'dgiittftl ^ :^t?teiEHi& ; 
wxtAoctt? 'tile' ttotttp-oct th^ Amefieati^ "KiffoHiSS/A 
ni^' hftve^ beeti long po8t]|K)hfed'i '^S%^i^1^WS 
disorder of ^riie French finatifc^s, toulrf XVl* iftM 
ncffbr Aam \9fi*iiidBed logei%fer ' tfte l^niAmiiilWikM^' 
hfyl 'fteliee'was tipow again agitated by one o^thMi^' 
fever fits, #liieh arise firoiA Aie sensitiveness 6P the' 
subjeot^s^sei"" - ■ • ■'* '" ^' 

^'icJMH'on^ke Mateof ehe^puUic fitxMlce^'^V^' 
theAfcW'iie MMftesquieu, had given a singdli^iilr- 
stance of Suonaparte'e deceptive poKeyl ' AUiittal' 
expoaticwof nk^ftl rMeipt 'and expebdfturi'^an} 
been . perbdittftUy 'puUkhed * since he assniUi^ -^ib' 
rciiiB^'gimmnttHr, ^hielh wefe, to outward a^j^li^- 
aace^'UBdianefligQably'kocurftte ; and, as ^h^y sisciffie^ 
to liafamoeeMholi>er, sflbided the'ftitproisi^ffil^t/ 
the rcvcuaes of the state toing realised, Vh^^'^-' 
penscA eouldi not ftll int^ arrear. But lit reviAfyy^i' 
nuinbet of oslmadikMiry expenses wet€' Wft^H^ 
from the view of 'the public, while, on the dffler- 
hdnd^ ihBfwdxuDeioi^iiike taxes wa9 ov€tfi^inal!M. 
ThHa t^e two.biidgetsof d8ll»inydl9IS;u|)6nf'eMfe' 
ewtmaMn^ >eiftUbiied a ddfieit^of 'lipwieHlft Hf^tee - 
hundnedr and twelve miHtons df livres,' or thtrtceii • 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


nfflkhfl.sterlng. Baonqmte was not ignoraat of 
this f|CI» bttt c oiMB e atod. it &om tbe ^i!p^4f(< th^ m^ 
tioi]\».,iii bope8i4>f Yoplacing it, as in JiiavMie^uereM- 
M digrs, Igrfordfypi Itiboie, a^, ii^ iiho^miMn^ time^ 
8Qp|fe|ivd Mffis^ bf tlie amicipatun of ^m ffiitidU ; 
as 4^f.fJll9fi^tbft^ boQlt^eepcar mdcQS up,a plannh^e 
W]^l9q|..ta me^ j^hifc ^ of hi8ina«tar,»ai]d0»vemlli» 
p^al|if]^.i)y.Jhis de^^liei^ in; ibe uaoi of a^pbclBVwi 
Upni. t^O' ^vMot the debts «£ I^xiRlce < lapi^ated :.t«ii 
haxe ttttrta^pd iartbe^couroe of tbifftaeayeaB^^AodM 
extcsii:of l^MMBS^^Ottl^^fipaiicsvii^^ 
eight soiHions and a haJ£ of s^r^x^rmmtif* . >. . « <> 
^ These'finanml involvements accorded iUmith <thfi 
accompUsbment of an un&rtmiUie. and' baity -pm- 
mise of Monsieur, that the sey^rei and ptesling^lttlkes) 
ctliedriea droU^ r^uam should, be afadidied,' wkialr 
had bei^.n^ade vhen he .fivst^. enteredi fvwotvmd- 
while, hetirixt hope and despair, bcv^biw^ ^vei^' 
indoo^weni for tbe pui^poseiof diawing attevents -to* 
th^ rqyiil:^ cause. On. the otbestband, tke Kit%^ up- 
on asq^mcling the tlurone; bad engaged biasadf^ n^h 
perhaps too much latiftude^^to pay all the engage- 
ments which tbe state had contracted nnder the pre- 
oedkogl government* To redeeiBrb(»lh these pledges' 
was impossible, for without continuing this very ob-. 
noxious and^qi^Euressive tax, the crown oouUt toe bave^ 
the nMWM'Ofditebargingthe nadenalidebt> A'plan; 
was in 4?^ proposed ?by Jalabert to replace this op-' 
pressivf 'GiLciie by a duty on wines j the moHon was' 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

S32 Livs or 

veftfted to s oonmittee of tWCfaanlfcrof BtafHw^ 
weauOfrtB, but di6 sobcilittttiod seem io li«f«'iMtii 
feand impdssiUe. Louu naiaipally tadk Ite |m>« 
nise of Us inbther give vty to bM o«n ft<te'4fiii« 
berate engigeineiit. Bi^tt it iiot die lesHtflMs^f'tiyit 
by oonfinnittg to levy I09 nhrMf^uiMij nmm^^u^t 
eiberwiBe diaindiiied to the royd goremmcttt ttef 
«8 it afiected their purses^ veie caibkli to diaige 
die Eji^ irith breach of fiiifli towards Im mljieels, 
aija would fisteii to no defence upbaa iopicoii^liidbL 
few peqple are disposed to h^ Mhftf l^iAtet'their 
own intarest. • 

There teniain^ yet aawtfaersal$ect dp idi^ 
^ead, to' exdte the minds'not only ofthose wfto w^ce 
desirovs of reToliition» or, acoorSing to the RMKin 
jlkH»e,euptiUnwarufur^fjm; batof odierfr;#h% 
deTotedly attached to die'WcMure ofFtsncewdMttei 
to see her enjoy,' under the sWi^ bf i'tej^ttafe 
Ktonarch, the exertise of natixmal Hlfllrty. l%ey UMl 
th^ misSferkine b see that Kbeify atti^kfed'-fil the 
point where it is nioiEit sensitiye^tailiidiy, by'&n]pOBing 
restraints i^n the public press.' 

Buonaparte liad made it part of iitr'sj^iilMr to 
keep this powerful engine in bis own irotrhand^iHA 
aware ttiathls system of des^tismcoiflS- not Save 
sulwisted for six'^ttths, if his actions faaBr biliirtt^ 
posed to the'cei^ure (tf the'pulfic, and'hiSBtateMml^ 
to contradiction and to argument: The BiMlieiis 
M^ing unloosed the cham by which the Bbiferty nf 

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fiM& HCttiiBQWMiit The yiMklHy oC. fii- 

]g|g«r, U>},jQ9fre6s. the spirit w%l} 4^^}!^ ^^ 
y^il8nWi¥??y^^>,-^ lOQtiQXi v«9, made on ti^e fth of 
July^ 1914;^ for ystaMi&hing « cenflorship ugPipLpfOB- 

^if^,pfw«p^^8,iifider.tihe dijrecti^n of ^<^eni- 

, /jri|^^,|isq?ijijtj^ 8ijbje<*. w|s di^qwjed with gr^t 
l|f|l^)eB8.j^iditi^ql V^i«he,A^lpl4y.; Ijrut it is one 
f^iMfig^I P9^^^ maxima ifjbich the British re- 
ceiiir^ aB:th€§(mim^ thf(t» without a^Bohitf freedom of 
the public p»s8» (to be exercised always on the pe- 
ril.aC.fmch a# nususe it,) there can neither be en- 
iij^tened patriotism, nor libera^ discji^ion ; and lliat, 
ajtbpi]^.tiiei9n>is of a &^ c^nstitutim may be pre- 
m¥^,Whsifi^ iim Kb«r^ isjrefiHricted, they will soon 
M t«,jiafire Jkhe n«c«f9ary beneficial eflfects in po- 
^((S^jtterjQfbtB.of thci c^]9^^iuatil^ and the safety 
p£ jll^X»diif4% . The. liberjy of the presp affi>rds a 
^uim4«it»W|i» .y)»icb the injured may challengp 
Uski^SSgmtkf al the bar of the nation ; it is the 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

SS4 • tIF£ OF . 

meanfi'by which paUic men ni«y, in ca«e of mhcciiii 
duct, be Maigned beforti thehf dim ittid 'sucecMBng 
ages ; H i^ihit My «iMe te wb&ebbdU^iotfl'QdSs- 
gttised 6ruih tm press )ts«w«y illtfli^40ie^'(dililklftltf%f 
AKxn^ohtf ; and it ifr the ptM^ge^b)^ l^eailf^^o«WiMl 
te, irho vAkdy Kfts his rttiat^aigtAmiHiAe diiri<t)^MiM8 
orprejodiees of his oimta(ie»i)My{Mfe'tetfititl^^ 
upon feesttdfls al^gicy^totepiMidjMiltt^ l[%e 
eniri^ whieh' would deifeh l9ie ear and ^xfcitigtdsh 
the idgfit of «n inditidtial, resc^Ies, iti'^sofiAedhut- 
hir degree, hife guilt, w)n>, by reMtieAtig the fteddoni 
iyf therpresS) would reduce a nation to the'dedhesd 
of ptqudlde* and' the bUndiitess of ignforancei -Ifhe 
downfall of chis spcteies of freedom, as if isHlie first 
symptom of the decay of nalsonal liberty, has'tM 
in aH Bgks lbtl<»wed by its totltl destnictibn^ s^ it 
may be juMty pronounced that they cannot exist'scM 
pariA^^; OT) 0S the elegiac poet has smd t:tf^iiiihi^ 
aadthecouiltry to *wMch he belonged — - ' 

■ •'^'' • ■ . • . •■ ' . ■ - '• •^r4i ' ' 

lile tiH si^resse ivegat; tu non potes illi, 

We(mii0t>»wn,'at the sMOe tisie, diat us ifli^ geod 
deniet to us umnited with 0141, the ui^miftfjt'fitoe-^ 
doniF ef the p^ess is attended with ebfieitiPiiiloi^hB- 
nUiioe8,i;#indh^ when a Nation is is a emi^-eim 
of es^iteidon, neoder^iltt cMreiseef it psMliadf^^ 
dersosM^ Thb is'dipeoidy ^ case whctt a frnflki 
aaiheii in Fstace, are^sil^enty ndeased^^m vsMfts 
of bdttdage, imd dis^KMied, <^ like ytothftil celts bt^ 

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lo96e«?,.to.n|alce llie most .extcaTagaat we of lbeir> 

^4{M«^^%^)W<^ ^^^ mbcbictf tbtm Ahsehtto 

&ieniMA rby itbo^ diwlupiig ,p«npblefleer, . ndio idotbea 
du^. pi^XMfiog. pmm»My m the osataohs of .tbeir po-^ 
BMifg.dfi ff i^ gfj gMgft(S^tfced ibose of tbe AtheoMnB^r— . 
'\% hasb^n ibe, qpudon. of .oiany. statesman, tbat toi: 
witbboIAii'oxii ^ucbia natipn Uie fitedom of the preM/ 
k a. AMBMitt justifisUe alike by re$i^ and BeeeM^.i 
We^pEcportioD^ m^ these jeaaDoen^-libe^ tortbe^ 
poRoer of j^oyiog it The oontidcaatefaPil the y wp cc ^ 
fi)Lire.euffi^F to walk a| liberty, and .aeaied,'if theiti 
QCC43iQna. require it; but we reslran; the cfaiU^ we 
wMjhhpld.Wfapteafkim tberaaa&^aad^^^ fetter «he 
MmKV; .Wby>thetirfim,J^yaBk#rdioiiddaiiati0Dt 
wb^iD{a.8lat%oCftfreif,M^8t9p|plied; wiAoitt imiric- 
tipn; with. the uidu%ences wbieh mustiiieiBeBiaifely 
increase the disorder ? Our answer is ready ,-^hat; 
granjtuig tbe abuse of tbe liberty of tbe press to ex-^ 
ist in the most featfiil,Lititode <aiid we mednol look 
U^^iJ^aamifoi evpmples), theadvortages deviired 
bq^thMif'^ ^ iiiestiaiidile,.tbat, to dspiite ns of 
t]^i«9^MiiKMii)4; be td if au.ttebiteot should sfatit iip^the 
irq4o9i|s .;i«))iidi supply light aid w to a .assnmen^ 
^^lfttlWi;».<lwtaia piiopsoatieii ofvooldy »apd periis^ps of 
r^iHi^lIK ^TW libm M«fM at: the apMur^* ' Be» 
sides^ W0#fknowle^oarselrespeciiH«ily jealous of 

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336 LIFfi OF 

the sentiments 6f the members of every govemmeil 
on this delicate subject Their situation veadots 
them donbtfiil friends to a priyilq^ tlmugfa irUdi 
alone they can be roidered aarauibie to the publte 
for the abuse of their poirar, and thiMgh which 
also they often see thdr just and tcsqpecale tfxsr- 
dse of authori^ maligned and nusoonsMwd. IV 
princes, also, the licence of the press is, finr mf^ 
reasons, distasteful; To put it undar rcgrialiani 
seems easy and derirable, and the haadsUp on the 
community not greater, (in thar accoont,) dun die 
eidbicing of decent reqpect and sabordinatioBy— ef 
the sort of etiquette, in short, which is established 
in. all courts, and which forbids the saying, under 
any pretext, what may be hide or disagieeaUe to s 
sovereign, or even unpleasing to be heard.' Undtf 
these circumstances, and in the ptesent state of 
France, men rather regretted than wondered that 
the ministers of Louis XVIII. were diipeeed to 
{dace re8tricti<ms on the fireedom of the picss, « 
that they ellected their purpose of phMJng tibe M^t 
of nations under a censorial bushel' 

But the victory thus obtained brought addUenal 
evils on the goveminent. The law was evaded under 
various devices ; the works which it was intended to 
intercept, acquired ciiculatien and importaaee firom 
the very circumstance of their bong prol^bited ; 
while the whide itwx of the measure impressed 
many who had otherwise been friendly to the Rmr- 

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bon family^ with distrust respecting their designg 
upon the national liberty. 

Thos split into parties, oppressed with taxes^ 
vexed with those nameless and mysterious jealousies 
and fears/ which form the most dangerous subjects 
of disagreement, because alike incapable of being 
explained and confuted, France was full of inflam- 
mable materials ; and the next chapter will show 
that there was not wanting a torch, to give kind- 
liiig to them. 

vot. viir. y 

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338 I'lPK OF 


iCamofa Memorial on, Public Afairs.^Fouche fails to qbtaifl 
the favour of the ^ing; and joins tJie Jacobins — VaHoUs 
Ptqfects of that Party; which finally joins the Bumutpdr- 
tists, — Active intrigues commenced. — Congress of Viemia — 
Murat, alarmed at its proceedings, opens an Intercourse 
with Napoleon, — Plans of the Conspirators, — Buonapartes 
Escape from Elba — He lands at Cannes, and advances 
through France — Is joined, at Grenoble, by 3000 Troops-^ 
Halts at Lyons, appoints a Ministry, and issues several 
Decrees, — Dismay of t?^ Royal Government. — Intrigues of 
Fouche. — Treachery ofNey, — Revolt of the BourbonArmy 
at Mehm^The King leaves Parisy and Buoncqtarte 4tf 
rives there-^His reception, 

Carkot has been repeatedly mentioned in this 
history as having been the associate and colleagoe df 
Robespierre during the whole Reign of Terror. His 
admirers pretend, that, charging himself only with 
the condact of the foreign war, he left to his brethren 
of the Committee of Public Safety the sole charge of 
those measures, for which no human language %if^ 
fords epithets of Sufficient horror, through which 
they originally rose to power, and by which they 
maintained it« According to these fond advocates, 


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their hero held his course through theKeignofTerior 
unsullied by a bloody spot^ as Arethusa rolled her 
waters through the ocean without mingling with its 
waves ! and the faith of inost readers will swallow the 
ancient miracle as easily as the modern* Camo^^ 
however, had the independence of spirit to oppose 
Napoleon^s seizure of the throne, and remained ip, 
obscurity until 1814, when he employed his talents 
as an engineer in defence of Antwerp. He gave in, 
late and reluctantly, his adherence to the restoratioi^, 
and was confirmed in his rank of inspector-general p£ 
engineers. But this did not pievent him from bein^ 
extremely active in conspiring the downfall of the 
monarch to whose allegiance he had submitted him^ 
jself, and who afforded him subsistence and rank. 

€amot gave his opinion upon public affairs in jt 
Memorial, made public in December 1814, which 
was at once an apology for the Jacobin party, and |i 
.direct attack on the reigning dynasty. This docu- 
ment we must necessarilyconsider at some length,a^ 
it .conveys the ostensible reasons on which the author^ 
and many thousands besides, having in their anfiou^ 
consideration the interests of the freedom of France, 
thought these interests would be best provided for by 
destroying the sway of a mild and somewhat feebte 
monarch, whose reign was identified with peace and 
tranquillity, in order to recall to the throne an abso- 
lute sovereign^ ruling on military principles only, and 

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whose &nt itep ander the canopy of state must ne- 
cesmAly be followed by war with all £urbpe. 

Ill thw singular, and, bs it proved, too ^eflfectivc 
'^prbiaction, every fault committed by the- restored 
'fionily is exaggerated ; and t¥ey; with the nobles, 
^ their 'peniohal adherents, are, under a thin anftcdn- 
'tetnptuotusvtil of assumed lespect'io^ 
'treated alike 4d fbofs, who did hot understand^K^w to 
'goverh France^ ^i^nSi^ as Vinains, who 'inedi^ateS her 

• riiik " ^Tht muMer if tlie Kihg is, tvifh iriny as en- 
Veainfiefl fks unJ4i8t,'stated to have^een occasioded, 
''nDtby ille violence knd cruelty of lis pefsedntors, 
liut^fij^^-fiife pusillammity ofHs ricAflity, whoffrst jiro^ 

* yoked the resehtment. -of the hsfctlbn, ai^^ 'thien'fled 
^m thfekiagdbni, wheii,'if diey had lovibd'flfeir so- 
Vci*giif,'fliey shoufdlikve rallied around Him: This 
plea/iirtlieiiibttthoriaiTgicide;!^^ as if one ofa band 
'of rdibb^rs isihonld impute ah aBsassination not ^a tGeir 
«/ivh guilty violence, but to'thex:oWaf£ce of tlie do- 
'mesticsr of the murdered, by whom that Sriolehce 
imghirhaWbeen resisted. No one' also Unew bcfter 
'iifaitii^Ca¥aot by what arts Iiouis JL V 1 . was indoced 
'By degreed to abandmi all means of defence which his 
'ntWattbn afforded hiih, and to thrdw Himself iijpoB 
'the sWdrn faith andallegiancebf those by whom he 
'was cbndefaEihed to deaths As whimsical and untbgical 
'wereif fie ekiniplesand arguments referriM to byGar- 
^bt iii%i>|)ort^ of the condenmation of Xouis. Ctcero 

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if, scems^ say^ in hi» OflSces^ ^' We h$Xn all iboiict w^ 
felME's 9^d we wisfa for the death of those w^ hut^'^ 
Qa this ponipxehensiye. ground^ Carnot Tindicatea 
iheurator^s approbation tf the death of Caesar, qo^ 
whh4taiH^|(gthiBicleai9e](tlftheiis«rper; a|idCM<b 
i^df^y (ccHiltiiQ^aed thp eolleagoe of Jlobespi^cre,) 
yiviit fartbfi:, and did not think it pee^ble. tbeie 
|]|fl44d: be a-g^tod king.' Of coiur^e^ not Louis XY L 
9^^^^ bpt iill moBSgrchs, niigbt b^ justly put t^ 
d^b M Cwmot^s entiniation 9 . because they are wu 
lUHlJly tb^ obj^ts of fear t<> their subjects— ^lecause 
we batf tbo^eita fear-— tod because, according t^ 
4he kiadin^ ^iltbf^rity of Sbylock, no msuh^tcis 
^e thij^g h^ t¥ould npt kill. Th« doctrine of r?gi^ 
cide ifi said Uk he ccNofomed in the Old Testam^ut ; 
families wer^ iRa#sacred^ — ^monarchs jHroscribfd^-r* 
intolerance pix>invlgated> by the ministers of a mer- 
ciful J)eity : Wherefore, thenrshould not the Jaco- 
bins, put l40ui$ XYJ. Ui death > If it was aUiegi^ 
^hat the persons of Kings were inriobiUe by the laws 
of all. ciyilgoremments,. those of usurpers certainly 
lyere iiot so protected ^ and what means were there^ 
faid Camat, for positively distinguishing between 
an usurper and a legitimate king ? The difficulty of 
^laking sucb a distinction was no doubt a suiEci^nt 
vindication of the judges of Louis XYL 

Trash like this bad scaxce been written since the 
elub-room of the Jacobins was closed. But the object 
oi Camot^s pamphlet was not to excuse adeed^(which 

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a§ LIF£ OF 

he would probably havie ratherboastedof ^kiiidaUe,)^ 

bat by the exaggerations of hia eloquence, and the 

weight of bia influence with the public^ tofthimate 

the fury of the other parties against the Bourbon^ 

and their adherents^ The King was charged with 

bliving beeti ungrateful to the call of the nation, (a 

call which assuredly he would never have he^rd but 

for the cannon of the allies,)— with haying termed 

himself King by the grace of God^-^-^ith resigning 

Belgium when Carnot was actually governor of AnU 

%crp, — ^with preferring Chouans, Vendeans, emi* 

grants, Cossacks, or Englishmenj tot he soldiers whose 

victories had kept him in exile, and in consequence 

t>f whose defeat alone he had regained the throne of 

his fathers. The emigrants are represented as an^ex*^ 

ssperated^yet a c<»itemptible faction. The people,tt 

is said, care little about the right of their rulers, — 

-about theiFi]^arrels,-^t heir private l]fe,or even their 

political crimes, unless as they affect tliemsei'Ves. AH 

^vemment,ofcour8e,hasitsba8is in popular opini6n) 

but, alas ! in actual history, *^ the peo{^ aref only r&t 

.garded,^ says Monsieur Camot, >^as tlie victimsaf 

their chiefs; we witness nothing but the contest ^ 

subjects for the private interest of their princet^,'— 

kings, who are themselves regicides and paixicidefs^ 

—and prietits who incite mankind to rantual skugb^ 

ter. The eye can but repose on the generous efforts 

of some brsirve men who consecrate themselves to the 

deliverance of their fellow-countryqieni if theysuo* 

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need, they are called heroes, — if they fail, they arQ 
tmkora and demagogues/'* In this and other pas- 
flagea, the author plainly intimated what spirits were 
at work^ and wliat was the object of their ntachinar 
tions. The whole pamphlet was designed as a ma«- 
nifesto to the French public,. darkly, yiet distinctly, 
anoouncingtheexistenceof a formidable copspirapy, 
4he principlos.on which its members prpcee^ledf ^n4 
ibeir grounds for expecting, success. 

. Camot himself affected to say« that th^. Memorial 
was only designed for circulation among his private 
fionncxioDs. But it would not have answered the in- 
^nded,purpo9e.hud it not been printed. and dispersed 
^ith the most uncommon, assiduity « Small ca^^ts tra- 
i^ersed the botUevdrda, from which it was hatwkQd 
about among the people, in order tp ayqid the penalT 
iies which booksellers and stationers might have inr 
curred by dealing in an article so joflammatory. 
Notwithstanding these evasions, the printers andi:e« 
tailexa of this diatribe were .prosecuted by govern-^ 
ment; but the Cour cTImiruftion refused to co^r 
firm the bill of indictment^ and thi9 failure served 
to encourage the Jacobin. fa&tion* The official prpr 
ceedings, by which the ministers endeavoured, to 
suppress the publication, irritatf^d rather thaq iat 
timidated those, w^p took interest in it* It argui^« 
they said, at once a timorous and a vindictive spirit 
to cppress the inferior agj?nt9 in an alleged. lih^li 
^hile the ministers. dar^ not. bring to trial the ^Y.QH(r 

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944 "- tWJPOF..' .':/-•'• 

^d aalbor. 1^ thf*- unf ttttttioiMiUjc* tfa^ Miftied 
jiislly J for- die sMaAires jcomspoaibdi fu^k/dna 
pflltrf poUey^ vrUdi Midd ntbe|r miiifc difl Ubcr« 
tyot the press^ «baii bring t4i. fair tsi8l> aad'^pim 
pWBi^binofit tlMM by iwbbiiE it is misiiMsd; . 
• It would biav^ been ak iBpoBnUe fov i^aeii^ to 
ba*f« Kvedftmid siidi a coaqrticaf^dr scene pflpelilisal 
intxigue^ witb^pitniiag^g inlt, ae foribe.0pari|f.» ta 
resist flying upwards^ He was, bawe^seryili<plaeed 
terdke€»b»iietes)iedttisedtoaot. JkJke»h»mM»gltnt 
Boeiu^avi^ bisiaid i» betray and de^knneifae D&- 
laetan^ h^ bad long nicditated ha^ tSLdetbione and 
betray JldcMiaparte, aadsobftitaie m bis -place a le^ 
gency^ or soavi^ formof g^^wmmmit ntdesivliidibe 
loigbt expect to ^et as piime ninistc^: Intbts iisdea% 
tsfkhigy beBMHre 'tba» once laa^tbe peril of life, and 
MS glad t0 escape witb ao beooaraUe exiie. We 
biMPe^alreadyislatcNitbat he had nUssed theimeat-Ai* 
▼MKrAbleo^^iHii^y^ibr aiBaiUng binaself ofifaisEpe* 
lteiea!|mawledge» by bis^ absence ikom Paris when it 
was taken by the alKes. Foaeh6 eadeavoared, bmrr 
ever, to ebtain tbe notice of the restored nMBsasb 
and bis gor^mment, and to vendft bitu^^ndeeajier 
e^ptable to Looifi^ When tbe eelebr«iledRe?«ifailisn^ 
fst appe£Mred in tbe ao^cbamber on bis first^end* 
ance at Couar^ • he observed a sneer on tiie eouate* 
nance of sosmi* royalisls wlio v^ere in waki^, and 
teek the bint to read them a^tesaon, sbowi^, tbat$ 
mimster of police, even when he has Jest bis office^ 

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ifi^ fkotk^. s«C¥>n toib^ jetted with, <^ You> sijie»" said 
inii ^1^1101^114^^93^9 '*f 4$^92. prcHid of the JUi^ft lyitb 
jD(hkfhcy9U;8Mre.9(V>¥li^d.o Po yoojtecaUe^ the Im- 
4BI9«^ yPV^ beld)i9e8peqt^g th^ Spurhonifaqiily «Qin0 
.lime Bimm ig buqIi a. ccmapwy P-rr-Aod y Qir^- madam," 
Ji^/CJ0|idi9>wd, addfes$iiig,$i lady, <' t9 whom Iguve a 

«pA9f f»qfrtrtai£wtond»oi%y P^h^-^isfa^ to.he iconM- 
itdjaf vyh^ th^ pap«ed bf^iwil^^iui «|i the snlgeet^of 
.LpiM^i. XYIIZ."' . Tha laqgb^rs iv^re eonaeknat^ 
.f^uefci %o4 Fonchi waa ji»|rodoced iutat the oahioet. 
J!b^ phw yfbMfk Vws^tik .recomwanded, Ip .the 
iiy^tf :iv»%. ap might have beep expected^ aatnoioHs 
;Md«Mrti%ii^ im a hi^^ di^i^&L JBe adviaed tb« &»ig 
4^^i«9^m9 th« na^timal c^^kadi^ $3Qd.tbvep^cf]Mf^ 
4iS) t« Qoci;(py: the 4ti«atim. o£ ^e{^ tbf<l:«T4ilii)- 
^i«A« Thia, he aaidi would be the same jiaeiiliM;hy 
;|49aia Xyill. as the. aUcaidipg oa the naaa. by 
Henry IV. — Mfi Jiaight ha^a Mded* it waa th^ 8aa«i- 
Jifse^ac^ilittaliy made by l4Pi|ia.XVL, vho teat his Jife 
^jr0qiMlal.r^What Fouph^ aimed at by tifai^ 1^160 
ia leyident. He deaixed to p^aeeihe JKiag in i BHtofu 
Itfoni^hor^he muftt havejraUed exclvaiTely oa the 
jQCAieCih^ jjrevoltttioa, with whovihe coidd aet have 
4»i9aaiUoaicated aave by the medtom of the Puc 
d^Ottraato, who Ibas w^oaid haaoanepriaie auaiatcr at 
..the firatr atep. JSat^in every otbe^r poitit of vkw^ the 
JqUowing.lhat advice must have pbeed the Ktagta a 
rBieaa aad hypocritical attitude^ which must hanadia? 
ffp^^d ^yea those whoni it was adopted^ to conciiiatCY 

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346 I.1FK or 

By assuining the colours of the Hevidiition, the 
King of France must necessarily have stained hinK 
-«elf with the variation of each of its numerous 
changes. It is troe^ that the Bevolutton bad pro^ 
doced many excellent improrements in France^ aE- 
•fectiog both tbe theory and the practice of goTcrft- 
ment. These the sovereign was bound carefully to 
preserve for the advantage of the nation. But 
while we are-grateful for the advantages of increas- 
ed health and fertility that may fellow a tornado^ 
and treasure up the valuable things which an angry 
ocean may cast upon the shore^ none but a blinded 
heathen worships the tempest, or sacrifices to the 
furious waves. The King, coui*ting the murderers 
of his brother, could inspire, even in them, nothing 
save disgust at his hypocrisy, while it would justly 
have forfeited the esteem and afl^tion, not of tb<^ 
royAlist« alone, but of aU honest men. 

Further to recommend liimself to tbe Bouvbon^ 
Fouch4 add|!essed a singular epistle to Napoieoii« 
4n which he endeavoured to convince him, that the 
title of Sovereign, in the paltry Islet of £lba, did 
not become him who had possessed an immense 
empire. He remarked to Napoleon, that thesituai- 
tion of the island was not suitable to liis porpose of 
retirement, being near so many points where his pre- 
sence might produce dangerous agitation. He ob- 
^served, that he might be accused, although be was 
•not criminal, aufl do evil without intending it, hf 

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itprpsidiag alarm. He hinted that the King of France, 
kowever determined to aet withjustice^yet might be 
ii»tigat«d by the passions of others to break through 
that, rule. He told the Ex-Emperor of France, that 
the titles which he retained were only calculated to 
a^gnlfint his regret for thelosa <tf real sovereignty, 
Nay» that they were attended with positive danger^ 
sifice it might be thought they were retained only to 
keep .alive his pretensions. Lastly, he exhorted Na« 
poleou. to assume the character of a private indivi«r 
dual, and retire to the United States of America, the 
country of Franklin, Washington, and Jefienon, 
^, Foache could scarcely expect that this mcmitory 
epistle should have much efiect upon his once im- 
perial master; he knew hunum nature and Buona«». 
parte too well. But as it might tell to advantage 
with the royal family, he sent a copy of it to Mon* 
sjeur, with.a corresponding commentary, the object 
of which was to point out, (<what, indeed, circum^ 
stances. had made evident,) that the tranquillity of 
the countries and sovereigns of Europe could never 
be .iBecured while Na|)oleon remained in bis present 
condition, and that his residence in the Isle of Elba* 
was to France what Vesuvius is to Naples. The 
practical inference to be derived from this was, that 
a gentle degree of^j^ioience to remove the person of 
Napoleon would have been a stroke of state policy^ 
in. case the Ex-Emperor of France should not him* 
self have the patriotic virtue to remove himself Xa 

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34A I^IFE €W 

\yhw% !k>Qobe.h«d!iMldrof9ai liimtelf^ bad too mUe. 
a,]iiiiidltQ'aMk|lttlm'Uiil; ABihtim i^gm* 

«d. .Blii: pteVCing^was :£oiKsb^'s.eIeaiieat ; saiA it 
^f^va» tpAi^y^.sigijiSei iUii)eit# JMas.wkbm )ie bad 
^QC paarUirrs^ pfi^iiig: J^ebai) a atalue in tbe piditiaaL 

ged bijD««K vilh*bit:4dd fjatadki^ theJaoabia pa»- 
ty, .VKbp ivave-.ool^ a^ UtHe §^«i .t« aralr tfaooselT^s of: 
U^.e.%t^iMiTiriit^iiaaffiUiice wSkaU tbej^uaifiaalfana 
of politlififtliataigfie^ /.. ; . / 

It liisftftlbd pQlky:a£ tbk .pavt; to inaiat upaatbe 
£smtt^of ibe Ra^ Bmiilly^atidea)ai^(&i4beiv>{H^ 
judic^ againal tbe meir aad aseBSiurds p£ tbat penod 
«t^««aan irho'dicecied^ aodt^.soldidia mbo acbia- 
ised bar gigantic eatarprizes^ Thar&ing, ifaef said, 
badisii&rtdm^oirtitBa wjclbottt baiviiig.leaiBed' wis^ 
dom; bie wa&incapabfe pf stepping .beyoadltbamf- 
fiteoE bi&gjptfaja ipcejadices ;: Fiattcse bad r^eiwl 
bim &OIU thehani o£ jEorcagn conquerass^ smxoaBd. 
edbjdii ataetciaitadgrQup^of mendtcaotnofclesy wbose- 
]pR3tensi0iia weiKraslaaiiqioatad andAbsod aa Ifaeir 
decox^tioQeandiaBaiiBerk. . His goventnleiitrweatto 
di^4dey tbe^r allffgad^ tbe JFjeemsb ^o tif«o eiasses^ i^« 
poaed to each other in merita m in iaieresta j^-^tbe. 
friiitgiunts,n'bQabiie were regarded by Louis asfakh* 
fuXaod wllliag nabjects; and tbe rest of die natieo, 

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kk ffAmok thefibarbcftii ^w, at best, but repentant Te- 
btis. They Mseited, ^h&t , too timid •nsye t ta strike att 
^openrblbw^ tlieKiitg aiid iiis nmnstevs so»glit c^rery 
m^am tb'disipialQry fl»d dispUvce all ivhe had' takes 
«ny active ^shattt in the evettt»4»f the-'B««^«ti^ 
imd to etvide tho'^en^ml ^ton^siB of amneity^ I^- 
4er pretext of'naiiioiial eootiomy, UMy «^eir^ difebttodL 
•ii^^^the annyv SMid TOiiiovi|ig.4^'ofllieem'dC gd««tti^ 
fiiei»tr--^prMii$>tlfa»tbo miiitary^iiidcinl Mi<va&t« 
^fnoieeof the pmriim whidi Uieirl^ sei^eeb 
jiadeannd. liOiiis^theysaid/haditidaltedtbe^loty 
4f {"nMace^aiid humiliated her heroes,4y Tcmoadcitig 
tfaei oolomi' and gymbol's imdef ^hkk t^^eifty^five 
^year0iiadiseeiipher victorioasi he had rudely vefttdod 
a erdwn offered lo him by the ^eple^ anei siiat^ihed 
4t as hito^wn right by inheritance, as :if-4he<dk>miiiMm 
^oftteso^ld beitr^fkved fn« Mbet to son Hk^ 
the pt^OpertyofaBoek of sheep.' The right olFrettch- 
'men tb^hoose their own raler ^M^s-beredit^afy^and 
.imforesoriptible ; and the nation^ they stvid, ^must as. 
:iiier€ 4t^ iarsit)k to be the ciakitefeiipt^ Instead ^b^inj; 
<he»f»ide.titone0 and dread of Europe. . 

8iK^ 4vas the teenage i^hich nettled, *i^?Mie k 
alaymedj the idle Parisians^ wholbirgotat^themQmetlt 
tlmt tfaeyhadeeen Napoleon tsdsethie«K[Ma&oittL«his 
altar atNotte Btskne, a»df^ls«e4t on bis ifWnitoad, 
'tntb^^iircely an sfcknowl^dgfiSi^itit t^o ^bd^iMid net 
4heistetdow of any towsErcbsthe Mtlohi * The d^pait. 
^JnMttfW^itfassatlecl byoth^r at€siQ|f^fcifttiga«iom'U:lK 

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350 LIFE or 

chief of these wHs directed to excite the jealousy 8d 
•ften alluded to^ cone^niiog the security of the .piM* 
perty of national domains. Not content with arging 
everywhere that a revocation of the lands of th« 
church and emigrants was impendingover the present 
proprietors, and that the clexgy and nobles did not 
even' deign to conceal their hopes and designs, a sin*- 
galar device was in many instances practised to ea^ 
force the belief of such astertions* Secret agents 
vrere dispatched into thedepartments where proper«- 
ty was advertised for sale« These emissaries madb 
inquiries as if in the character of intending pmv 
chasers^ and where the property appeared to have 
been derived from revolutionary conliscatidn^ in^- 
stantly objected to the security as good for nothing, 
and withdrew their pretended offers ;--Hthas im^ 
pressing the proprietor, and all in the same situa- 
tion, with the utiavoidable belief, that such title 
was considered as invalid, owing to the expected 
and menaced revocation of the Bou|rbon government. 
It is generally believed that Buonaparte was not 
originally the object designed to profit by these in- 
trigues. He was' feared and hated by the Jacobin 
party, who knew what a slender chance his iron go- 
vernment afforded of their again atteodpting to rear 
.their fantastic fabrics, whether of a pure. republic, 
or a republican monarchy. It is supposed their eyes 
were turned in preference towards the Duke of jQr- 
' . teans. They reckqnf^ probably on thcj strength of 

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\ht tdrnptatldn, aAd they thougHt, that in supplants 
log Louis XVIII., and placing his kinsman in his 
room, thoy would obtain^ on the one hand> a kiiq^ 
who should hold his power by and through the Ke- 
vplation, atid, on the other, that they would con** 
eiliate both foreign powers and the constitutionalist^ 
at faotne> by chodsii^ their sovereign out of the fa^ 
mily of Boutbon^ The mote cautious of those con- 
cerned in the intrigue recommended^ th^t nothing 
shpuld be attempted during the life of the reigning 
monarch ; others were more impatient and less cai;u- 
tioos i and the Prince alluded to received an inti- 
miition of their plan in an unsigned billet, contain- 
ing only these words^ — " We will act it without 
you ^ we will act it in spite of you ; we will act it 
Foa you ;''* as if putting it in bis choice to be the 
leader or victim of the intended revolution. 

The Duke of Orleans waa too upright and ho- 
nourable to be involved in this dark and mysterious 
scheme ; he put the letter which he had received 
into the hands ol the King* and acted otherwise with 
so much prudence, as to destroy all the hopes which 
the revolutionary party had founded upon him. It 

. was necessary to find out some other central point. 
Some proposed Eugene Beauhamois as the hero of 

. the projectedmovement ; someprojectedaprovisional 

• " Nous le ferons sai^s vous ; nous le ferons malgre vous; tioui 
ie fiTons pour yous*** " ^^^' ' — > 

8S2 L1FIC of 

government ; andothers desired that the lepoblieut 
hiodel sbonld be once mote ad^ted. Bat none of 
tlie«{e'plaiif iv^ie^Ucely tobefavoai^dbytheafiohf^ 
The cry 'of l^e la RjeptMSque had beeome aattf. 
quiied ; -the .pbiirer <Hice pdlstfssed by^ the Ja«&6biftt 
rfereatiti^ pepfdar comMiotktti Was gttfAfy diidlAidfai. 
ed;^litid'altlioogh the army i;ira^ de^i^ed to Rft^aaL 
l^arte^ yet it wad p]KM3feibtethiat>^in a ciVil^coniftDoiiCMi 
la whkh'b^ had no iiitei*^8t,-they woldd fblid^the 
ma^sdha^s^or'gtnejtald l»lK>eb]ii!maiHkdltem)ifi<jp^ 
positibti tetany itidnrrectiiminerely'i^vofotiMtti^.^^^^ 
xm f b6'<^atrary, the inters t'sdf Naj^ken waitopot 
ih the^rte, there was no^^flter^secilriiig tbe^ ifftMir- 
ibteasBistabci^^f th6 standfaig slinny. If he^anfehftftk 
wi0i tbe'same^pfiiiciples ofabsdlatepow^i'TvhicMte 
faad^fohnerfy etatertttined, stni the JacobtMd W^IQld 
get rid dP^Lours And^hecharter, t4ie twodbtefiib- 
jeetS'of thrir halted ; the former as a Kii^giTen 
by the law*, the' latter as a kw given by theSia^^ 
'l%cJ^'i!ODSTderfttiohs speedily determine the Jai- 
coUh piftty on ^^ikfofei^H^ilh theBuoaapai^tistsi 'l%e 
former weretn 'the iitodkion t>f "a battd .df'hbat^e* 
bresfeers^ ^ho^ ^tfiiMrle* to^ force an entt^ei^ta t&e 
' ho0sewbiehtbeyh^tethe^prDrjk>set6*bi<tek-iiJ^ 
HMr their uiideMaking^attdpliU;^ at their h^d'iibrb. 
therofthe^atti6pxdf«afiS6iiib^eaii^ hehtisilk^^tft 
tage of having a crow*bar in"his haiid.' "WlilSli ifnd 
how this league was formed, — whatsanctionthe Jaco- 
bin party obtained that Buonaparte, dethroned as a 

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miiitary despot, was tor resume his dignity aiKkir.coii^ 
stituticHial restrictions, we opportunity of 
knowing. But so soon as the coalition was form^bis 
praises were sung forth on all sides, espQpially by ' 
many who had been, as Jacobins, his most decided 
enemies; and a great part of the French public were 
disposed to think of Bucmaparte at £lba morie fa- 
vourably than Napoleon in the Tuille^es. Gradual* 
ly^evenfrom thenovelty and peculiarity of his situar 
ti<M(i, he began.toexcit? a verydifierent intet^^t lro|n 
that which. attached to the despot who leviied so 
many conscriptions, and sacrificed to his anxbitien/so 
many millions of victims. Every instance of his ac. 
tivity, within tbe little circle of his domUuons^ wa$ 
contrasted by his admirers with the constitutional 
inertness of the restoredmonarcb. Excelling. asimactb 
in the arts of peace as in those of war, it wanted but 
(they ssidy the fostering hand and :un wearied eye of 
Napoleon to have rendered France the envy of >t^he 
universe, had his military, affairs permitted the .lei- 
sure, and opportunity which the Bourbons now. en- 
joyed. These allegations, secretly Jnsiiiuat^ed^ and at 
length loudly murmured, had thmr. usual. effects up. 
on the fickle temper of the public; and, as the tem* 
porary enthusiasm in favour of the Bourbons faded 
into indifference and aversion, the general horror of 
Buonaparte's ambitious and tyrannical disposition 
began to. give way to the recollection of his active, 
energetic, and enterprising qualities.. 


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SM Lirs OF 

• Tbkohapgo mustiooB iMirefaeep kmwn toilin 
who WBB its pbjcot. AaexpresBioiLia said to have e«^ 
eapedfrom him doring his {MS8age.lo.£lba9.a¥iudi 
ttiftrked at least a secxet ieeUiig that he might one 
day xecover the high dignity from iwhich he liad fall- 
en. <' If Marias,^ he-observed, *^ had slain himself 
in the marshes of Mii|t«nieBy he would neter Jbave 
enjoyed his seventh consalato*^ What was perhaps 
or^inally hu$ thevagqe aspirations of 4aardent«p^«* 
lit striving against adTomityy beoaae, fopm thc^ctr* 
enmstances iof Frinoe, «plattsiUealld'WeU«g]x>and• 
edbope•' It required iMit'lo^est^iUia^cianmuiiica- 
tionsamong'his nmnQneous and zealoiispastisumBy;with 
instmotionfl to hold out such hopes as miglu. li|«e the 
Jaoolriils to his 8tandaid,and to^ofit hy/snd inflame 
the grovring discontents, and divisiona of Ezanea; 
sriid a ooAsj^moy- was almost ready formedy^witb 
little exertion on the ipart of him who soon, became 
its object and ks oeotre. ^^.. 
- ' y ariotts aiSliations and points of rondGGtYOQa.wfiie 
now aiAnged to recruit for partizans. Theladiesiof 
tike £xi£mporor*8 conrt^ who fomuLthemsdTeB.jba- 
naMiated at that of theKJng bytfa»p«BfesBnae assifu- 
c^ tonoUe birth^ wever.zealous agjBntsinihese .polip* 
tical intrigues, for offended pride hesitates at no jnea- 
iikiresfar obtaining. Tongeaaoe^ The^pursesrofithoir 
husbands and lovonr iMere«f course open' to theaeJMr 
intriguen, and many of th^nderoted their jewefa^ to 
forward the cause of revolution. I'he chief of fhese 

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ifeaudeiOOBbpinto^ w«a Hort^ttiUfiof^Qliiinm^^ wife 
of Louis Baonaparle, but fio«r iBep]|ztfl«difinitft.ll6r 
itesb«[id»aiid bentiag^hetitleof theDnefaeslio^Sluiit 
Leu. Slie 'WBstkfdtmm^ ccmeidetablel taI«ot^aciih»f 
-great activity .asd ttddbrets. At ^Nantane, -Nicuiliy, 
^aodiSiiuit Leu, xiicietiBga.-of' ike IctBtfMuraMvdnie 
JraMy and JMbdam^ Bamelix^ the coufidaute of the 
Dadbteafl^ is liaid 4o faavft ^HBtsisled^ coiioaaliii|p«oi«e 
^rtii^ ^iicipal J^g!eaiS4. ■ . ' i m^: ?-. : .;; 

--^Tbe DacbesiB of jBMsno, land the DoQbaiscof 
JCeiit0bel)p^^ (<vridovii^ of Blartsofaal JLABnes^^Twpffe 
wfKnoljrfSeiftgaged ii» thei jiiuike caase. M tht. fieal^ 
iDfd held ii) the hoases. of these XBtngxxmg^ftaasaii^, 
the i9h<^ artilleiy of eeospiracy was fhrgedandfiut 
m Older, item the fieliticallie, whiofa doesdta work 
if .h^eved hut few an holur^ to the politicalfsaagipr 
«i|aih, which, like theifiie^wdirk from whkiuibie- 
fi|ir«B its juqne, expresses lovec of ^froiie orfof^ani^ 
'4lhi6f^ Bceoxidog to this juitni^e of <the' inatcfarniB 
9|paoD|g8t prhioh it is thraWs^ Fzem tlleiie.jdaceat»f 
flteiides^piis the atpmla <fef the pbt sallied oat, :up>ir 
^briiTijeespective ]»iaidi> fiaan|iahed withoevesgr/faaJB 
•^jifli>Goiild toiHe thi^^aaspieiai^^ifasidholdery attoiet 
:lJbi» ^^^Faristaii, sedtKse.lhftAiso/ogv^e, whD,)oiiged 
'tp Iry the >e)ipe]iai««it9. of .his TJtopiaxk theeriea upmi 
iMilg^¥ernment^aiid:aboveaUyseciire themilitaryjM*. 
fxoiti the officer, before whose eyes truncheo&s,oo|:o- 
nets, and even crowns, were disposed in ideal pros- 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

3S6 ^I's ^' 

pecty to the grefift^r, whose hopes only aiaied nt 
blood, brandy, and free quarters. 

The lower orders of the populaoe^ particularly 
those inhabiting the two great sobarbs of Saint IMbr- 
ceaa and Saint Antoine, were di^iosed to the cause 
ftom their natnral restlessness and desire of <^nge; 
from the apprehension that the King would discob- 
«iniie the expensive buildings in which Buon^arte 
was wont to employ them ; from a Jacobinical dislike 
to the lawful title of Xiouis, joined to some tender 
aspirations afker the happy days of liberty and eqoa^ 
lity ; and lastly, &om the dispoMtion whi<^ the te^ 
of aoeiety every where manifest to get rid of the law, 
their natural curb and enemy. The influence rf 
Richard le ^oir wa9 particularly usefal to the coibi- 
apiratoxB*. ^ He wa& a wealthy 'COtton<4naBufacture)^, 
who. combined and diseiplined no less than thi;ee 
thousand workmen in bis employment, so as to be 
ready at the first signal of the conspirators. JLe Nwr 
was called by the Royalists ^Santerre the Second; 
being said to aspire, like that celebrated subuirbaii 
brewer, to. become a general of Sans Culottes; He 
was bound to-Buoiiaparte's iaterel^t byhis'daughtor 
having married.GeneralXiefebvieJ>esnouette6J who 
was not. the less the favourite of Napdieon' that he 
had bx^en his parole, and fled from England wten 
a prisoner of war. Thsa a]^tated tike a hkke b^p a 
subterranean earthquake, revolutionary nHwements 

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began to show tfaemselyes amoDgst the populace. At 
times, ander pretesGe of scarcity of bread or em- 
pb3niient, tttmnltaoiis groups assembled on the ter*- 
race of the Tuilleries, with clamouis which remiAd- 
ed the Duchess D'Angouleme of those that preoe- 
d^ the imprisonment and death of her parents. 
The police.dispersed them for the mdment-; but, if 
any arrests were made, it was only of such wretchea 
as shouted when tbey heard others shout, and no 
eSarta were made to ascertain the red cause of 
symptoms so alarming. 

The police ol Paris was at this time undo): the 
direction of Monsieur lyAndi^, formerly a fiaan;. 
cier. . His loyalty does not jeem to have been doubt- 
ed, bat his prudence and aotmty are rery questiim- 
able ; nor does he seem ever to have been complete* 
ly^Biaster. either of the duties of his oiBce, or the 
to<^.by which it was to be performedi These tods, 
•in other words, the subordinate agents and' officers 
uaA ekxks, the whole machinery as it were of the 
police, had reoAined unchanged since that dreadlol 
poWer.was administered by Savary, Buonapaxte's 
Jiesid Bff and confidential .minister. This bt»dy, as 
weM asi the army, Alt that their honourable occupa^ 
-tion was declinedin emolument and importance since 
the fall of Buonaparte, and looked back with regret 
•to the days wiien they were employed in agentdes, 
dark, aect<et,.and welUrecompensed, unknown to a 
peacefol and .constitutiimal admintstration. Ifika 

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Sfi6 Lin ov 

evil spirits employed by the spelb of a beneroieiit 
enchftnter, these poteee-officen seem to have sor- 
ted the' King' gntdgiBglgr «ii4 wiivillmgly.^toihf^ 
negftected' their datyy ^en^thi^ ooald be cboe widi 
inipiiiiity^ and lo^^have^dMnrn 4iiat..thiey hMiloet 
their ^a^itity andiWBiisoiendey'SadHwn asi embado-: 
ed^ia the servioe of Iqgitinuiie imcoarchgri'^ 

tJnder the connivtnee, tbenfexe, igsolimftk tiba 
apprebatioik ^ the poliee^osnsphacyassamed a more 
opeti and daringaspeet. Seveial^oiieesioC 4ahiote 
fame^ but especially the Caf^'ACo^aussieaiDiiiridie 
Palais Royd, were chosen as ^aces of senideairoiis 
for the subordinate satellites of thaaaascv^hesocjdie 
toasts giiFen, the songs sung, the) tones . pccAiiraiady 
aadi the langiiagehdd, all boie aUnsiim to Bnonau 
pMFteV glesies^Jtts regxetted abs^ice^and hsa d^oind 
return.- To express th^ hopes :thai:;tliia«nettt 
wmM take plaee irn the 'springy the ooaspinutaB 
adopted for their symbol the ^olet ; and afherlafeards 
applied to> Baenapwrtehimself the name ofCerpMd 
¥iei»ti The-flower^and idle eelrar w^^ipdbiisly 
ivem as mparty distinctiony faefi»fc kttwmideemn^ 
eeati had taken, the ileast alaraD;i and tin healihisf 
Stfonapaffte^ under the. name nf Corperri Tiolel:»^er 
Jesin d?Ep6e^ was pledged byiowayJaiBoyaliflt^th^ 
out: snsi^ieiaa oC the concealed; meaning. ) . ^ 
. gari^.wtts.the centneiof the canspiiacy ; .taat its Jta. 
mificationaextniddl 4thm«h.Frafaoe.j€laba nnore 
fbniiedi»itheielMC^BvoUMialie^ 3ltegti»mKf 

Digitized by LjOQQ IC 


respondfflOiQeswere estalkUshed .between th«aii and tlie 
capital)-i^*«p iatetcoorse «ii|oh fayouSr^ it baaibe^n 
aB9^rt^> byL^vatette^ wli0»]iaviBg beoQlong diroor 
tw^^p^aexHl 0f thtipofiitp under finoin^irtey xetMaed 
cwHdei^sibte ii^^ncf^-ovckr thesuboEdiaait^ ag»»ta «f 
tlMMir^A^Mii^^nt^' mme of iti^caii had.beoii displaofid 
op^iaitji^TJi^iag's wtfixsBL It :appeacs firew tfaftidvi- 
dfKQp^iitf^>JICwss^ir>Fe]taiMl^ dimetor^getieral udw 
ttierKto^ Iha^ tbe ^drien^jwho^^ likedtbeaoldiefB 
and: jioU^maffieefe^ bad fomMl mire adjvBirtageiiiidw 
tb^Miipitml cthanninder tbe.])03rai gpTeraineat^ ivvte 
BcrtiBiaA tff;tbieai{ubihft ifltavestnaf'/tbeir old^siitfta). 
Aad jtf y a/vvntd; tbat^ tber cffimspondenbe vdatisg 
tf^Ae- rcoubfriraoy was leaziied^mi' tfaraigh «h6'i«7«l 
pM-ctfoe^coDtaitted in ilettcsB leafed toA 
«eal^ tod dsi^aiehedrby puUfa^itieiiseagcrs i«!eatfi^ 

' ffiadtx^pendemobstrBtioBS of tveasmiable prao^ces 
didnatciasoaj^ the dbaervation (i6tbe Boyalisti^; and 
tbejpriafipesr iko fa«M toenr cuttmuiubaMd'^to^be mi*' 
43^e«f^fiRiiii'''diffiu«nt qiior^ 
ctiffid^tly iBtatvd^ t&at l^tteiM^^ontimhi^ iHftrinfi. 
^t^oe^liwpfidAsfi were aot^jr 

found in the boreau of one minister^ lintfj^eoied* and 
nnreadi. Indted^ eaoU of these- official personages 
seeoiffnicrapfilovdly tot have entrench^ himself 
iwblrin' tfae^Yoii^ne of his oWn particular depart* 
n^Mfso tHttltii^iatfWad ody of gene^ import tit> 
tbid=>whak, wan n(^''t;<^iddered as the; businfais' of 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

960 LiFK or 

any one in particalar. Thus, when thi stunning cft« 
tastropfae bad happeiied, each endeavoared' to shift 
the blame from himself, like the domestics in a large 
and ill-regulated family ; and although all ackpow- 
ledged that gross negligence bad existed elsewhere, 
no one admitted that the faalt lay with himself. 
This general infatuation surprises us upon retro- 
spect ; but Heaven, who frequently punishes man- 
kind by the indulgence of their own foolish or 
wicked desires, bad decreed that peace was to be re- 
stored to Europe by the extermination of that a*my 
to whom peace was a state so odious ; and for that 
purpose it was necessary that they should be soe- 
oessful in their desperate attempt to dethrone th«r 
peaceful and constitutional sovereign, and to rein- 
state the despotic leader, who was soon to lead them 
to the completion of their destiny, and of his own. 
While the royal government in France was thus 
gradually undermined and. prepared for an explo- 
sion, the rest of Europe resembled an ocean in the 
act of settling after a mighty storm, when the par- 
tial wrecks are visible, heaving aa the snboidiag 
swell, which threatens yet fartherdamage ere it be 
entirely lulled to rest. 

^ The Congress of representatives of the principal 
states of Europe had met at Vienna, in order to ar- 
range' the confused and complicated interests whioh 
bad arisen out of so prolonged a peiiiod of war and al* 
teratipn. The lapse of twenty »jEive years of constant 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


war and general change had made so total an altenu 
tion, not merely in the social relations and relative 
powers of the states of Burope, but in the habits^ 
sentiments, and principles of the inhabitants, that 
it appeared altogether impossible to restore the ori- 
ginal system as it existed before 179S. The con-^ 
tinent resembled the wrecks of the city of London 
after the great conflagration in 1666, when the 
boundaries of individnal property were so complete- 
ly obliterated and confounded, that the King found 
himself obliged, by the urgency of the occasion, to 
make new, and in some degree arbitrary, distribu* 
tions of the ground, in order to rebuild the streets 
upon a plan more regular, and better fitted to the 
improved condition of the age. That which proved 
ultimately an advantage to London, may perhaps 
produce similar good consequences to the civilized 
world, and a better and more permanent order of 
things may be expected to arise but of that which 
has. been destroyed. In that case, the next genera- 
ticm may reap the advantages of the storms with 
which their fathers had to contend. We are, how- 
ever, tsLT fix)m approving of some of the unceremo- 
nious appropriations of teiritory which were made 
upon this occasion, which, did our limits admit of 
entering into the discussion, carried, we think, the 
use of superior force to a much greater extent than 
could be justified on the principles upon which the 
allies acted. 

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36t XIFX2QF 

. Amid thfi'laboani of the.&)Q|p?i8tf,tbenHatteatioir 
wit8 JkamMl OB tlict^oonditiQB e£ tfao kii^pdom «f N»4 
plM j juidH was^iirgjBd'bf ;Ta1fey«iBd^ kiftertici^^ 
ia tii«lJb«uitifitl kktgjkwt^wa&pieaq^ 
of futwQ dao^eir tto/£i»bp&^:«ft jevpirtt^^feBttd^iip 
Napolaoa'fi prinei{)lt0^iuMbfpoTei&eaibfdbift^Nr^^ 
ioiJawv Jt waa^Bswienidlatljr^diftt UiWM tMiial9tl« 
cbtUimge. tlie. f«imd»ttc»'of 'S(iixmlftsr?!rigiifei<if ^fl09ii4 
mga^j, aftec hinrmg gldUy laooe|^*«d>aiid'iaivBile(dl 
thcgMrimaof >bBS ;as9i8tai^o0y sal t W niiir a^^>»Hn<irl 

W^Hiagtn a' tram of. ( M a n r oppn dBBce heUtad B Bwih 
n^parte^juuitfiataDCwDluie^ mdJfoiat^ wtwrntfi^d 
tnithiiTFthatfthrlritrrrwifliniiiiirifiiii lUMMiifMiiiafliri 
aqt Afipoomit mlirttliid aUies. ^TIwDuk^ win ofio^ 
aioniAlnt tiw kAtflnd^Aot|mlxtt;ti»aciiwr^ 
tlwjriiidiGBliiMi; irittt waartobeexpeoted^^tlMt Mfeonr 
toab f aflft(^(gidiiatiliiftliix>dter*ati»tevrjuMt \mm6KfsM) 
iHBllimpsickrable wfaiolsai^ TheiaattcHriKrapwiwIa 
agitatioB/bafaiBUlie &ing]nnE^aBdi]Miinat/«^ 
viiig>l(ifl[pQ9¥er iii;dflnt9»D,cdebiiiB IrJ^ve ach^dyMlff 
saabitxficdiMli mf ofaaHgingaides. oMeuiiuaw^.ittid 
again toJiaiiCbi:t]ieweddri0)ml)erooiH«e'i^^ 
tooBKf 1 bTbflMlitig«ii^i»£ (filbw t^<£^pl»B wMd^ 
tkfa JMioAttMr. (^slittlrjdiiBcHiltjrvioaiitt t4««y^ l|0Mt)^M^ 

easm JbitaroHi Iiaij^ mdi-^eri ;b«otlMMt||}|i(tliP(^y<tv 
Napele<m,homver,at all times nMolutdytf^lMd that 

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he bad any precise 8)iare or knowledge of the entM*** 
priise .which Mui^ meditated. . . . 

.Thee King gf Fniice^ intbe meanv^hUe, focaUed 
bjnffoeUunatioiir all Frenchmen who were in the 
Ne^ptditan seimi^ «ad directed the title of Sad||» 
JoacUim to be omitteditn thepoyaLalnuaakclui' 
^'-Movatyialavmed at'^aindieatioB of hoatile^in-^ 
H g Htt Ott n , «aanpi«dt'0if^a secret oorrespendetiee with 
FrattcC'^ in the cenlrse-of wiiioh a ktter 'iprai'inter^ 
otfpted, directed to t^e King of -Naples^ ^m GeiMM 
ittltlkKdcteman, pvofeasing, in faia ownnamo^andthat 
of «tlii9ffei>deinyled attacbmeBft, and aaanringUm tibat 
tlioatMds of'officera^loinned in his sohikil iind aiid^y 
hia ey^ ^iv^o^d have^been i^eady^t hia'eall^' had knot 
nttmerB- taken a satisfitotory tarn . Jn conseqneiice 
of this letter^ 'ExcelBinan was in the first placbpnt 
on^'iia^pay and sent- froiti Paris, which ofdei* lie 
vefosed t^ obeyc Nefxt he was tried before a conrt- 
maSrtialv abd triumphantly acquitted; He waa ad« 
natted to kiss the KingV hand^ and- swear to him 
fidelity d Umtes iprewoes. How he kept his word 
wfll pvesently appear* In the meaBtlime the King 
hadneed o/fidthful adherents, for the nets of con- 
spiraey were closii^ fast aionnd himv 

' The-j^lot formed against Loois XYIIL compre- 
hended two enterprises* The first was to be achie- 
ved by the landing of Napoleon firom Elba, when 
the lisdversid goodwwill of the soldiers, the awe ittfi- 

spilfed byhis name and ohiKractdr, and the Sttspicieni 

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364 LIFE OF 

and insinuations spxead widely against the Boaifaonsi 
together with the hope of recorering what the nation 
considered as the lost glory of France, were certain 
to ensure him a general good reception. A' second, 
or subordinate branch of the conspiracy, concerned 
the insurrection of a body of troops under General 
L'Allemand, who were quartered in^ the north-east 
of France, and to whom was committed the charge 
of intercepting the retreat of the King and royal 
family from Faris, and, seizing them, to detain 
them as hostages at the restored Emperor^s pleasure. 
It is impossible to know at what particular period 
of his residence in Elba, Napoleon gave an express 
consent to what was proposed, and disposed himsdif 
to assume the part destined for him in the eztraor-» 
dinary drama. We should suppose, howeyer, his re» 
solution was adopted about that time when his slan- 
iier changed completely towards the British env^ 
residing at his little court, and whoi he assumed the 
airs of inaccessible and imperial state, to keep at a 
distance, as an inconvenient observer. Sir Nid Catnip* 
bell, to whom he had before seemed rather partial. 
I^is motions after that time have beendeseribed,so 
far as we have acc^s to know them. It was on Sua* 
day, 26th February, that Napoleon en^baiked with 
his guards on board the' flotilla, consistiag.of the In- 
constant brig, and sir other small vessels, upon one 
of the most extraordinary and adventorous expedi- 
tions that was ever attempted. The foi^e, with 

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wbicfa he was once more to ckange the fortunes of 
France, amounted but to about a thousand men. To 
keep the undertaking secret, bis sister Pauline gave 
a ball on the night of his departure, and the officers 
were unexpected^ snnmioned, after leaving the en- 
tertainment, to go on board the little squadron. 

in his passage Napoleon encountered two great 
risks. The first was fiom meeting a royal French 
Ungate^ who hailed the Inconstant. The guards 
were ordered to put off their caps, and go down be- 
low, or lie upon the deck, while the captain of the 
Inconstant exchanged some civilities with the com*- 
mander of the frigate, with whom he chanced to be 
acquainted; and being well known in these seas, 
was permitted to pass on without farther inquiry^. 
The second danger was caused by the pursuit of 
Sir Nicl Campbell, in the Partridge sloop of war, 
who, following from Elba, where he had learned 
Napoleon's escape, with the determination to cap- 
tme or sink the flotilla, could but obtain a distant 
view of the vessels as they landed their passengers. 

This was on the first of March, when Napoleon, 
canring his followers once more to assume the three- 
coloured cockade, disembarked at Cannes, a small 
sea-port in the gulf of Saint Juan, notjfar from 
Frejus, which had seen him land, a single indivi- 
dual, returned from Egypt, to conquer a mighty em- 
pire ; had beheld him set sail, a terrified exile, to 
occupy the place of his banishment ; and now again 

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366 LIFB OF 

fwitoesfed hi8,retiij|B>> a clarin9«dveiit»i!#r» to tluNniir 
.the dice once more for: ».>ihro|ie .pr argxmvt^o A 
saiftll party of iiis gi^ard^pseaent^ themselves be- 
fore Antib^, but were made prigoacrarby Oq ie r^ l 
jG^irsiQ^ tbegavaniosof!th(i.{rface;.. v. 

Uadismayed; by a cifpiunita«oe aoi i|i&voaMiU^, 
M^^poleoB instaatljF .b^gan^a mlucck aftr^thef Aeat of 
iQwae af tboii6aiid<fiieB^ tomtfKla^lhe jeetiM of a.klng- 
4mbl 6nh$, which he^h^d'baali ekftsUMitiAh ^iukM^- 
^MBp and where Jiit^^riimlidllMrtQccopiMridfteaM/a 
4i6redUai}F'threile. ' For aiioie titee the kftabitantb 
gftiuAim th^rn with dimbtfal iad aatamhed^resy is 
ifiuaoertain whether to taiistthath'as.ftianda^ orlo 
.^pose them48 invadera AfewpdumaUmti^Vhe 
t^Empereut I bat^e advei^nrers received. naitiMr 
'ooantenaace nor op|Kiaition from thoaa of th^higher 
WdLS. OntheeVMing.of9dlfareh;ada)^aiMlahalf 
afW lancing,, the little band of invadeiw^xciaciMidy 
Ceremin, having left behind- them tfa^ stnalf «traia 
of artillery, in ord^ to «mble theln to niake forced 
marches. As Napolecm'appfoachedDattjrfiina^caUBd 
the cradle of the Rev^ilation^the peasanta gMted 
him with more general wcScome^but dtitt^adpBepiia* 
tors appeared^ no deigy, no pnbUc fanotiMwrite* 
But they w:ere'now near^:o those by mhmkk tbo'sao* 
cess or mis of the expedition must ibedciDidedt / 
.Sonlt^ th« minister at war^ hadoid:eied!SQnia Urg<» 
bodies of troops to be movedinto'thc^ cdjantfybelwtit 
Lyons and Chamberri/to support, as he afterwards 

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Vism^yrsiAm x^adin^ss. % wftr. If the M ftrM^al 
ft^tedmf^ good faith in this m^iunixe, ho was at least 
nio^ w)ifojft«iiate y (px^w he.hiia«elf adtoiu^ eyeorio 
tiisiijttempt at:ewlUpatioiitth)QjUiK)ps wofe sojriiaoed 
M.<f th^^had be«b pu^Msely tbi»wa in Bi^omqrott^'s 
Mkjr^Md pB>yj^mih)Sfftti$r to omaiiM: of €av|it pecA- 
Itfoiy dey^ted to ithe £xr£mpemrlsi pfMcsuiOoUlbfi 
IttkufMaicfa^ the seventh; vegiBMntof tbo^lke, consu- 
B«:inM yviBiig) nsU]ii>oniy Imndsome, .atidodistija* 
gQisked sks.asmilitary imanv.iiHis. masmage fasvivg 
eoOBiectedhim. iwith'theinobleand' leyai farttyjoof 
fiamais^ be ^pcwmsed^preferment )uidcaietiT&;exiiplay- 
nflSift>>firom^'iLAuisj>XVilL tbrottgb^ intbixait, 

aiMl tbey iitare xndacedeyettito^pV^dgBith^niselvw 
^^fi^^fidriityii l^etlia Bedoyeco had^beeaeAgaged 
l^Oambyoae decqp^d tihe conspiracy ;of £lba^ and 
lised tb^ donftmand'tliaffiobtafiied forjdiedestnifitidn 
df the Damarefa l^ whpm iie was: tvosted* . : • > < 
' 'As Napoleon appcoaohed Gretioble, he cimie inte 
ctetact with the Mtpbsts^f th^gamBoivwho drtrw 
out, but seemed irresolnte. Buonaparte haltedj)bis 
own little 'pftirty ^aodiidaraiiced siwost aiknie, asposing 
his bieaiBt, ai» be exi^nladf '^ Be^ho mfitkill 1^ 
Emperor, let hifei^now woark hispleaGnire.7t .Thei^»- 
ped was ineststiMe«-Utie^oldi^» tlwewdown^thek 
arms, crowded roundthe Genend, w^ (ladiso^often 

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368 LIFE OF 

led them to victory, and shouted Vive rEmpereur! 
' Id the meanwhile. La Bedoyere^at the head of tv^i 
battalions, was sallying fh>m the gates of Grenoble. 
As they advanced he displayed an eagle, which, tike 
that of Marius, worshipped by the Roman conspir*^ 
tor, had been carefblly preserved to be the type ci 
civil war ; at the same time, he distributed among 
the soldiers the three-coloored cockades, which he 
had concealed in the hollow of a drum. They were 
received with enthusiasm. It was in this mbme&it 
that Mareschal de Camp Des Yilliers, the sapcxier 
officer of La Bedoyere, arrived m the spot, aliurmed 
at what was taking place, and expostulated with the 
young military fanatic and the soldiers. He was com- 
polled to retire. General M archand, the loyal com- 
mandant of Grenoble, had as little influence on the 
troops remaining in the place : they made him J^ri- 
soner, and delivered up the city to Bubbaparte. 
Napoleon was thus at the head of nearly three 
thousand soldiers, with a suitable train of artillery, 
and a corresponding quantity of ammunition. He 
acted with a moderation which his success could 
well aflbrd, and dismissed General Msircband un- 

When the first news of Napoleon's arrival reac|ied 
Parid, it excited surprise rather than alarm; but when 
he was found to traverse the country without oppo^ 
sition, some strange and combined treason began to 
be generally apprehended. That the Bourbons might 

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net be ws^ling to their own cause, Monsieur^ with 
the Dttke of Orleans, set out for Lyons, and thcL 
Duke D^Angouleme repaired to Nismes. . The .Le- 
gislative Bodies, and most of the better classes, de- 
clared for the royal cause. The residents of the vari- 
ous Powers hastened to assure Louis of the suppoirt 
of their sovereigns. Corps of volunteers were raiseil 
both among the. Royalists and the Constitutional or 
moderate party. The most animating proclamation^ 
caUed the people to arms. An address by the celcr 
brated Benjamin Constant, one of the most distin- 
guished- of the moderate party, was remarkable for 
its eloqn^nc^* It placed in the most striking light 
the contrast between the lawful government of a con- 
stitutional monarch, and the usurpation of an Attila# 
or Genghis, who governed only by the sword of his 
Mamelukes. It reminded France of the general de- 
testation with which Buonaparte had been expelled 
from the kingdom, and proclaimed Frenchmen to.tie 
the scorn of Europe, should they again stretch their 
hands voluntarily to the shackles which they had 
burst fmd hurled.from them. All were summoned to 
arms^nMHreespecially those to whomliberty was dear; 
for in the triumph of Buonaparte, it must find its 
grave for ever. — " With Louis,"^ said the address, 
<< was peace and happiness; with Buonaparte, war, 
misery, and diesolation.^. Even a more aninuitiog ap- 
peal to popujtar feding was made by a female on tli^ 

V0J5. VIII. 2* A 

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Staircase of the Tiimencf8,\vhd^craim«a, '<If tiOdt^ 
has not men enougli to fight fof him, let hhji cUlt 
on the widows and childless movers whdha^e'bft^ 
rendered such by Napoleon.** 

Notwithstanding all thes^ demonstfatjoctd'^of zeitf, 
the public mind had been much influenced hy tli^ 
causes oi^ discontent which had been so aiftf^lly^alfi 
ged upon for many months past. ThedecMed Ro^lA- 
ists were few, the Constitutionalists lukewktdf. H 
became every moment more likely, that not tftffVoiti^ 
of the people, bu£ the sword of th^ arniy, mtfst dk- 
tennine the controversy. Soul t, whose cobda6thi(d 
given much cause for suspicion, which' \(^^^ diij^. 
mented by his proposal to call out the offiee^S v^b 
since the restoration had beien placed on hialf-p^y, 
resigned his office, and was succeeded b^ Clarke, 
Duke of Feltre, less renowned as a soldiet; httt 
more trust-worthy as a subject. A camp y^kA €k~ 
tablished at Meluh— troops were assemfded th^tf€^ 
and as much care as possible wa^ uSed in sbleifMg 
the troops to whom the royal cause Wk^ to b'e'ilitiD^tffd. 

In the meantime. Fortune had not entirely ilii^. 
^oned the Bourbons. That part of theBi&bh^kfH^t 
conspiracy which wals to have bee^e'l^ct^t^dib^ 
north was discovered and disconcerted'. Xiefi^lri^ 
' l^esnouet tes, iiscfedif ably fchbWn JfilEtt^ttWIS^' Kis 
"^fjreacii of parole, with the two tSeneM AtteMstlfiftft, 
were the agents iii this plot. On tkelWth »!lttti», LjOOQ IC 


Lefeb^re mavoked Jfanwrd hia xegim^iilr to join 
BiM»ap«rt6 ; but tke offiobra having disDo?«red ]ik 
purpose, he was obl^ed to make bis eseape h&a^ 
tibe:arreBt with which hewaa tineatened. The tvo 
AflemaQda pot the gamBon of Lisle, to ike, nua-* 
hm of' ffls^ thousand meii) in« motion, bjr means of 
ftigx^ofders, dedari^ there wias an instursectkitt ki 
Fans. B«it Mareschai Mortier, meeting tba Uw^ 
en the march, detected and defeated the conspiracy^ 
hjr wbi<Ay had it taken eflect, the King, and Boyid 
Pamily must have been made prisonos. The AUe^ 
mands w^e t^en, and to^har^ executed them cm the 
i^ot as tmtMs, might have struck a whokaome ^^ 
T&s into such eficers as still hesitated ; hnt thf nuni* 
stiNNEr ei^ King did not possess energy enough fo9 
sMfa a- crisis* 

The progress of- Buon^arte, in the meantime 
^ras vninterrupted. It was in vain that, at Lyons, 
Monsieur mid the Duke of Orleans, ^dth the asastc 
aeace of the advice and influence of Mareschai Macdor 
nald, endeavcRured to retain the troops in their duty, 
and the inhabitants in dieir allegiance to the King* 
The latter, chiefly manufacturers, afraid of bang 
«ndlrsold t^ those of Englandtin their ovn nuudtet, 
shouted openly, " ViveFEmpereur.'^ The troops of 
the line jremaiBed silent a^ gloomy. *f How will your 
soldiers behave P^ said Monsieur to the Colonel of the 
19th 'Bragoons, ^HeColcmdre&rredhimtothenien 
themselves. 7?hey answered cfuodidly, that they would 

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fight for Napoleon aloiie. Monsieur dismoonied, ted 
addressed the soldiers individuaUy. To one veteran^ 
covered with scars, and decorated with medals^ the 
Prince said, ** A brave soldier like yoa; at leasts will 
ery, ViveleSoir — **Tou deceive yourself^^answisr- 
ed the soldier. *^ No one here will fight agaidst hi8» 
fathef^I will cry, Vive Napoleon P The efforts of 
MacdonaM were equally tainr^ He endeavoaredtd 
Biove two battalions to oppcrse the entry of Bno- 
naparte^s advanced guard. So soon as tbe trisop^ 
came in presence of each other, they broke their 
ranks, and mingled together in the general cry. of 
Vive tEmpereurl Macdonald would have be«i 
made prisoner, . but the forces whom he had j^st 
commanded would not permit this consummation of 
revolt. Monsieur was obliged to escape Atom Hiy^ns^ 
almost alone, ' The guard of honour formed by tfae^ 
citizens, to attend the person of .the second e£ the 
Bourbon family, offered their services toNap6lemi'; 
but be refused them with contempt j whil^ be sent 
a cross of .honour to a single dragoon, who had the 
loyalty and devotion to attend Monsieur in his re- 

Buonaparte, now master of the ancient capital of 
s the Gauls, and at the head of seven thousand men, 
was acknowledged by Mafon, Chakma, IKjoa, and 
almost all Burgundy. Marseilleti^ on the contrary, 
and 9^1 Provence, declared againE^t the invader, and 
the former city set a price upon his head 

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iia]ioleon found it necessary to halt at Lyons for 
the refieskment of his forces ; aad^ being joined by 
some of the civilians of his party, he neede.d time 
also to organize his government and administration. 
Hitherto^ the addresses which he had published had 
l»eenof 4 military character, abounding with the 
oriental imagery whiich Buonaparte regarded ases- 
fiontial to eloquence, promising thai: victory should 
move at the charging step, and that the eagle should 
Ay with the national colours from steeplie to steeple, 
tall die perched on the towers of Nptpe Dame. The 
preMQt decrees were of ^ different character, and 
related to the internal arrapgement of his projected 

Cambaceres was named his minister of justice ; 
f ouche, that of police, (a boon to the revolution* 
-ists $} Davoust was made minister of war. Decrees 
upon decrees issued forth, with a rapidity which 
showed how Buonaparte had employed those studi- 
"Ous hours at Elba, which he was supposed to have 
^bedkated to' the composition of his Memoirs, They 
•ran in tl^e name of Napoleon, by the grace of God, 
Emperor of the Freaich, and were dated on the 13th 
of March, although not promulgated until the 81st 
of that month. The first of these decrees abrogated 
all changes in the courts of justice, and tribunals, 
which had taken place during the absence of Napo- 
leon. The second displaced all officers belonging tp 

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V9^ IrlVtt :0V 

^Ue <tosk)f ettugrantSyiwd iatrodmead into tlie «rmy 
ly tbe KiB|r. Tbe third rappiesiMd theiorderof St 
l&ouis, the white flag and dockade, and other no^ 
mtibl^msj and restored itbe three«cobured banaeir, 
^ttlA di^ imperial symbols of Buoi^nparte's authori^. 
Whe same decree abdiihed tbe Swisa £biaard :aad 
liie hotuebcld'treops of Ae King. The^fourth ae- 
^^ftfeetered th^ ifflbcts of the Bonrbo&B. A aiwU 
*lar drdinanoe s^estered the rcetaMred ptop&dty .-of 
^Migrant 'ftmifies, and -^aa eo krtfully wordM rnap 
9^es^t great dianges «f pinperty having tabfen 
{^ in thb mtott^. The fifA decree of X^oBa 
oppressed' the aucient Mbility andfeudal titk^ted 
formally confirmed proprietors of nationaLidoiiaiitt 
in their, pOBsei^ismis. The sixth declared sentence of 
banishm^it 'against ^ cmigvaiats iiot erased fiom 
llieiist^prerieusto'the faccessioci of tke Bourbons, 
4o<t^hich «was added confisoatiota iof their, pnepedfy- 
^hiB Mirenth tekored tiie li^pon^of/Hoitow^tin 
«my respect as it had eiaisted under ^ Mm- 
petor, tudting to Hs fnlids the confiecited reij^ 
^es of file ord^ *^f (St i I/mis. Thet eighth md 
lailt decree ^JVj^is the mbst importaiitiicifc^aU. UH" 
U^r pi^tkitse VlHit emgiants ^wJiojUdibome mm 
^a^iribst Pi^mce^ had been intvodnced into the body 
^f 'Hhe 'Pe^, and tbat die Chamber of Depvbtiea had 
iiMOj sat ^ the legal tine, it lilisablTied b^ 
Chtfttb^s^'^iind'convdkddtlie Electoral G^Beges of 

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t^e empire^ in order that they might hold^ ip the 
ensuing month of May, an extraordinary^ assembly 
of the Champ-de^au This convocation^ for tvbich 
the inventor found a name, in the history of the an- 
cient Pranks,. wa9 to have two. objects: J'irst^ to 
make such alterations and reformations in the con- 
stitution of the empire as circnmstances should gen- 
der advisable ; secondly^ to assist at the corop^tion 
of the JBi;npre98 and of the King of Rome. 

We csmpot pause to criticise these various enact- 
ments. In general,, however, it may be remarked, 
that they were admirably calculated to serve Napo- 
leon's cause. They flattered the army, and at the 
same time heated their resentment against the emi- 
grants, })y insinuating that they had been sacrificed 
by Louis to the interest of these; his followers. They 
held out to the Republicans a speedy, prospect of 
•confiscations, proscrip^ons, and revolutions of go- 
vernment ; .while the Imperialists were gratified with 
,a view of ample funds for pensions, offices, and ho- 
norary decorations. To the proprietors of national 
domains was promised security; to the Parisians, the 
spectacle of the Champ-de-Mdi ;. and to all France, 
peace and tranquillity, since the arrival of the Em- 
press and her son, so confidently asserted to be at 
.hj^id, must be considered as a pledge of thcffriend- 
^shi^p of Austria. Russia was al^o said to be friend- 
ly to Napoleon, and the 9onduct of Alexander to- 

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376 LIFE OF 

ward the members of Buonaparte^s family , was bold- 
ly appealed to as evidence of the fact. England, it 
was avexred, befriended him, else how could he 
have escaped from an isle surrounded by her naval 
force ? Prussia, therefore, alone, might be hostile 
and unappeased ; but, unsupported by the other 
belligerent powers, Prussia must remain passive, or 
would soon be reduced to reason. The very plc^i- 
snre in mortifying one, at least, of the late victors 
of Paris, ^aye a zest and poignancy to the revolu- 
tion, which the ponqurrence of the other great states 
would, according to Buonaparte, render easy and 
peaceful. Such news were carefully disseminated 
through France by Napoleon> adherents. They 
preceded his march, and prepared the minds of men 
to receive him as their destined master. 

On the 13th, Buonaparte recommenced his jour- 
ney, and, advancing through Ma^on, Chalons, and 
Dijon, he reached Auxerre on the lyth March. 
His own mode of travelling rather resembled that of 
^ prince, who, weary of the fatigue of state, wishes 
to extri^cate himself as much as possible from its 
trammels, than that of an adventurer coming at the 
head of an army of insurgents, to snatch a crown 
from the head of the lawful monarch who wore it. He 
gravelled several hours in ajdvance of his armiy, oftw 
without any guard, or, at most, attended only by a 
IJ^ Polish lancers. The country through whkh 

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be journeyed was faYourable to his pretensions. It 
had 'been severely treated by the allies daring the 
military manoenvres of the last campaign, and the 
dislike of the saffering inhabitants extended itself to 
the family who had mounted the throne by the in- 
flaence of these strangers. When, therefore, they 
saw the late Emperor among them alone, without 
guards; inquiring, with his usual appearance of ac- 
tive interest, into the extent of their losses, iand 
making liberal promises to repair them, it is no 
wonder that they should rather remember the bat- 
tles he had fought in their behalf against the fo- 
«reigners, than think on the probability that his 
presence among them might be the precursor of a 
second invasion. 

The revolutionary fever preceded Buonaparte 
like an epidemic disorder. The 14th regiment of 
lancers, quartered at Auxerre, trampled under foot 
the white cockade at the first signal ; the sixth re- 
giment of lancers declared also for Napoleon, and 
without waiting for orders, drove a few soldiers of 
the household troops from Montereau, and secured 
that important post, which commands the passage 
of the Seine. 

The dismay of the royal government at the revolt 

'^ of Lyons, was much increased by false tidings which 

liad been previously circulated, giving an account of 

a pretended victory obtained by the Royalist piurty 

^in front of that town. The conspiracy was laid sq 

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^ hits of 

deep, .and extend^ so widely tbfoqgh every bzanck 
jot the.goyfe^xmenty that tbojte.concemeid coQtiriyc^ 
to.sead this fake xeport .to Paris in a demi-offiQial 
.form, by meaas of the telqgn^ph. It .had the ex- 
pected efiec^^ first, in sAspending the preparations 
of the l/i»yal party, and aftenyaxds in deepening the 
anxiety which overwhelmed ^hem, when Monsieur, 
ijetiuniog almost unattended, Jbrought the ne^s of 
•his bad snccess. 

At this moment of all but desperation, Fonche 
o&redhis assistance to the almost defenceless Kwg. 
It is probable, that the more he r^ected w the 
character of his old master. Napoleon, the deepe^ 
beca^^e his Qonviction, that they knew each other too 
well ever to resume an attitude of mutual confidence. 
. JNothi^g deterred, therefore, by the communications 
wfaicb he had opened with the. Imperialists, he now 
f 4emand^ a secret audience of the King. It was re- 
fusf d,hut his eommuniqations were received tbroujg^h 
t^e medj^um of two ^on&dential persons deputed by 
ifLquis. Fouche^s l^ngufige to them was that ,of a 
ba.Vl onppiric, to wjbom patients, have; recourse in a 
.moment .of despair, and who confidently under- 
take the most utterly hopeless cases. like such, 
I he exacted absolute reliance on. his skill-^the most 
f^prupulous attention to his injunctiQns — the most 
.^a^ple renrard Jbr Jtiis .promised .servi^^s ; find as 
. fuxch, too, , he .^poke . with ; the utmost i confidence 
iathe certainty of his ; remedy, whilst obserying a 

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loigne 3^et studioiis myjstery ahpiit tl^ jugredtent^ 
of^which it was composed^.and the fnode in which 
it woald operate. He required iOfXoais XVJU« 
that, he. shoald ^snrrenderall th« cuceQutire.autheri- 
ty^tortbe iDuke of rQrleac^, and all the ministerial 
offices, ta himself and those wfacnn he should appoint; 
which two conditions being .granted, he undertook 
to patia period to fiuonaparte^s expedition. ..The 
Memoirs of this bold intriguer affirm, that be meant 
to.Assemble all that remained of the levolutiopary 
party, and oppose the doctrines of .Liberty. and 
JBqAality to those of therGlory of France, in the 
sense nndorstood by Buonaparte. What were. the 
means that aiich politician?, < so : united, had to. op- 
pose to the anny^of J'l^nce^'Fouchehas not inform- 
edius,; 'but it ; is j probable, that, to stop the advance 
of 14^000 armed men, lagainst whomthe rerolution- 
ists could, now .scarce even array the mob of the 
.subnrb^) the ex^mini9ter of, police must have medi- 
tated the short sharp remedy of Napoleon's. assassi- 
nation,, for taccomplishing whicli, he, if ranyman, 
4>oQld have found. trusty agents. 

TJbe.KiDg'-hitTing refused pr9posal?, which went 
to preserve his sceptre by taking it out of his hands, 
and by further unexplained means the morality of 
which, was- Jiable to just su^piciop, Fouche saw him- 
•sel# oMiged' to' carry his: Jatrigues to* the iQervicie ^f 
hiii^old master, 'fie became, in consequenceySoiniK^h 

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880 LIFE OF 

iin object of suspicion to the Royalists, that an or* 
der was issued for his arrest. To the police agents, 
his own old dependents, who came to execute the 
order, he objected against the informality of their 
warrant, and stepping into his closet, as if to draw a 
protest, he descended by a secret stair into his gar- 
den, of which he scaled the wall. His next neigh- 
bour, into whose garden he escaped, was the Du- 
chess de St. Leu ; so that the fugitive aniYied, as if 
by a trick of the stage, in the very midst of it circle 
of chosen fiuonapartists, who received him with 
.triumph, and considered the mode of his coming 
among them as a full warrant for his fidelity.* 

Louis XYIIL in his distress, had recourse to 
the assistance of another man of the Rerolntion, 
iwho, without possessing the abilities of Fbuche, 
^as perhaps, had he been disposed to do so, better 
qualified than he to have served the King's cause. 
Mareschal Ney was called forth to take the com- 
mand of an army destined to attack Napoleon in the 
ilank and rear as he marched towards Paris^ while 
the forces at Melun opposed him in front. He had an 
audience of the King oh the 9th of March, V^hm he 

* In the Memoirs of Fouch^, it is avowed that this order of ar* 
^rest was upon no political ground, but arose front the envy tjf Sa- 

vary, who, foreseeing that Foudi^ would be restored to Ujub atoa- 
f tion of minister of police, which he himself desired, on account of 

the large sums which were placed at the disposal of that functioii- 
^ary, hoped, ia thisviaimer, to pat fait rival out of his road. 

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accepted his appointment with expressions of tb^ 
most devoted faith to the > King, anddeclsured his 
resolntion to bring Buonaparte to Paris like a wild 
beast in an iron cage. The Marescbal went to Be- 
sanfon, where, on the 11th of March, he learned 
that Bdonaparte was in possession of LyOns. , Bat 
he continued to make preparations for . resistance, 
and, collected all the troops he could from the ad- 
joining garrisons. To those who objected to the bad 
disposition of the soldiers, and remarked that he 
would have difficulty in inducing them to fight^ 
Ney answered determinedly, '< They shM fight ; 
I will take a musket from a grenadier and begin 
the action myself ^— I will run my sword to the hilt 
in the first who hesitates to follow my example.^ 
To the minister at war he wrote, that all were 
dazzled by the activity and rapid progress of the 
invader i that Napoleon was favoured by the com- 
mon people and the soldiers ; but that the officers 
and civil authorities were loyal, and he still hoped 
« to see a fortunate close of this mad enterprise.^ 

In these dispositions, Ney advanced to Loup le 
Si^ulnier. Here, on the night betwixt the 13th and 
14th March, he received a letter from Napoleon, sum- 
moning him to join his standard, as ** bravest of the 
brave," a name which could not but awake a thou- 
aand remembrances . He had already sounded both 
his officers and soldiers, and discovered their unal- 

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ttkble detontdMOtiba to jmt BtM*afnrt«. Bh^ 
nHerefbre hod it oaly in his ehttiee Id- refsmtt- hi» 
MiiliMmdi by -pasiag tntr to the E^speror, or else 
to leton te tlie King witkout executrng- anytliidi^ 
wbiek might seem even' lui effett at reaHziag, his 
boast, and also wftkout the anny ever whieh- ho 
had asserted his {K>sseS8ioii of snob infiiioiee;^ 

Mafosehttl Ney was a mao ef mekn birth> wbe^ 
by the most desperate vabur, had risen to tho bi^ 
Ost ranks in the army. His early edueation had 
not endowed him with fi delicate «ense of honofor^ 
or a high feeling of prin€ip]<e^ and he had not learn* 
ed either as he advanced in life. He spears to 
have been a weak man^ witbr more vanity than 
pride, and who, therefore, was likely to feel the loss 
of power more than the loss- of character. He ae- 
€ordingly resolved upon adhering to Kapokoih 
Sensible of the ineongrnity of changing his sidoso 
soddenlyj he affected to be a deliberate knave, ra* 
met than be woald content himself with being 
viewed in his real character, of a volatile, light* 
pr^ipled, and' inconsiderate fool. He pretended 
tUsrt the expedition of Napoleon had been long ar- 
ranged' between himself and the other Mareschdls. 
But we are willing rather to suppose that this was 
matter of mere invention, than to think that the 
protestattoOs ponred ont at the Tuiileries, only five 
days before, were, on the part of this unfortmiats 

man, the effusimi of premeditated treachery. 

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The Mareschal BOW pmblished ^n ohMroF'the 
ia,y, declaring that the cause oF die Boorboiis wa» 
lost for ever. It' was received' by the soldiers wStfi 
rapture, and Biionaparte^s standard' and' colonics Were' 
instantly displayed. Misuiy of the officers^ hdwefvc^r, 
remonstrated, and left their conmiands. One, befbifd 
he went away,^broke his a^iurd in' two, andthrewthe 
pieces at Key's feet, saying, '^ It is easier fiir a niatf 
of honour to break iron than to infringe his #oix{:^ 

Ney was received by Napoleon with open s^rmr; 
WiB defection <£d incalculable damage to the Ring*ii^ 
catrse, tending to show that the spirit of treasm 
which possesiied the common soldiers, had ascends 
ed to and afiected the officers of* the highest ranfcf 
in the army. 

The King, in the meanwhile, notwithstanding 
dMNse unpromising circumstances, used every exer- 
tion to induce his subjects to continue in their alle^ 
giance. He attended in person the sitting of the 
Chamber of Deputies, and was received with sveth 
enthusiastic marks of applause, that one wouM hiave 
thought the most active exertions must have foU 
lowed. Louis next reviewed the National Guardi^; 
about 25,000 men, who made a similar display of 
loyalty. He also inspected the troops of the litie^, 
6D00 in number, but his reception was equivocal; 
They placed their caps on their bayonetir izt toldeti 
of relict, but they raised no shoot. 

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384 UFE OF 

Some of those about Louis^ person coptiniied to 
believe that these men were still attached to the 
King, or that, at any rate, they ought to be sent 
to the camp at Melun, which was the last remain- 
ing point upon which the royal party could hope to 
make a stand. 

As a last resource, Louis convoked a general 
council at the Tuilleries on the 18th March. The 
generals present declared there could be no effectual 
opposition offered to Buonaparte. The royalist nobles 
contradicted them, and, after some expressions of vio^ 
lence had been uttered, much misbecoming the royal 
presence, Louis was obliged to break up the meeting, 
and prepare himself to abandon a capital, which the 
prevalence of his enemies, and the disunion of his 
friends, left him no longer any chance of defending. 

Meantime the two armies approached each other 
at Melun ; that of the Eang was commanded by the 
faithful Macdonald. On the 20th, his troops were 
drawn up in three lines to receive the invaders, who' 
were said to be advancingfromFontainebleau. There 
was a long pause of suspense^ of a nature which sel- 
dom fails to render men more accessible to strong 
and sudden emotion. The glades of the.forest, and 
the acclivity which ascends to it, were full in view, 
of the royal army, but presented the appearance o^ 
M deep solitude. AH was silence,- except when the 
regimental bandsof music, at the command of the 

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ofllce]^, who remained generally fiiithfal^ played 
die airs of Vive Henri. Quatre,*-^^, Richard, — La 
Belle GahneUe^ and other tunes connected with the 
cause, and family of the Bourbons. The sounds ex- 
oitedno corresponding sentiments amongthe soldiers. 
At length about noon a galloping of horse was heard. 
An open carriage -appeared, surtounded by a few 
hussars, and di^wn by four horses. It caoie on at 
full speed; and Napolean, jumping from the vehi^ 
cle, was in the midst of the ranks which had been 
£E»rmed to <^po6e him. His escort threw themselves 
Irom tbieir horses, mingled with their ancient com». 
rades, and the effect of their exhortations was in^ 
stantaneous on men, whose miuds were already half 
made up to the purpose which they now accomplish** 
ed. There was a general shout of Ftve Napoleon t 
•>-*^The last army of the Bourbons passed from their 
side, and no further obstruction existed betwixt 
Napoleon and the capital, which he was once more 
u-but for a brief space-^-to inhabit as a Sovereign. 
Louis XYIII. had anticipated too surely the de- 
-fection which took place, to await the consequence^ 
its actual' arrival. The King departed from Paris, 
escorted by his household, at one in the morning 
of the SOth March. Even at that untimely hour, 
the palace was surrounded by the national guards, 
and niany citizen&^ who wept and entreated him to 

voir* VIII. 2 J 

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366 LIFE w 

remain, ofiexing to spend the Imt drop of their blood 
for him. Bnt Louis wisely decUned acceptiag <tf 
sacrifices, which could now have availed joothiog. 
^Escorted by his household troops, lie took the way 
to Lisle. Marescbal Macdmiald, retumisg from the 
fatal positioQ of Melon, assumed the eomttiaad ttf this 
soouill body yWhich was indeedaagmentedbymaay vo- 
lunteersybut such as considered their ze^dous wish^ 
jrather than their power of renddi^ng, asi^atate^. 
rThe King^s coaditicm was, however, pitied and n^ 
spected, and he passed through Abbeville, and other 
jparrison towns, where the siddiers received him with 
sullen respect ; adid though indicating diat they ia^ 
tended to join his rival, would .mtber vH»late his 
person nor insult his misfortunes. At Lisle he had 
hoped to make a standi but Mareschal Mortier,.iB»- 
•sisting upon the dissatisfied and tumultuary state-of 
the garrison, urged him to proceed, for the safety of 
bis life -J and, oomp€>lled to ft seoo&d exile, he de- 
parted to Ostend, and from thence to Ghent, wheie 
he established his exiled court* Mareschal Macdo- 
. nald took leave of his Majesty on the firontierB^ 00^ 
' scions that by emigrating he must lose every pro^ 
spect of serving in future either France or her m^ 
narcfa. The household troops, about two hundred 
excepted, were also^i^banded on the frontiers. They 
had been harassed in their march thither by samp 
light horse, and, in their attempt to rc»gpain their 

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bomejs in a state of dispeiwion^ some were slain, and 
almost all were plandered and insulted. 

In tlie meanwhile^ the levolntion took full effect 
ai Paris. Layalette, one of Bu<Hiaparte^s mostdeci,- 
•di^ adherents^ hastened from a place of concealmenl; 
to assume tlie managraient of the post-office in th^ 
name of Napoleon, sm office which he had enjoyed 
doling his former reign. He was thus enabled tp 
intercept the royal pnnclainations, «nd tp annonnc^ 
tx> ev^acy department officially the restoration of th^ 
Emperor. Exeelsman^the oath of fealty to theKing, 
itouies epreuvesy scarce dry upon his lips, tool^ 
X down the white flag, which floated on the ToiUeriesi, 
and replaced the threercoloiiped banner. 

It was late in the evening ere Napoleon arrived in 
the same open carriage, which he bad used since his 
landing. There was a si^giilar conjtrast betwixt hi^ 
entry and the departure of the King. The latter w^^ 
accompanied by the sobs, t^^B^ and Igind wishes of 
those citizens who d^ired peaise and tranquillity, by 
the wailing of the drfenceiess, and the anxious fear^ 
'Of the wise and prudent. The former enteredamid the . 
shoots of armed columns, who, existing by war and' 
desolation, welcomed with miljltary acclamations the 
chief who was to restore thein to f heir element Th^ 
iahabitants of the saborbs chewed in expectation of 
employment and gratuities, or by instigation of theijr 
ringleaders, who were chiefly nnder the managemnt 

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388 tiFK OP 

of the police^ and well prepared for the event. But 
among the immense crowds of the citizens of Parrs, 
whotumed out tosee this extraoifdinary spectacle, few 
or none joined in the gratulation. The soldiers of the 
guard resented their silence|Commanded the specta- 
tors to shout, struck with the flat of their swords, and 
pointed their pistols at the multitude, but could not 
even by these militarymeans extort the expectedciy 
of Liberty and Napolefon, though making it plain 
by their demeanour, that the last, if not the first, was 
returned to the Parisians. In the court of the Ca- 
rousel, and before the Toilleries, all the adherents 
of the old Imperial government, and those who, ha- 
ving deserted Napoleon, were eager to expiate their 
fault, by now being first to acknowledge him, were as- 
sembled to give voice to their welcome, which atoned 
in some degree for the silence of the streets. They 
crowded around him so closely, that he was compelled 
to exclaim, — *^ My friends, you stifle me !" and his 
adjutants wereobligedtosupport him in theirarms up 
the grand staircase, and thence into the royal apart- 
ments, where he received the all-hail of theprincips^ 
devisers and abettors of this singular undertaking. 
"Never, in his bloodiest and most triumphant field 
of battle, had the terrible ascendancy of NapoleonV 
genius appeared half so predomiaant as during his 
march, or rather his journey, from Cannes to Paris. 
He who left the same coast, disguised }ike a slave. 

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And weeping like a lyoman, for fear qF assas9ij)atiop, 
reappeared in grandeur like that of the returniog 
wave^ which, the farther it has retreated^ is rolled 
back on. the shore with the more terrific and over- 
whelming violence. His looks seamed to. possess 
4he p;retqnded power of northern magicians, and 
blunted swords and spears. The Bravest, of the 
Brave, who came determined to oppose him a3 he 
woold a wild beast, recognised his superiority when 
.confronted with him, and sunk again into his satel- 
lite. Yet the lustre with which Napoleon shone 
was not that of a planet duly moving in its regular 
sphere, but that of a comet, inspiring forebodings 
of pestilence and death, and 

' with fear of change, 

Perpleziiig nations." 

The result of his expedition was thus summed 
by one of the most eloquent and best-informed Bri- 
tjisb statesmen.* 

*^ Was it,^ said thie accomplished orator, *^ in the 
power of language to describe the ^vil ? Wars which 
had raged for twenty-five years throughout Europe; 
which had spread blood and desolation from Cadiz to 
Moscow, and from Naples to Copenhagen ; which 
had wasted the means of human enjoyment, and de- 
5troyedthein8trumentsof socialimprovement ; which 

* Sir Jamet Mackintosh. 

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Live OF 

f hrestened to diffoae ftBMttg the Enropean oationiB 
the dissolute and ferocious habits of a predatory 
siddieryy— at length by one of those vicissitttdes 
which bid defiance to the foresight of man, had 
been brought to a close, upon the whole happy be- 
yond all reasonable expectation, with no violent 
shock to national independence, with some toler- 
able compromise between the opinions oi the age 
and the reverence due to ancient institutions ; with 
no too signal er mortifying triumph over the legiti- 
mate interests or avowable feelings of any num^- 
ous body ol men, and, above all, without those re- 
taliations against nations or parties which beget 
new convulsions, often as horrible as those which 
they close, and perpetuate revenge and hatred and 
blood from age to age. Europe seemed to breathe 
after her sufferings. In the midst of this fair pros- 
pect, and of these consolatory hopes, Napole(»i 
Buonaparte escaped from Elba ; three small ves- 
sels reached the coast of Provence ; their hopes 
are instantly dispelled ; the work of our toil and 
fortitude is undone ; the blood of Europe is spilt in 

Ibi oninis effiuuf labor V* 

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Various attempts to organize a dtfencefor the Bourbons fail, 
— Buonaparte, again reinstated on the throne ofFrcmce, is 
desirous of conttnuing the peace with ^ AUies^^bust no an- 
swer is returned to his letters,'-^ Treatjf of Vi&ma. — Gri^ 
vances alleged by Buonaparte injusi\fication of the step he 
had taken, — Debates in the British House of Commons, on 
the renewal of War, — Murat occupies Rome with 50,000 
men — his Proclamation summoning all Italians to arms, — 
He advances against the Austrians — is repulsed at Occhio^ 
Bella — defeated at TolentirMr— flies to Naples, and thence, 
in disguise, to France^^where Napoleon rejkses to receibe 

Whir's Paris was lost^ the bow. of the Bourboiis 
was effectually broken ; and the attempts of indivi- 
duals of the family to make a stand against the evil 
hour, was honourable indeed to their own gallan- 
try^ but of ho advantage to their cause. 

The Duke d'^Angouleme placed hiniself at the head 
of a considerable body of troops^ raised by the towh 
of Marseilles^ and the Royalists of Provence. But 
bein^ surrounded by General Gilly^ he was obliged 

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92 3LXFE OF 

to lay down his arms^ on condition of amnesty to hia 
followers, and fr^e pemussion to himself to leavo 
France. General Grouchy refused to confirm this 
capitulation, till Buonaparte's pleasure was known. 
But the restored Emperor, not displeased, it noay 
be^ to make a display of generosity, permitted the 
Duke d'Angouleme to depart by sea from Cette, 
only requiring his interference with Louis XYIII. 
for returning the crown jewels which the King had 
removed with him to Ghent. 

The Duke of Bourbon had retired to La Vend^ 
to raise the warlike royalists of that faithful province* 
JB^t it had been previously occupied by soldiers at- 
tached to Buonaparte, so judiciouslyposted as toren- 
der an insurrection impossible ^ and the Duke fotind 
himself obliged to eseape by sea from Nantes. 

The Duchess d'^Angouleme, the only remaintog 
daughter of Louis XVI. whose childhood and youth 
bad suffered with patient firmness such atormaof 
adversity, showed on this trying occasion that she 
}iad the active as well ap passive courage becoming 
the descendant qf a long line of pripces. She threw 
■]|i<Brself into Bourdeaux, whei'e the loyalty of Count 
J^ynch, the Mayor, and of the citi^en^ in general, 
promised her deteimined aid, and the Eriiic^s^ berr 
3elf stood forth amoAgst them, like one of tb^se be- 
.fmc women of the age of chivalry, whose looks and 
yf^ftda were aUe in mon^ents of peri! ^o &y^ double 

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edge to menu's ^ords, and doable constancj^ to their 
hearts. But ttiiha|>{^y there was a considerable gar* 
riBon of troops of the line in Bourdeanx, who had 
caught the general spirit i^ revolt. General Clansel 
also advanced on the city with a force of the same 
description. The Dachess made a last effort, assetn- 
bled.aroand her the officers, and laid their duty be-. 
Are tfaem in the most teaching and pathetic man- 
ner. . Sikt when she saw their coldness, ani heard 
their fanltering excuses, she turned from theifi in 
diadain :•*-" You fear," she said— *<' I pity yoii; and 
scte^ae you from' your oaths.*^ She einbarked on 
board an English frigate, and Boojpdeaux opened 
its gates to dausel^ and declared for the Emperor. 
Thus, notwithstanding the return of Napoleon was 
far from being acceptable to the French umTersally, 
nr enren generally, all open opposition to his govern- 
ment ceased, and he was acl^nowledged as Empe- 
ror within about twenty days after he landed on the 
beach at Cannes, with a thousand followers. 

But though he was thus replaced on the throne, 
^apoleon'^s seat was by no means secure, unless be 
could prevail upon the confederated Sovereigns of 
Europe to acknowledge him in the capacity of which 
their united arms had so lately deprived him. It is 
Irue, he had indirectly promised war to hireoldiers, 
by stigmatizing the cessions made by the Bourbons 
f( what he called the territory of France. It i»trae, 

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9M LIFE or 

ftl80» that theiiy and till his death's^day, he continaed 
to entertain the looted idea that Belgium^ a poB* 
seseioD which France bad acquired within twentj 
years, was an integral portion of that kingdom. It 
19 true, Antwerp and the fiye hundred sail of the 
line which were to be boilt there, continaed through 
his whole life to be the rery Delilah of his inaagi* 
nation. The cause of future war was, therefore, 
Mazing in bis bosom. But yet at present he felt 
it necessary for his interest to assure the people of 
Franeoy that his return to the empire would not 
disturb the treaty of PHris, though it had given the 
Low Countries to Hdland. He spared no device 
to spread repot td of a pacific tendency. 

From the commencement of bis march, it was af- 
firmed by his creataree that be brought with him a 
treaty concluded with all the powers of Europe for 
twenty years. It was repeatedly averred, that Ma. 
rta Louisa and her 8<m were on the point of arriving 
in France, disnussed by her fiither as a pledge of re- 
conciliation ; and when she did not appear, it was 
insinuated that she was detained by the Emperor 
Francis, as a pledge that Buonaparte should ob- 
serve his promise of giving the French a free con- 
stitution. To such bare-fisMed asserticms he was i^ 
doced, rather than admit that his return was to be 
the^ signal for renewing hostilities With all Europe. 

Meantime Napoleon hesitated not to offer to the 

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alKed ministers his wiiiingness to acquiesce in the 
treaty of Paris ; although, according to his uniform 
reasoning, it involved the humiliation and disgrace of 
France. He sent a letter to each of the sovereigns, 
expressing his desire to make peace on the same prin- 
ciples which had been arranged with the Bourbons. 
To these letters no answers were returned. The 
decision of the allies had already been adopted* 

Tlie Congress at Vienna happened fbrtnnatety not 
to be dissolved, ^hen the news of Buonaparte^s es- 
cape flnom Elba was laid before them by TaYfeyran^ 
on the 1 1th March. The astonishing, as weH as the 
sublime, apj^oaches to the Indicron^s, and it is a 
curious jrfiysiological fact, that the first news of an 
event which threatened to abolish all their labours, 
seemed so like a trick in a pantomime, that laugh- 
ter was the first emotion it excited from almost 
every one. The merry mood did not last long ; 
for the jest was neither a sound nor safe one. It was 
necessary for the Congress, by an unequivocal de- 
claration, to express their sentiments upon this ex- 
traordinary occasion. This declaration appeared 
on the 13th March, and after giving an account of 
the feet, bore the following denunciation : — 

<< By thus breaking the convention which had 
established him in the island of Elba, Buonaparte 
detftroys the only legal title on which his existence 
depended ; and, by appearing again in France with 
projects of confusion and disorder, he has deprived 

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396 LIVE OF 

himself of the protecticm of the law, aod has maaU 
feste4 to the universe, that there can be neither 
peace nor truce with him. 

*^The powers consequently declare, that Napoleon 
Buonaparte has placed himself without the pale of 
civil flind social relations, and that, as an enemy and 
disturber ^f the tranquillity of th^ world, he has ren- 
dered himself liable tp public vengeance. They de* 
fclare at the same time^ that, firmly resolved to main- 
tain entire the tr^ty of Paris of the 30th of May, 
1814,and the disposati^ns sanctioned by that treaty, 
^nd those which they have resolved on,or sfiall hexe«. 
after resolve on, to complete an4 to consolidate it, 
they will employ all their means, and will unite all 
their efforts, that the g!eneral peace, the object of th^ 
wishes of Europe, and the constant purpose of their 
labours, may not again be troubled j and to provide 
against every attempt which shall threaten to re* 
plunge the world into the disorders of revohitipn,^' 

This manifesto was instantly followed by a treaty 
]betwixt Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and RuSr 
nia, renewing and confirming tlie league entered into 
at Chaumont. The first article deplared thp resolur 
tion of the high contracting parties to maintain and 
enforce the treaty of Paris, which exclodod Baona- 
parte from the throne of France, and to enforce the 
decree of outlawry issued against him as above men? 
tioned. 2. Each of the c<mtracting parties agreed 
to keep constantly in the field an army of 1^>O0Q 

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mm coinplete, with the due proportion of cavftlry 
stuA artillery. 3^ They agreed not to lay down 
their arms but by common consent^ until either the 
^rpose -of the war should haTe been att^jatd, or 
Buonaparte should be rendered incapable of disturb^ 
iiig the peace, of Europe. After other subordinate 
articles^ the 7th provided^ that the other powers 
ef Europe should be invited to accede to the trea^ 
ty ; and the 8th^ that the King of France should 
be particulaiiy called iipim to become a party to it. 
A separate article provided^ that the King of Great 
]foitain should ha%'e the option of furnishing his 
contingent in men, or of paying, instead at the rate 
of 90/. Sterling per annum for each cavalry soldiez^ 
and SO/, p^ annum for each infantry soldier, whieh 
should be wanting to make up his complemei^* 
1\^ this treaty a declaration was subjoined, when it 
was ratified by the Prince Regent, referring to the 
eighth article of the treaty, and declaring that it 
should not be understood as binding his Britannic 
Ifajesty to prosecute the war, with the view d 
Ibrcibly imposing on France any particular goyeruT 
ment. The other contracting powers agreed to ac- 
cept of the accession of his Royal Highness, under 
this explanaticm and limitation. 

The treaty of Vienna may be considered in a 
douUe point of view, first, upon principle, and^ se- 
condly, as to its mode of expression ; and it was 
•commented upon in both respects in the British 

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hswm OF 

HiMise of Oomiimn* Tlie €xpoli«iMjr. of tli0. 
vnm dmed hj aewml of tbe.O^^itmi m^mteisH 
^tk aocooBt of the exliaasted sUte.rf Graft! BrksM^ 
hnt tbejr gentnUy admitted that tlie^akape ^ 9m» 
asparte gave a jiMt eanae finr tbe deolaratton of Ink. 
tilttiea. Tke great atatesman and jnmeoosvHy 
wlioin we have already quoted^ delmxedanopum 
for himself, and tkoM vritli wkmlift actad^ cmcIn 
ed in the mast positive terma. . . 

^ Some in8timatk»0,^ said Sir JamfeaMairlr t atoah^ 
^ had been tlin»wn out, of diiiereooesof ^bim qd 
kiB wde of the .HotuiB^ vespecting the eril8:Qf tim 
escape. He utterly denied than. All agreed in;bM> 
mentiBg the occurrence which rendered ih»xmmf9ti 
of war so probable, not to say icertaiii. AJji hk 
Monda, with whose sentiments he wu aoqaaniMl> 
weva of 4»ptniQn, tbtt, in the theory of pabUo. Javi^ 
the as9omption of power by Napoleon hadgi^cea ta 
the aUirs a jnst oaose of war agaia«t Fmca, I( 
waa perfectly obmue, that the abdbatton of Jfat- 
poleon> and hts pejrpetual renaneiation.iof the m- 
pieme authority, was a coacfitton, and the naostiait* 
portant condition, on which the allies had granted 
peace to Franee. The ooavention of Fontainebteaa^ 
and the treaty of Paris, were ei|aaUy parts of tk9 
great compact which, re-established frieiidship be- 
tween Fnweeand Evirope. In oGnsidcaation^die 
«afer and more inofiensiire state of Fmnee, when.s^ 
parat^d fr^im her terrible leader, eflofedenited £n^ 

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K^ had gnitited laodertto and fitvouiiaUe terms of 
paacf* As 4aoa as Ftmbe bad viu^ed this im. 
piNctaat cMditioo^ bj again rabmittiBg to tbe aotbo- 
lily oC Najpolooa, the aUios were doubtleiss iideasad 
fzosa their part of the compact, and reneniered into 
their helli^perdttt lights*" 

The pcoYooatiaiis pleaded by Busoaparte, (which 
aeem to hate been entirely fancaful^so fiur as rei^pects 
any design on his freedom,) wei^yfinit,Th0separataan 
fk^m his fajnily. Bat this was a qaestion with Ana- 
tria axolasively ; for what power was to compel the 
£mperor franois to restore his daoghter, after the 
faite of war had flung her again under his paternal 
protection? NapoleoQ''s feelings in his situation weiae 
.extremely natnral, but those of the £mperor cannot 
be blamed, who ccMisideifed his daughter's honour 
a^d happines9 as interested in separating her froma 
man, who was capable of attempting to redeem his 
broken fortunes by the most desperate means. Much 
wmijd depend upon the inclination of the illustrions 
person herself; but even if some degree of paternal 
xcBtraint bad been exerted, could Napoleon really 
feel himself jasti&ed in renewing a sort of Trajan 
war with all the powers in Europe, in order to tch 
cover his wife, or think, because he Was s^parsilfpl 
£romhersociety by afiinty-ihe«rtedftther,thal;he^as 
therefore warranted in invading and snbdaing the 
kingdem of France? The second article of provo^ 
cation, and we admit it as a just one, was, that Na« 

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400 lilFK 6F 

pokon was left to necesnties to wUch ho onghtoBl; 
to have boon sobjoctod^ by Franco* frithbolduigfhb 
ponsion till the yearabooldelap^e. This ittts a ^tomad 
of complaint^ and a^doep ono ; bat agnourt whoAi? 
Sorely not against the aUios^ unless Buonapartehad 
called open them to make good their treaty ;«id 
Ind stated, that France had failed to make good 
those obligations, for which he -bad their goaranteo. 
England, who was only an accessory to the «xeaty,httd 
neTortheless alro^dy interfered in 'Buonaparte's bo- 
half, and there can be no doubt that redress would 
have been granted by the contracting parties, who 
could not in decency avoid enforcing a- treaty, whicli 
had been of their own formings That this guarantclB 
gave Napoleon a right to appeal and tocomplain,caii. 
not be denied ; bat that it gave him a ri^t to pro- 
ceed by violence, without any expostulation prei^ 
ously made, is contrary to all ideas of the law tf 
nations, which enacts, that nooggrossion can cobn 
stilttte a legitimate caase of war, until redress hits 
been refused. This,'however,is all mer6 legaiat- 
gnment. Bnons^rte did mot invade France, be- 
oause.slie was deficient in papng his pension. Se 
invaded her, because he saw a strong- prospect oC«e- 
gaining the throne ; nor do we bolievas that millions 
of gold would have pFe^led (m.him to^ibregolhe 
opportunity. - * 

His more available ground of defence, Jiowf^v^, 
was, that he was rocked by the :general voice of 

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4e nslioii of Fniiiee ; bttt the wMe fiiels «F tlie 
esse oontradteted tfatd sthtMieiitb His league iriA^ 
tlieircnR>kitteiit8t8 was made ntoctatitlf en ^lehr^^rt, 
nor did iSiat pattjr fbncd «tif veiry eonsideiaMe per- 
Attt of tto nation. *^ Hte ekctkaiv" laoeoFding to 
6faitan, ^*^was a toSatiay AetAoik ; anA wfaen the 
army dmposed of the mil goyernment> k ^to th^ 
match of a miKtaty chief oter a ootiqu^^ nation. 
The nation did net rise to astist Logins, or rettisi Boe^ 
napane, because the nation could i^ rise agwniftt Ihe 
atmy. The mind of France, as well «s h^ cMetiiu- 
tkm, had completdy lost, for the present^ the power 
6f i>esistance. They passirety yidded to mipemr 

In shoyt, the opinion of the House ef G^mvamm 
was so utianimous on the disastroufi eonsequeiiMS' ef 
N&poleon's quitting Elb^, that the minority brought 
charges against Ministers tbr not hanng provided 
niore e&ctual means to present his escape. T0 
ihese charges it was replied, that A4tittn was not his 
teeper ; ' that it was impossiUe to maintain a line of 
blockade around Elba ; and if it had bo^ otherwise^ 
that Britain had no tij^ to interfere wiA Boona^ 
parte^s motions, so fkr as concertt^ short expedilaoiia 
unconnected with the purpose of escape ; atthouf^ 
it was avowed, that if a British vessel had detected 
imn in the act of goittg to Fhince wi& aii anmad 
force, foe ihe purpose bfittvaston, the right of etop- 

voL. vin. 2 c 

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408 hlWA OF 

pif^ bis pNigr«86 would have been exercised at evesf^ 
baserd. Slill, It wae mged, they bad »> titleetAec 
to eatabUeb a police viffin the idand, the ot^ect qf 
wbicbaboaldbe to watch itB acknowledged Emp^^r,^ 
w to BBiMiitaiB a naval foDce around it» to apprehend 
him in case he should attempt an escape. Both would 
liaye been in direct contradicti<« of the tieatjr <tf 
FontaineUeau, to which Britain had acceded, thcH^g]^ 
she was not one of the contracting parties. ~ . 

The style of the declaratienof the alUeii was more 
geni»aUy coisured in the British Parlifunmt than^ 
Its wariike tone. It was.contended» tbat, by deda- 
tbtig NKpcieoa an oudaw, it inyoked against y«i the 
daggers of individuals, as well as the efword of ^iif- 
tice. This charge of encwrsging assassina^don wiia 
wannly repeUed by the mqppotters of ministry. Th^ 
purpose of the prodamation, it was said, was mere, 
ly to ppint out Napoleon to the Fn»cb nation, as 4^ 
person who had forfeited his dvil rights^ by the iksI • 
of raiuming, contiwry to treaty, a ppoiion in whidi^ 
fimm.bit temp», habits, and tid^tci, be wiat again 
beoone -in olgect of ampicion and tomn: to all ^unop#. 
His inflesuhte resohitic^, his unbounded amUtion, 
his own geniiis, his power over the mind of others,-— 
those ^feat miUtary ,talent8» in shorty which^ so ya-^ 
luable in war,' ap*e in peace so dangerous, had afl&rded 
reasons ,^r. milking the peace of .Paris, by wbich . 
Napolieon was personslly fBzeluded from the dironie. 

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WlieB -Napoleon broke thftt peaoe^ sdienuily ootiotud* 
ed with Europe, be forfeited bis political rights, 
asd in digt yieir alone die outlawry was to be obn- 
Btraed; In eonsequence of these resolutions, adofK^ 
ed at Vienna and London, all Eui^pe rang witii the 
preparations for war ; and the number of troops with' 
which the allies proposed to inVade ' I^anoe/ werin 
rated at no less than one million and eleven diou« 
sand soldiers.* ' . 

Befinre pvoceeiding fisffther, it n requisite to say « 
frw wovds on the subject of Murat. He bad beett 
for some time agitated by fears naturally arking Siamk 
the attack made upon his goirenimelit at the Cihi^' 
giess, by Talleyrand. The effect had not, it mm 
true, hiwhieed die other powers to decide against him ; 
bi^ he seems to hate been conscious diat die sepc^ > 
of Generd Nugoit and Lord William Bentinck, 
ooncuired in repmenting him as hasdng acted in the 
last campaign, ratha die part of a trimmer betwixt 
two parties, than that of a cdnfedezaite, siucere, as he< 
pefessed to be, in fiiypur ^f the allies. Feihaps haAi 
omden^e ackno^idedged this tmdi, &t it cartaiBly 

^ The OGsdiigmtft of the Tarioufr powers were m ktQ&wmt"^^ 
Aostcia 960,000 men; Em«b2M,000f FnuiU 236^000 »St^; 
of Qetmmy 150,000; Great Britain 604>00| UoUapd 50,000^' 
mail, 1,011,000 soldiers. 

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404 tlFB OV 

unrnn 99 if E«9iiie nod^hl b^Te be^n nuire hM^ 
pie«8ed> had Murmt ben di4po«ed to iwst with Mer- 
gy in behalf of the allien* He felt, tberefer^ tbatf^ the 
thmie o( Tancired tottered under hm^ md raeUjr 
determined tb»t if; was better to brave a danger, than 
t9 allow tine to aee whelher it ipigbt not paaa m^uif. 
Murat had held intercouree with the Isle of Blha, 
and cannot but have known BMooaparte'a puxpoas 
when he left it ; but he ought, at the aaaae tine, tn^ 
hav^ oonaidcied, $im it hm favother-'in-law met with 
amj aueeata* his own dfiance wpidd beoone eaaeAtial 
to Attstria^whohadsndi ansae^ to retain the north 
e£ Italy, and moit have been, piusehased on hia own 

Instead, however, of waitipg fiur an cffortuni^ 
of profiting by Kapokon's attempt, which oould not 
have£uied to anive, Murat resolved to l^vow him- 
sei£into die &ay, and came for htmsflE Hofdaocd 
h]nis^:at the head <tf an aimy of 30,000 mon, and 
waduMit floqplaining his intentions, oooupied Bqme, 
the Pfpe and oaiidinals ^flying, before him ; thnat- 
€q[ied iibe whole line of dbe Po, which the Aiiatdan 
fcnrce was inadequate to maintain ; and, on 31st of 
March, addriessed a prodamation to all Italians, sum- 
nuwag them tp j^ m «rms fpir tiic Ubera^p9 of 
their country. It seemed now dear, that the pur- 
pose of this son of a pastry-cook aD|iouJ|^te4 to aut>- 
thing else, than the formation of Italy into one fstate^ 

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H&A Che ^^biiAng himself oh the throne of the Cmars^ 
Th^ pTfjichatmiion was mgiied Joachim NapoleoD> 
which last tmoe^ formerly hnd aside, he reassumsU 
Ht tins critidd period. The appeal to the Italians 
was in taki. The feuds among the petty statto are 
so numerous, thdr pretensienB so irrecondUble) and 
their weakness has made them so often theprey of 
iuccessiye conquerors, tiiait they found little iwviting 
M ihe proposal of umon^, Uttle arottsing in the sbusd 
of ihdependenlcew The pcodamatioii, therefbiiey had 
smaD efiect, except upon someoft3iesta^Bte.'At:BQf 
fogita. Muratmarchednorthward^ howerer^and being 
i&ttch idiiperior in numbers, dented the Austrian go^ 
neral Jffianchi, and occupied Modena and Florence. 
Murat's attitude Was now an alarming one to £u«- 
rope. If he should press forward into Lombardy, h« 
might co-operate with Buonaparte, now restored to 
his crown, and would probably be reinforced by thou- 
sands of the veterans of the Viberoy Eug^e^s army* 
Austria, therefore, became desirous .of peace, and of- 
fered to guarantee to him the possession of the king- 
dom of Naples, with an addition he had long coveted, 
the marches, namely, of the Roman See. Britain, 
at the same time, intimated, that, having made truce 
with Joachim at the instance of Austria, it "Cras to 
la^t no longer than his good intelligence with her 
tSiy. Murat refused the conditicms of the one power, ~ 
and neglected the remonstrances of jthe other. ^' Ft 

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406 ^ LIFX OF 

waa too kte,'' he aaid; <^Italy de8enmfreedfl«^ «i^ 
she 8hall be free*'" Hoce dosed all h<qpe6 of ^epoe; 
Austria declared war against Murat, and ei^edlted 
the reinforcements sent into Italy ; and Britain pre- 
pared a descent upon his Neapolitan dominions^ 
whece Ferdinand still continued to have many ad- 

Murat's character as a tactician was far inCerior 
to that which he deservedly bore as a soldier in 
the field of battle, and he was still a wotse pofiti- 
ciim jkhan a general. A repulse sustained in sfn at- 
tempt to pasa th^ Po nfear Occhio-bello, seems to 
have disooAcesrted th^ plan of his whole campaign, 
nor did he find himself able to renew the negotia- 
tions which he had rashly broken off. He seemed 
to adknowledge, by bis military movements, that he 
had attenqpted a scheme far beyond his stredgth and 
understanding. He retreated upon his whole line, 
abandoning Parma, Reggie, Modena, Florence, «nd 
all Tuscany, by which last movement he put the 
Austrians in. possession of the beat and shortest road 
,to Home. . In consequence, be was pressed on his re- 
treat in front and rear, and compelled to give battle 
near To]entino« It was^ /sustained for two days, (9d 
and Sdlof May>) but the Neiqwlitans could not be 
brought into dose action with the iron^nerved Aus* 
trians. . It was in vain that Murat placed fidd-pieoes 
in the. rear of his attacking columns, with orders to 

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fire grape on them should Aey retrteat ; in vain that 
he himself set the example of the most despmHe cou* 
rage. The Neapolitan army fled in dispersion and 
discomfiture. Their guns, ammunition^ treasure^ 
and baggage, became ^ spoil of the Austrians ; 
and in traversing the mountains of Abru2zo, Murat 
lost half his army without stroke of sword. 

The defeated Prince was pursued into his Neapoli- 
tan dominions, where he learned that the Calabrians 
were in insurrection, and that an English fleets eseittt* 
ing an invading army from Sicily, had appeared in 
the bay of Naples/ His army, reduced t6 s handftil 
by repeated skirmishes, in which he had behaved 
with suph temerity as to make his followen^ think 
he desired death, was directed to throw- its^into 
Capua. He himself, who had left Naples splendidly 
epparelled, according to his custom, and at the head, 
of a gallant aormy, now entered its gates attended 
oidy by four lancers, alighted at the palace, and ap- 
peared before the Queen, pale, haggard, disbevdled, 
with all the signs of extreme fatigue and dejection. 
His salutation was in the affecting words, ^< Ma* 
dam, I have not been able to find death.*^ He 
presently fouad, that remaining at Naples, which 
was about to fall into other hands, would compro- 
mise his liberty, perhaps his life* He took leave of 
his Queen, whom circumstances were about *to de^ 
prive of that title, cut oS his hair, and disguiping 

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|0t IiIFJt or 

Umself in a giey frack, esoa^i to the little irindof 
faoUu^ aad readied^ on Sflth May^ Cannes, wftieh 
liad reoehFed Napdeon a few weelo^ brfore* Hib wife, 
immediflitely afierwasda, aburmed by the tendinicy of 
thje Neapolitan mob to uksvatecfmi^ sonendered 
facaafelf ta Comioodoffe Caoi]^U of the TTaneiid6ni» 
and was reeeiiedi ott bead; Us( vesseL 

A eouner annennced Mnrat's arnvid in Fi*ance 
tOjBttonaj^aiie, who, ismMA^f sending conwihtian 
to hut unhappy seiativew ia aaid to^ have adked with 
bittBr scoxBy '' Whedier Naples mid: Francff! had 
inUde peace, wme^ the wn of IftMiT The am* 
swerseenbr^toimi^^ Aat: alduHlghrihe actemptas af 
jroadiifl» and Napoleoni coinddadi in^ tiia^, and in 
oAeveiraiHttstances, so^pvnetui^ aiito nlaike il!;evi- 
fbnt they< had been iMferttiien iai eonodist, yet dial 
tiheie hiad been ns preds^ eonrespondenite^. fkrkai 
anif' fonnal^ treaty ^ betwjscfr the> adyvcatfenroua fatothetaft 
Indeed Nqioleon^ at' a]I< times poati'iiely d^ied that 
be^llad the^ leasdr aoeeiisiont ta MuratVwHdfy-'edneect? 
edprqjeet^* {hoee des boudiera^) < andnaffinaied' tbai6it 
inas essentially iigurionffte hiim Nap«deon^8 aecoiinl 
wab, that! whei^ Iv^ retired to Elba?, betook i^eweH 
od? likirat^ by letter, forgiving^ all tfaaH had^ palsaed \»r 
twepn* them't' audi leodmmtsiidtng lb hir hrotfer*iin»> 
law to keep OB good t^ns witb the Anitf6riaiis/ and 
oilly to cbedc: them if he saw diem UUelyta adii^anbe 
cm* Vranof . H^^ offsfed aho ta guairantee hia hkig« 

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chmti . MuvAt retnimedi mi aKetiottite «aMw«r^ tag»- 
gii% ft) ptore bimaelf^ in his eoaduc^ tow«»d» N^po- 
Iboh, iitore an 4>lgect of fhf than resenlmenty dd- 
cfinfaigibj other gciafaBteethAn< the wosdctf the Era* 
]^t, and declaring that the aMdittea* of- hiil fo- 
tore life was' to make) an^nda; ler the {mat defctotieif. 
^' But it wa« Mnmtf a.&te lx> nim us e^tty ifsf^ ^eiH 
linaed Napolaen ; ^ once by decking against ud, 
md agun hj: wladviaedly taking! ai» pacti"" He eaf. 
eeunteiwb Auatm wkhout sufficient m^nci^ and. fm^ 
mgtAmdf left heir widurat^ tatf ooftnteifcidancuig 
^MPerin* Italy* Fr66i thit time it beoane impOfli. 
fliUe for Napdeeb to: negotiate, with het. 

Bvceiving tbe: lihnperos's account ais oosrecftirand 
aJlenring that the Ihiothera(-iii4.1aw {da^ed eabb hid own 
partf it w4s n(A to be supposed diat they acted ^tirely 
urithontiiu mutual understanding. Eadl^ indeedy was 
wilHng to rest on^ his own fortixfies^ well k^ioWing 
that his claim to the others assistance would depend 
chiefly upon his success^ and unwilling, besides, to 
reliaqfoish tibe piiTilflge of making peace, should it be 
necessary,«e die expense of disowobing thehindred en- 
toEpJse of his broAer^in^law. Notwithsti(Dding the 
splaidid deti^s which die MoniteUr gaVe of Murat^s 
undbitaking, while it yet seemed to promise success, 
itivcertrioi iltat Bnooavpai^teendeavouredtd ptopitiate 
Austifia, by the offer of abandotoinjg^ Murat; and that 
Maiigit^ cimldi his offers have obtained i' hearing af- 

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410 Lin x>r 

*ier the repulse of OccMo-bdlo, wm ftady once more 
to have deserted Napoleon, whose iiame he liad so 
lately reassumed. Involved in this maze of selfish 
policy, Murat had now the mortification to findhim- 
self contemned by Napoleon, When he might, indeed, 
be a burden, but could afford him no aid. Had he 
arrived at Milan as a victor, and extended a'ftiend- 
ly hand across the Alps, how different would have 
been his inception ! But Buonaparte refused to see 
him in his distress, or to permit him to come to Pa- 
ris, satisfied that the sight of his misery would be a 
bitter contradiction to the. fables which the Frendb 
journals had, for some time, published of his success. 
'Foueh6 sent him a message, much fike that wUdi 
enjoined the dishonoured ambassadors of Solomon to 
tarry at Jericho till their beards grew. It reoon- 
mended to Murat to remain in sednsion, till' the r^ 
collection of his disgrace should be abated by newier 
objects of general interest 

Buonaparte had ssmetimes entertained thoughts 
of bringing Murat to die army, but was afinod of 
shocking theFrench soldiers, who would have felt cEs- 
gust and horror at seeing the man who had betjrayed 
France^ " I did not,'' he said to his followers at St 
Helena, ^ think I could carry him through, andTyet 
he might have gained us the victory $ to diere were 
moments during the battle, (of Waterloo^) when to 
have forced two or three !of the English sqpnres 
might have insured it, and Murat was just the man 

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for the work. In leading a cbarge of cavalry^ never 
was there an officer more determined, more farave, ^ 
and more brilliant»^^ 

Murat was thus prohibited to come to the cotiH of 
the Tuilleries, where his defection might have been 
forgiven, but his defeat was an inexpiable offence. 
He remained in obscurity near Toulon, till his fate 
called him elsewhare, afl;^ the decisive battle of 
Waterloo.* From this episode, for such, however 
knportant it is, in the present history, we return tp 
France and our immediate subject. 

* It is well known that Joachim Murat, escapiqg with dif- 
ficulty from France, fled to Corsica, and might h&ve obtained per- 
mi86ion to reside upon parole in the Austrian territoriei, safe and 
unmolested* He nourished a wild idea, however, of recovering 
his crown, which induced him to reject these terms of safety, and 
invade the Neapolitan territories at the head of about twohtindred 
sen. That hit ^ole expedition might be an accurate parody on 
that of Bu(»laparte to Cannes, he published swaggering proclama- 
tions, mingled with a proper quantum of falsehood. * A storm dis- 
persed his flotilla. He himself, October 8th, landed at a little 
fiahing town near Monte Leone. He was attacked by the country 
people, fought a^ he was wont, but was defeated and made prisoner, 
tried by martial law, and condemned. The {Sicilian reyal family 
have shown themselves no forgiving race, otherwise mercy mig^t 
have been extended to one, who, though now a private person, 
had been so lately a king, that he might be pardoned for forgetting 
that he had no longer the power of mincing peaee and war witheut 
personal responsibiUty. Murat met his fate as became Le Bmm 
Sabreur^ ' He fastened his wife's picture on his breast, ^used io 
have his eyes bandaged, or to use a seat, received six bolls through 
his heart, and met the dea^ which he had braved with impunity 
in the thid^ of many conflicts, and sought in vain in so many 
others.. . '' 

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41t l«IF% OF 


^lumapart^s atten^ts to cortcilMe Britain, — Phi to atnf ojf 
Maria Louisa fails.^^JSUate qffidSH^ tH Praiwe with re- 
gard to Bwmapart^s tttumr"-^ Army — Me Jacfikmi — ^ 
Constitutionalists. — Fouehe andSieyes made Peers, — JFVw- 
dom of the Press granted^ and outraged, — IncUpendent cof^ 
duct of Compte^ editor of Le Censeur, — DisaffectUms 
among the lower orders-^Part of them attached to BuoiUh- 
parte — These assemble before Me TuiUeries^ and applaud 
Me Emperor, — Festival of the Federates, — New ConstUn^ 
tion^~B is received with diesatisJactiar^^Meeting of the 
Chan^ de Mai to ratify it-^Bwmeg^drU's Address ta Me 
Chambers of Peers andDqmties. — Thespirit qf Jacobinism 
predominant in Me latter. 

While Murat was struggling and sinking under 
Ms evil fate, Buonaparte was actively preparing for 
the approaching contest. His first attempt, as we 
hin^e already seen, was to conciliate the allied powdnfc. 
To satisfy Great Britab, be passed an act aboHsh- 
ing the slave trade, and made sdme regulations ccm- 
<;em1ng national education, in which he spoke highly 
^f the systems of Bell and Lancaster. These m^ 

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sures were fiiyom^bly construed l^ mvm of ovk le- 
gislators ; and that they were 8p, is a cQwptete pcopf 
that Buonaparte undeTistood the temper of pw oi^ 
tio;n. To suj^ipfie thi^t^ diirii>(( hU ten noftths of 
K^ireiiiept, his loind was ai^tively ei^ployed ufipo tba 
mnme^ of the negroes^ or the deplorable state of i^^ 
Qormce to irhicb bis own measvresj and the wa»t of 
early insti9}cti9i^f had reduced the youth of France, 
^Quld argue but litde acquaiatance wi^ his habits 
of ambition* To believe, on the contrary, that he 
would, at his first arrival in France, make any ap- 
pavmt Merifiees which might attract the good<-will of 
his powerful and dangerous neighbours, is more conn 
sonant with his schemes, his interest, pad his cha* 
racter^ The|»ath which he chose to gain the esteem 
of Britain, was by no means injudidous. The abo* 
lil^onof nie^gro slavery, and the instructian of the 
poor, have (to the honour of our l^alature).been 
frequent and anxious subjects of deliberation in the 
House of Commons ; and to mankind, whether in-r 
dividually or coUeotively) no species of flattery is 
move pleasing than that of assent and imitation. It 
is not a little to the credit of our coun^, that the 
most isyowed efbemy of Britain f trove to cultivate our 
good opinion, not by any oflers of national advantage^ 
but by iq^ajSng Uk oaneur in general measures of 
b»ievelcnce> apd attention to the benefit of aaeietyf 
Yet, upcm the whole, the diasMtev ef NJiqN>leoii waa 
too generally understood, and the purpose of his ap- 

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414 LIFfi OP 

parent approxiiiiatioii to BfMiBh leiitlBiaita^ l 
▼iovdy afl^cted, far acrfmg t»«iite a^^ general or 
aerioos impreflBioB in M^ fimmr. 

With AiBtria, Napifleon acted dMS&itmAj. He was 
«Mre tlttt no imprettion could be made on tlie fim- 
petor Frandsy or hiis minister. 'Mett^midi^ Md diat 
it bad become imposnUe^ tritfa tbefar consent^ lln^ bcf 
should fulfil bis promise of presenting' hk'wift and 
son to the people on the ChuspJii^Mm* Stratagem 
remained ^ontjrreaoonee; and some Frendimai at 
"^enna, with^ those in Maria LouisaV train, formed 
a scheme of carrying off the Empress of Franoeand 
her child. The plot was discovered and prevented, 
wad the most public steps w»e immediately taken^-to 
shew that Au^a considered all ties'with Buon ayaiis ^ 
as dissolved for ever. Maria Louisa, by her &th^*s 
commands, laid adde die arms and liveries of 'hen^ 
husband, hitherto dtepkrjred by her attendants and. 
carriages, and assumed those of the hovae of Aus- 
tria. Thk decisive event putan end to e^ery^^hepe 
so bng cherished by Napoleon, that he m%lit find 
some means of rq^ftttting the fifiendsh^p of his fi|die^- 
inJaw. ? : • 

Nor did the other powet« in Europe show ^Aem- 
selves mereaceessible to his mdiw&s^ He was, these- 
fore,Ted«ced to his own partialis in tltofVenoii na« 
tion, and those won over from odier paitn^ whom 
be m%ht be able to add to diem. 

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Tbe army , had sufficieiitly shown tbemf^lves to 
be his 4>wii, iqpon grounds which are easily .iq^reqiat- 
ed. The host of public official persoois^ . to whom 
the name under which they exercised their office 
was indiffisrent, provided the salary continued to be 
attached to them, fajrmed a large and influential body. 
And although we, who have never, by such muta- 
tipns of our political system, been put to the trial of 
either abandoning our means of living, or submitting, 
to tk ^ange of government, may, on bearing quoted 
nttM9, of respeoti^bility. and celebrity who adopted 
the latter alternative, exclaim against French versati- 
^^y» A glance at Britain during the frequent changes 
of the 17th century, may induce us to exchange 
die exclamation of poor France ! for that of poor 
hunan nature ! The professors of CromweU^s days^ 
w^ pkmaly termed themselves followers of Provi* 
deuee, becaiue they complied with . every change 
that came upf&tmott ; and the. sect of time-Qervers^ 
induding the honest patriot, who complained at the 
Restdralioii that he had comj^lied with seven forms 
of government during the year, but lost his (^ce l^ 
being too late of adhering to the last,*^woiild have 
inade in tbrir day a list equally long, and as enter- 
^i«alg, as tbe celebrated Dieiunmairede Giraueti^^ 
In matfeevs dependent upon a sudden fareeae of sai- 
^^ttent, tike mercuriid Fmndiman is more apt totiack; 
ftbout than the fUi^gmatib anddowlyomoved i^mi^^ 

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41ft LiFc. or 

of Britain ; but when the steady tade-miad «r m- 
terest pqB^iils fi>r « long «eMO«i ipen m ali oafciou 
end oountiies ahow the aame inpaiatifale dJapoeitLon 
to trim their aafla bf it i and in pditica aa ia. aaa^ 
lak, it will be well to foray againi|; Imag lad into 

Besides those nttaehed to Um bgr mfafeii^gpaati^ 
or from gratitude and respect for hia taleqtat Ni^pokoB 
had now among his adhetenta, or pther ,aUiea^ net 
as a matter of choice^ but of necessi^, th^ Jaeobin 
party, who had been obliged, though upwiUtngLy^lo 
adopt him as the head of a govenunent, which tbqr 
hoped to regenerate. Ta these were .to be Kdde4 a 
much larger and more rpBpeQt»h le body> who^ fiv 
from encomragifi^ • his attempt, had testified .llieflb 
^▼es anxious to oppose it to the .hist» hull whoi 
conceiving the cause of the Bourbons entixelj! lust^ 
were wilUi^ to adhere to SpjonapoKte^ on csmditr 
tion of obtaining a free oonstitmioi) for Frauoiv 
Many of thesjB acted, of course, on mixed ^notires.; 
but if we were asked fo form a definition of ^bmm, 
we should be induced to give t|ie same, whudi, h^* 
ing aside party spirit, we jihould ascribe to a ifight 
English Whig, whom ^^. coneeiFo to be a mmtiflf 
sense and moderation^ a lover of lava and. libeiB^f 
whose chirfr^ard to pastigular prinfeo isaA/jfinat^ 
Ilea is foimded on what he apprehcMbia boidif 
pnWo good ; and who di£bra Saom. f atfariUiL T*aq|i'. 

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8» Sttle^ lluit ttoe 18 BO gmat duiaoe of tfaair dii^ 
putiiig upon any important conjMkiptiMial quntias^ 
if il if fiarfy stated to both. Sodi^ we belmrt, is 
the#8breiiee betvijl i^iimal CoiistfautiQiiaiiiiB ani 
itojralfflla iti FTttttce; 4lid mdoafatodljr^ dhila aH 
ih^ iQefinga «f tbe latter induoed Atm «a«ya «ilii 
abirnvMoatbedMuoalioiiof^wa^ chevaonK 
iMltebaMmaiyof theftrmer, vlia, finao^daaifer 
to ibe nidepfiyidMee of FVan ce fiEm the iotef^cartian 
of ftrago ]^wflni» emoei?ed« that byadvucal^di^ 
eame ef Napoh»ii» Aey vete in aamedflgroenudcii^ 
t Tirtoe of seceisitj, aad phlyii^ u mdiftnM 
gaum vidi aa much sktU aa the eaids they held 
iMddpmatt« Many patriots and aeiniUeibca^'vv6a 
had i^Mied » i^gaid Sir liboty daring att Ae gia;^ 
verotteiatB md aU the aaardhiaa whieh ImisahB^HJ^ 
fi>r twenty yMfci» evdeaiwiiBBd now to ftane a $ph 
tern of fOTermiiwt^-graitQdafl wpon acnqechiag ItW 
fieado^b upo9 the dificaUea of BiMu^arte- Pftsa- 
ed iMt he waa from abroad, and unsappoieted at bona, 
8»Ta by the aol^ery, be would, ifacy eaneet¥ed, b^ 
tbiowa by neceadity und^ the peoteciBDn of the »a- 
tioQ, and obliged recrmt bia adhe iqi U by ooaa* 
flying with pubKc opinion, ffd adopting a free g^ 
venunent* Under tbia persuasion a gseat ipumbav ef 
SQch eharaetenl, more or leaa shaded by ettachiSMSBr 
^ « mo^rale and Ibnited raamifeliy, were p w fe m o l 
toaidcnowledgeBiionttpaite's i»€ataliKdbada«Ahasity, 
TOL. vm. 2 © 

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418 LIFE OF 

ia 80 far as he should be found to deserve it^ by eoH- 
eewimis on hU part. 

The condnct and arguments of another pdrti<^ of 
the friends of the constitution, rather resetnbled that 
which might have been adopted in Englantd by mo^ 
derate and int^gent Tories. Such men' were not 
prepared to resign the cause of their lawful monarchy 
because fortune had for a time declared aigliinM; faifn. 
They were of opinion, that to make a constilutioA 
permanent, the monarch must have his rights ascer- 
tawed and vindicated, as well as those of the people ; 
and that if a usurper were to be acknowledged npon 
any: terms, liowever plausible, so soon as h^ h^ cat 
bis way to success by his sword, the nation woitld'bs 
exposed to perpetual revolutions. Lobk, these men 
might argue^ had committed no crime whatever ; he 
was only placed in circumstances' which made some 
persons sUf^ose he might ppsstlKy be tempted to me- 
cUtale changes on the constitution, and on the cfaartet 
whidb confirmed it. Ther^ was meanness in deserting 
a good and'peaceable King at the coinihtod of a re- 
Yidted army, and a discarded usurper. They regret- 
ted that theb prince must be replaced by foreign bay- 
onets ; yet it was perbajMs better that a moderate and 
^peaeeful government should be restored even thus, 
iimMk that the French nation shbuld continue to-suf- 
far under the despotic tyranny of their own soldiery. 
Time reftfloners ridiculed the idea of a fi?ee consti- 
tution, which was to be generated betwixt Buona- 

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iiy tn bis former reign, never allowed free-* 
dom of thought, word, or action, to exist unrepressed^ 
and tbe old Revolutionists, who, during their period 
of power, could be satisfied with no degree of liberty 
until they destroyed every compact which holds civil 
society together, and made the country resemble one 
great bedlam, set on fire by the patients, who re- 
iBained dancing in the midst of the flames. 
' Such we conceive to hacve been the principles on 
which, wise and moderate men on either side acted 
during this difstract^d period. It is easy to suppose, 
that their opinions must have been varied by maiiy 
mote and less minute shades, arising from tempera* 
ment, predile<5tions, ptejudices, passions, and feel- 
ings of telf-interest, and that they were on either side 
liable to be pushed into exaggeration, or, according 
lo the word which was formed to express that exagge- 
ration, — into Ultraism. 

Meandme, Napoleon did all that was possible to 
conciliate the people^s affection, and to show himself 
sincerely desirous of giving France the free constitu- 
tion which he had promised. He used the advice of 
Carnot, Sieyes, and Fouche, and certainlyprofited by 
several of their lessons. He made it, notwithstanding, 
a condition, that Carnot and Sieyes should accept 
each a title and a seat in his House of Peers, to show 
that they were completely reconciled to the Imperial 
government ; and both the ancient republicans con* 
descended to exchange the bonnet rotige for a co« 

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iff Lirx or 

tOD^I} which, cansidering th«ir former opinioDs, Mio 
^ooMwhat avkwardly upon their farowg. 

But idthough the union of the ImperiBlists and po- 
pvbr pSTty had been cemented by mutual hatred of 
the Boorbottif Imdwas etill kepttogether by apprelien* 
fUMi of the Kiiig^s adherents within, and his allies on 
the ei:teriar9 seedsof discord were soon visible between 
the Empennr and the popular leaden. While the for* 
mer was ea(;sr once more to indi with full energy the 
foefiire be bad recovered* the latter were continually 
lamittding him, that he had only assumed it in a li-* 
mitad and restricted capacity, as the head of a firee 
gofsnunentf exercising) indeedt its executive powcy, 
blit under the restraint of a popular constitution* 
Napolew, in the frequent disputes iHbdch arose on 
tbeie important points, was obliged to concede to the 
dsmagognca tiit princiides which they insisted upon. 
But then, for the safety of the state, involved in £o* 
foign ai|d domestic dangers, he contended it was ne- 
Vessary to invest the clnef magistrate with a vigour 
befend the law, a dictatorial authority, tempfnrary in 
te duration* but nearly absolute in its extent, as had 
becsi the manner in the free states of antiquity, whea 
the r^nUic was in imminent danger. Camot and 
Fouch^, on the other hand, considered, that although 
1$ seemed natural, and might be easy, to confer such 
power at the ptesent momait, the resumption of it by 
Ae naliM, when it was once vested in the hands <^ 

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Baoni^Brte, woiild be a hopeless experim^ni* . Thi 
Emperor, therefore^ and his ministers, {McMdeA Uf 
theit ttktttual tasks with no muttial eonfldence $ but^ 
<m the donttary, with jealousy, thinly veiled by ift 
aiFectation of deference tm the side of Baomtpiitti/ 
and Inspect on that of his eoundllors. 

The very first sacrifice which the Empesor g&y^ ti# 
freedom provedan incotiVenicaifionetohis gc^narmfieift' 
This was nothing less than tb« freedilm of thb prMw^ 
It is tme^ that the inSuenoe of his minister of poUw 
managed by indirect means to get possesfeooti of liaioifei 
of the joumais; so that of sixty writer empb);^ 
geiierally^ if not constatitly, in peiiodicid oampdai^ 
tion^ five oidy were now found fHendly to the roynl 
cause. The otbei pens, which a few days before dd« 
scribed Napoleon as a species of Ogrc> vha had dew 
vonred the youth of Frodce^ ilow wroW him dsnm m 
hero and a liberator^ Still, when ibe hberty of Am 
press was once establii^hed, it was soon foun^^aqp^a^ 
Slide to prevent it firoili asserting ito right of nttmmtei 
ind there were fonnd atitbots to advocate the e«Mi 
of ih^ Bonrbonfif, from principlev ftatt^ ci^oe, ftoM 
the love of contradiction* 

. Napoleon, who always showed himself sensiisiU]^ 
alive to the public censure, established mspcotors ef 
the bookseHet 9. 1 he miniMr rf police^ a fi^hd of 
liberty, but, as Compte, tbo editot of Le Ctoikmit^ 
weatfy observed, mlf of Bbe^y after die flAkm off 

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422 LIFE OF 

Monaienr Fouche, used every art in his power to pre- 
yent the contagion of freedom from spreading too 
widely. This Monsieur Compte was a loud^and pro- 
bably a sincere advocate of freedom^ and had been a 
promoter of Buonaparte^s return, as likely to advance 
the good cause. Seeing the prevailing influence of the 
militiEuy ,he published some severe remarks on the un- 
due weight the army assumed in public affairs^ whidb, 
he hesitated not to say, was bringing France to the 
condition of Rome, when the empire was disposed of 
by the Praetorian guards. This stung to the quick 
—-the journal was seised by the police, and the mi- 
nister endeavoured to palliate the fact in the Moni- 
teur, by saying, that, though seised, it had been in- 
stantly restored. But Compte was not a man to 
be so silenced ; he published a contradiction of the 
official statement, and declared that his journal had 
not been restored. He was summoned the next day 
befio^se i||be prefect, alternately threatened and wheed- 
led, Mffbmdei at one moment with ungrateful rc- 
ttstance to the cause of the Emperor, and requested 
at the next to think of something in which govern- 
ment might serve him. Steeled against every proffer 
and entreaty, Compte only required to be permitted 
to profit by the restored liberty of the press ; nor 
could the Irorthy magistrate make him rightly under- 
stand that when the Emperor gave all men liberty 
to putdiflh what.pleased themselves, it was under the 

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tndt cGnditioD that it shoiiid also please the prefect 
and minister of police. Compte had the spirit to 
publish the whole aflair. . 

In the meanwhile^ proclamations of Louis, forbidU 
ding the payment of taxes, and announcing, the ar- 
riyal of IjSOOyOOO men under the walls of. Paris, 
covered these walls eyery night in spite of the police. 
A newspaper, called the Lil^f was also secretly bu| 
generally circulated, which advocated the royal cause. 
In the better classes of Society, where Buonaparte 
was feared and hated, lampoons, satires, pasquinades, 
glided from hand to hand, turning his person, minis- 
ler8» and government, into the most bitter ridicule. 
Others attacked him with eloquent invective, and de- 
manded what he had in common with the word Liber- 
ty, which he now pretended to cpnneqt with his reign. 
He was, they said, the sworn enemy of liberty, the 
assassin of the republic, the destroyer of French free* 
dom, which had been so dearly bought ; the show of 
liberty which he held, was a trick of legerdemain, 
executed under protection of his bayonets. Such was 
his notion of liberty when it destroyed the national 
representation at St Cloud— -Such was the freedom 
he gave when he established an oriental despotism in 
the enlightened kingdom of France — Such, when 
abolishing all free commynication of sentiments 
among ctitizens, and proscribing every liberal and 
philosophical idea under the nickname of Ideology? 

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"< Cw it be foii&itettp'' tUty coittiwed^ «« durt I^nm 
t«ii lad HdU ir» ii«l wTd iix«cmciUUe iHtm^ Am 
Buonaparte and Liberty ?-rTlle TSiy wofed Ft^ 
dtotur tb^mid^ '' wafrfHroforibed imdfvbia kw raq[>>> 
aiid oldy fit»t glftddeited tbo Mra of FfitiK^HiiM 
tw«lT^ jraai« of bwoliaUoQ a^d iatpmf ott Iho iuffj 
X99t9f9Mn of I^vi^ XVin»~Ab» miaetiMo m* 
p^tof r tbey e&plaiiiied/' wbon woidd boba^t ffj|k# 
9f V^tijf had wt tbo retom of Loi»i» famitiatiiw4 m 
irMb fir«odom and pe#90.'' TJieiyiritof difaffeetiopi 
l|Nmda»oilgeortainol|^H|e«of^ Th* 

mxk^^om^f (dam^ 4^ h^Uh^,) lo tomUM^ do*^ 
liqg jdi^ tw0 of the Frt(|iidt> i^ ia tho wAjf yoMi 
of tbo RoTolution, for Uieir oi^i^titiceii to tbt fmait^ 
jf^m now x^y^9tf» apdtof conr^o^ {J|iiDO0^«ifi| oil tlm 
.pide of tjb^ i»any they odpoittod* Tbey im^uifm 
aoBie loyal rhymer compos^ fyr tb^9 % $Qn§0* tbot 
bMirdon of which doBumded back U)e iMigy «# tb^ 
Cuber of Ghent. Xheyridiculad^scQl^odyfi&dfvoUML 
the comiaieeariis of poUco^ who e&d^voak^ t9.9^ 
|bi60 mnfiipal ^[prewsioiif of disa&ctioii ; (m^Koiwdfid 
the chief of their number, di^oed ^KpxmA }|m»a«id 
cibaatod tba obi^oiOQim burden, ym^, Fouch^ beioi^ 
{^ibfaaod to belie the new doctrine of Ubiwty of 
thought, speech^ and publication, hia iigmta waie «a? 

• OrniMti 9»u$ fUire pahe de ffaniSf equiFnIent in ^ronuiMiia-. 
UtmtiBniirtJPifede Ghent. 

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•UPlpeled to Imfe these Aintfotu imdktiirbed on HC- 
edUBtof their tN>Utical flcntitnents* . 

While Quonaparte was unaUe to (onn an interest 
^ tfae salpons, and found that even the dames des 
hiUiss wereheeoming dUcontented, he had upon his 
fjriim the miliua of th^e suburbs; those columns of 
pik^aen tt> fiitiMnis in the i^eyolutiony whose furious 
find rude ohAracter added to the terrors^ if not the 
dignity^ of his reign* Let us not be accused oS a 
wish to dqxreciato honest industry, or hold «p to 
estttempt the miseries of poverty. It il not the po- 
yur^, but the ignorance and the vice ef the rabble of 
fwat dtiesy wbieh render them always disagreeable* 
^i480metimeB terrible. They are entitled to proteo- 
tiAir fion^ the laws, and kindness from the goYern-* 
Htent I but he who would use them as political en- 
ginetf, invokes the assistance of a blalant beast with 
a thousand heads, wdl furnished with faiiga to tear 
fmi ibxmM to roar^ but devoid of tongue^ to speak 
iBcasott^ ears to hear it, eyes to see, or judgment to 
Comprehend it. 

^or a little time a&er Buonaparte's return, crowds 
of artiaalis of the lowest order assembled under the 
wuidovs of the Tuilleries, and demanded to see the 
Einperor, whom, on his appearance, they greeted 
with shouts, aa le Grand Entrepreneur^ or general 
emf^ojer of the class of artizans, in language whore 
(he eoarse phraseology of their rank was adome^ 

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4?6 LIFE or 

with such flowers of rhetoric as the Umes of tcnw 
had coined. Latterly, the numbers of this assembly 
were maintained by a distribution of a few sous to 
the shouters. 

Howerer disgusted with these degrading exhiU* 
tions, Buonaparte feU he could not dispense with 
this species offeree, and was compelled to institute a 
day of procession, and a solemn festi val, in favour i^ 
this^ description of persons, who, from the mode in 
which they were enrolled, were termed Federates. 

On 14th May, the motley and ill-arranged ranka 
which assembled on this memorable occasion, exhi* 
bited, in the eyes of the disgusted and frightened 
spectators, all that is degraded by habitual vice, and 
hardened by stupidity and profligacy. The porten- 
tous procession moi!^ on along the Boulevards to 
the court of the Tuilleries, with shouts, in which the 
praises of the Emperor were mingled with imprec»- 
tions, and with the revolutionary songs (long silen- 
eed in Pari8),-*-.'the Marseilloise Hymn, the Carmag- 
nole, and the Day of Departure. The appearance of 
the men, the refuse of manufactories, of work-houses, 
of jails ; their rags, their filth, their drunkenness ; 
their ecstasies of blasphemous rage, and no less blas- 
phemous joy, stamped them with the character of the 
willing perpetrators of the worst horrors of the Re- 
volution. Buonaparte himself was judged by closo 
observers to shrink with abhorrence from tlie assent 

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Wy he had himself cpnvok^. His guards were un- 
der arms, and the field artillery loaded, and turned 
on the Place de Carrousel, filled with the metley 
crowd, who, from the contrasted colour of -the corp- 
porters and charcoal-men, distinguished in 4he group, 
were facetiously called his Gray and Black Mous- 
quetaires. He hasted to dismiss his hideous minions, 
with a sufficient distrihution of praises and of liquor. 
The national guards conceived themselves insulted 
on this occasion, because compelled to give their at- 
tendance along with the fecbrates. The troops of the 
line felt for the degraded character of the Emperor. 
The haughty character of the French soldiers had 
kept them firom fratemiziisg with the rabble, even in 
the cause of Napoleon. They had been observed, on 
the march from Cannes, to cease their cries of Vive 
rEmpereuVy when, upon entering any considerable 
town, the shout was taken up by the mob of the 
place, and to suspend their acclamations, rather than 
mingle them with those of the pequins^ whom they 
despised. They now muttered to each other, on see- 
ing the court which Buonaparte seemed compelled 
to bestow on these degraded artisans, that the con- 
queror of Marengo and Wagram had sunk into the 
mere captain of a rabble. In short, the disgraceful 
character of the alliance thus formed between Buo- 
paparte and the lees of the people, was of a cature 
incapable of being glossed over even in the flattering 

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4£ft Lit K 09 

pages of the Moniteur, irhich, amidst a AonrialiiDg 
description of this memorable procession, was com^ 
pelled to admit, that, in some places, the name of 
the Emperor was incongruously mingled with ex« 
pressions and songs, which recalled an era wafortU'- 
nately too famous. 

Fretted by external dangers and internal disturb* 
ances, and by the degrading necessity of appearing 
eveiy night before a mob, who familiarly bailed him 
as Pire la Yiolette^ and, abo^e all, galled l>y the sug« 
gestions of his philosophical couneiUor$, who, axnofig 
other innovations, wished him to lay aside the styl« 
of Emperor for that of Prcndent, or GtaaKl Geneii^ 
of the Republic, Napoleon, to rid himself at once of 
occupations offensive to his haughty dispositioDv witb^ 
drew from the Tuilleries to the more retired pal«:0 
of the Elysee Bourbon, and seemed on a sudden to 
become once more the Emperor he had been before 
his abdication. Here he took into his own hands^ 
with the assistance of Benjamin Con6tant> and od^ff 
statesmen, the constrnction ef a new constitutioii. 
Their system included all those checks and vegula« 
tions which are understood to form the essence of a 
free government, and greatly resembled that grant- 
ed by the Royal Charter.* Neverthelesa^ it was tx- 
|remely ill received by all parties^ but especially by 

t The folbwing in an abridgement of ha declarationfl r— 
Tli« legf ilativ* power retiidfts in the Emperor and two ClMimberi. 

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those who expected from Napoleon a cdnstiiution 
iiH»'e free than that which they had dissolved by 
driving Louis XV III. from the throne. There were 
other grave exceptions stated against the scheme of 

First, The same objection was stated against 
this Imperial grant which had been urged with so 
much veheibence against the royal charter, namely, 
that it was not a compact between the people and 

Tbe Chamber of Peers is hereditary, and the Enoperor names 
diem. Their number is imlimitmU 

Tbe Second Cham))er is elected by the people, and is to consist 
^ 629 members-^none are to be under 25 years. The President 
is ap^inted by the members, but approved of by the Emperor. 

Membem t* be paid at the rate settled by the Constituent Aa- 

It is to be renewed every five years. 

The Bmperor may prorogue, adjourn, or dissi^e the House of 

Sittings to be public. 

The Electoral Colleges are maintained. 

Land tax and direct taxes to be voted opily for a year ; indirect 
may be for several years. 

No levy of men for the army, nor any exchange of territory, 
hot by a law* 

Taxes to be proposed by the Chamber of Representatives. 

Ministers to be responsible. 

Judges to be irremovable* 

Juries to be established. 

Right of petition is established— freedom of worship — inviola* 
faiUty of property. 

The last article says, Uiat '^ the Preach people declare that they 
4o not mean to delegate the power of restering the Bourbons, or 
any prince of that fam^y, even in case of the f^xdiuion of the Im- 
perial dynasty.** 

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430 LIFE o^ 

the sovereign, in which the former caUed the littei^ 
to the throne under certain conditions, hot* leoDg^ 
nition by the govereigii of the liberties of the people; 
The meetii^ of the Champ de Mai had indeed been 
snmiBoned, (as intimated in the decrees from Lyons,) 
chiefly with the purpose of forming and adopting the 
new constitution $ but, according to the present sys- 
tem, they were only to have the choice of adopting 
4>r rejecting that which Napoleon had prepared for 
them. The disappointment was great among those 
philosophers who desired ** bctterbread than is made 
of wheat ;*" and could not enjoy liberty itself, unless 
it emanated directly from the will of the people, and 
was sanctioned by popular discussion* But Napoleon 
was determined that the convention on the 10th 
May should have no other concern in the constitu- 
tion, save to accept it when offered. He would not 
intrust such an assembly with the revision of the 
laws by which he was to govern. 

Secondly, This new constitution, though present- 
ing an entirely new basis of government,, was pub- 
lished under the singular title of an " Additional 
Act to the Constitutions of the Emperor,'" and there- 
by constituted a sort of appendix to a huge mass of 
unrepealed organic laws, many of them inconsistent 
with the Additional Act in tenor and in spirit. 

Those who had enjoyed the direct confidence of 
the Emperor while the treaty was framing, endea- 
voiu-ed to persuade themselves that Napoleon meant 

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ftifly by France, yet confessed they had found itdiffi- 
colt to enlighten his ideas on the subject of a limit- 
ed monarchy. They felt, that though the Emperor 
might be induced to contract his authority, yet vh a 
remsuned in his own hand would be wielded as arbi- 
trarily as ever; and likewise that he would never re* 
gard his ministers otherwise than as the immediate 
executors of his pleasure, and responsible to himself 
al^me. He would still continue to transport his wfaote 
bhancery at his stirrup, and transmit pealed orders to 
be executed by a minister whom he had not consult-:- 
ed on their import.* 

The Royalists triumphed on the publication of 
this Additional Act c " Was it for this,^ they said, 
^< you broke your oaths, and banished your monarch, 
to get the same, or nearly similar laws, imposed on 
you by a Russian ukase or a Turkish firman, which 
you heretofore enjoyed by charter, in the same man- 
ner as your ancestors, called freemen by excellence, 
held their rights from their limited sovereigns ; and 
for this have you exchanged a peaceful printie, whose 
very weakness was your security, for an ambiticrus 
warrior, whose strength is your weakness ? For this 
have you a second time gone to war with all Europe 
— ^for the Additional Act and the Champ de Mai P'' 


• Letters from Paris^arritten during the last re%n of Napoleon^ 
ol L p. 197* * 

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4at . urter 

The vaofe detemined HcpoMieaM, beridaff tkor 
{Ntflicular objectioiu to an Upper Home, vliuh Ae 
Emperor could fill with bu own minions, ao at e£- 
feetoally to control the repreaeatatiTet of the poa- 
ple, fimsd the proposed confdtotioii atterly deToid 
of the salt which should iwrour it Thero iras ne 
udmowledgment of abstract principles; no disser- 
tation ameeming the rights of goremment and Uie 
goyemed ; no metaphyaical discussians on the art* 
gin (^ laws $ and thej were m much mortified and 
disappoiated as the aealot who hears a discomnse on 
practical morality, when he expected a sermon oti 
the doctrinal points of thedlogy* The unfortunate 
Additional Act became the subject of attack atod 
raillery on all sides ; and was esteemed to possew in 
so alight a degree the principles of duraUlity, that a 
bookseller being asked fi>r a copy by a customer, re^ 
plied. He did not deal in periodietU publieaiione.^ 

Under these auspices the Champ de Mai was 
(^>ened9 and that it might be in all respects incon- 
gruous, it was held on the 1st of June. Deputies 
were supposed to attend from idl departments, not, as 
it bad been latterly arranged, to canvass the new 

• It wsi ral9NCBd, lUDtvidutaiidiag, with the itttnl soocms, to 
the Electoral hediei, whose good-nature ne\'er leftued a constita- 
ikm ^Uch was reoommeftded by the existing goyemment. The 
namber of those who gare their vcteK iMra more than a niiBion ; 
being scarce a tenth part, however of tM^ whehadf asUac«UoSft 

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NAPOLEOlt BtrdiirAPARTE. 4^i 

cooititBtlan^ but to 8W<*slr to obsef'^ it ; andiidt to 
Ttcbine tbe Eiil|M^d Maria hoiii^Ukikd hdt ^od ^ 
tim pledge of 'tpreiity y^rits' ^k(i^, but to b^lr^d 
thefata^eagl^ tlie id^iail 61 instant and bloody 
Var; dbttibtited by tb6 £iiilpen>^ t6 the soldiers. 

Ntfpoledii and bis brothejhs^ v^btAiH 6e had obcd 
metro coltoet^ ardt^iKd biiti, figili^d, hi quaint ajldj 
fantastic I'dtes) iii the Ch^tUp d^ Mki ; he' as Em- 
pemty Sind th^y ^ ptiriteB ot tbe blood,— anothef 
sdbjti6tof disotot^t ttitheR^dl>Keins. Theref- 
port of the totes w«s mad6, the electotA thvorei to 
th« Addiliotiftl Act, the drairis tilled, the trumpets 
floaridhed; the cannot thuiliAefred. Bat the ^6cl^^ 
matiod^ ^exe kw AtA foiled. Th6 ]lttilpeifor i^ee^- 
^d to' vie\V tbe ^c^edO ^s an etttpty pageant, until he 
wik' summoned to the delrveiy of the Ragles to the 
Variotrs new-raised i^giments ; and then, aniid th^ 
embkidB of ptLsity aitid, sis might be hoped, the ^ugt:^i 
ritfs of fntore i^ictories, be was himself again. But, 
on the i;^hoIe, the Champ de Mai, was, in the lan- 
gtiiige of I'slris, unepiice tombSe^ a condemned farce, 
Wbi6h ^as soon to be succeeded by a bloody tnigedy. 

The ttfe^ting of the Chambers was the next sub- 
ject of interest. Tlie Chamber of Peers did not pre- 
sent , like tbe correspondingassembly in Britain, mem- 
bers of long descent, ^mple fortunes, independence of 
principle, and education corresponding to their rank 
of hereditary legislaiflv. It consisted in the ptincel^ 

VOL. VIII. .2k 

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434 LIFK OF 

of Nftpdeon's blood royal, to whom was added Ln^ 
cien^ long estranged from his brother^s councils, bat 
who now, instigated by fraternal afiection, or tired 
of literary leisure, having presented his epic poem 
to a thankless and regardless public, endeavoured 
to save his brother in his present diBElculties, as by 
his courage and presence of mind he had assisted 
him during the revolution of Brumaire. There 
were about one hundred other dignitaries^ more 
than one half of whom were military men, including 
two or three old Jacobins, such as Sieyes and Car- 
not, who had taken titles, decorations, and rank, 
inconsistently with the tenor of their whole life. 
The rest had been the creatures of Buonaparte's 
former reign, with some men of letters devoted to 
his cause, and recently ennobled. This body, which 
could have no other will th2^l that of the Emperor, 
was regarded by the Republicans and Constitution- 
alists with jealousy, and by the citizens with con- 
tempt. Buonaparte himself expressed his opinion 
of it with something approaching the latter senti- 
ment. He had scarce formed his tools, before he 
seems to have been convinced of their inefficacy, 
and of the little influence which they could exercise 
on the public mind.^ 

• The punsters of Paris selected l^a Bedoyere, Drouot, Ney, 
and L'AUemand, as the Quaire pain^ides {perfide9)y while Van- 
damme and others were termed' t \f im m%i8 ^fflU. 

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It was very difierent with the second Chamber, 
in which were posted the ancieotmen of the Revo- 
luttoD) and their newer associates, who lodked for- 
ward with hope that Baonaparte might yet assume 
the character of a patriot sovereign, and by his mi- 
litary talents save France for her sake, not for his 
own. The latter class comprehended many men, 
not only of talent, but of virtue and public spirit ; 
with too large a proportion, certainly, of those who 
vainly desired a system of Republican liberty, 
which so many years of bloody and fruitless expe- 
riment should have led even the most extravagant 
to abandon, as inconsistent with the situation of the 
country, and the genias of the French nation. 

The disputes of the Chamber of Representatives 
with the executive government commenced on June 
4th, the first day of their sitting; and, like those of 
theirpredecessorS) upon points of idle etiquette. They 
chose Lanjuinais for their president ; a preferment 
which, alighting on one who had been the defender 
of liouis Xyi.,the active and determined resister of 
the power of Robespierre, and especially, the states- 
man who drewupthe list of crimes in consequence of 
which Napoleon's forfeiture had 'been declared in 
1814,*could not be acceptable to the Emperor. Na. 
poleon being applied to for confirmation of the elec- 
tion, referred the committee for his answer to the 
chamberlain, who, he slated, would deliver it the next 
day by the page in waiting. The Chamber took fire, 

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and Napoleon was compelled to return an immedi- 
ate tboDgh reluctant approval of their choice* The 
next remarkable ihdication of the temper of the 
Chamber, was the ewiempore effusion of a deputy, 
named Sibuet, against the use of the epithets of 
Duke, Count, and other titles of* honour, in the 
Chamber of Representatives. Being observed to 
read his invective firom notes, which was contrary 
to the form of the chamber, Sibuet was silenced 
for the moment as out of order ; but the next day, 
or soon afterwards, having got his speech by heart, 
the Chamber was under the necessity of listemng 
to him, and his motion was got rid of with -difficuK 
ty. On the same day, a list of the persons appoint* 
ed to the peerage was demanded from Camot, in his 
capacity of minister, which he declined to render 
till the session had commenced. This also occa- 
sioned much uproar and violence, which the presi- 
dent could scarce silence by the incessant peal of 
his bell. The oath to be taken by the deputies 
was next severely scrutinized, and the Imperialists 
carried with difficulty a resolution, that it should 
be taken to the £mperor and the constituticm, with- 
out mention of the nation. 

The second meeting, on June 7^h> ^^ ^ t«. 
multuous as the first. A motion was made by Fe- 
lix Lepelletier, that the chamber should decree 
to Napoleon the title of Saviour of hid Country. 
This was resisted on the satisfactory ground, that 

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tiiexCoiintry was not yet saved ^ and the Chamber 
passed to the order of the day by acclamation. 

Notwithstanding these open intimations of the re- 
viving spirit of Jacobinism, or at least of oppoaition 
to the Imperial sway, Napoleon's situation obliged 
him fo(r the time to address the unruly spirits which 
he bad caUed together, with the confidence wbich^it 
was said necromancers foundit needful to use towards 
tbe daiigeroui) fiends whom they had evoked. His 
aildrefis to both Chambers was sensible, manly, and 
becoming Jus sittiaticn. He surrendered, in their 
presence, all his pretensions to absolute power, and 
profes&ed bimself a friend to liberty ; demanded 
the assiataiice of the Chambers in matters of fi- 
nance^ intimated a desire of some regulations .to 
check the license of tbe press, and required from 
the representatives an example of cmifidence, ener- 
gy, and patriotism, to encounter the dangers to 
which the country was exposed. The Peers replied 
in corresponding terms. Not so the second Cham- 
ber 9 for, notwithstanding the utmost efforts of the 
Imperialiats, their reply bore a strong tincture of the 
sentiments of the opposite party. The Chamber 
promised, indeed, their unanimous support in sepel* 
ling the foreign en^ny ; but they aimounced their 
intention to take under their consideration the can-. 
sdtution, as recognised by the Additional Act, and 
to point ouit its delects and imperfections, with then^s^ 

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436 LIFE OF 

cesMiry remedies. They also addedamoderatinghinty 
directed against the fervour of Napoleon's ambition. 
'' The nation," they said, ** nourishes no plans of 
aggrandizement. Not even the will of a victorious 
prince will lead them beyond thp boundaries of self- 
defence/' In his rejoinder, Napoleon did not suffer 
these obnoxious hints to escape his notice. He en- 
deavoured to school this refractory assembly into 
veneration for the constitution, which he declared 
to be ^^the pole-star in the tempest ;" and judicious- 
ly observed, '< that there was tittle cause to prou 
vide against the intoxications of triumph, when they 
were about to contend for existence. He stated the 
crisis to be imminent, and cautioned the Chamber to 
avoid the conduct of the Roman people in the lat- 
ter ages of the empire, who could not resist the 
temptation of engaging furiously in abstract discus- 
sions, even while the battering-rams of the common 
enemy were shaking the gates of the capital.^ 

Thus parted Buonaparte and his Chambers of 
Legislature ; he to try his fortune in the field of bat- 
tle, they to their task of altering and modifying the 
laws, and inspiring a more popular spirit and air into 
the enactments he had made, in hopes that the dic- 
tatorship of the Jacobins might be once again sub- 
stituted for the dictatorship of the Emperor. AH 
men saw that the Imperialists and Republicans only 
waited till the field was won, that they might contend 

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for the booty ; and so little was the nation disposed 
to sympathize with the active, turbulent^ and bus- 
tling demagogue^ by whom the contest was to be 
maintained against the Emperor, that almost all 
predicted with great unconcern their probable ex- 
pulsion, either by the sword of Buonaparte or the 

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440 I.IF« QF 


Preparations to renew the War. — Positions of the AEHed 
Forces, amounting in whole to One Million of Men. — Bvo- 
naparte^s Force not more than 200,000. — Conscription not 
ventured tgwn.-^National Guard — their reluctance to serve, 
— Mas^ Provinces hostile to NapoleoiCs cause. — FauchPs 
Report makes known the wide^spread discffection. — Bmar- 
rection in la Vendee quelled. — Military resources of France. 
— NapoUotCs Plan ofCkxmpaign. — Paris placed in a com- 
plete state of defence. — Tf^ Frontier'Passes and Towns 
fortified also. — Generals who accept Command under Na- 
poleon. — He announces his purpose to measure himself with 

We are now to consider the preparations made for 
the invasion of France along the 'whole eastern fron- 
tier-— the means of resistance which the talents of 
the Emperor presented to his numerous enemies — 
and the internal situation of the country itself. 

While the events now commemorated were pass- 
ing in France, the allies made the most gigantic 
preparations for the renewal of war* The Chancellor 

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of the Exchequer of Eoglgod had achieved a loan of 
thirty-aix milUops, upon terms surprisingly ixu)de« 
X^te, and the command of thi9 treasure had put the 
whfc^^ troops of the coalition into the most active 

The se^ of the Cgngress had been removed from 
Vienna to Frankfort, to be near the theatre of wax. 
The ISmperors of Russia and Austria, with the King 
Qf iPv^m^, had once more placed themselves afc the 
}k(&^ q{ their respective armies. The whole eif stem 
frmti^ w«« menaced by inuaense forces. One huop. 
dri^ and fifty thousand Anstxians, disengaged from 
M9raA» might enter France.through Switzerlaod,.the 
CantQPS baying acceded to the coalition. An army 
equalinistrengthmenacedthehigher Rhine. Sch wart, 
zevherg commanded the Ajustrians in chief, having 
under him Bellegarde, and Frimont, Bianchi, and 
Vincent. Twohundred thousand Russians were press- 
ing towards the frontiers of AlsacCv The Archduke 
Constantine was nominated Generalissimo, but Bar* 
clay de Tolly, Sacken, Langeron, &c. were the effi* 
cknt coiQ«Q0nders. One hnndred and fifiy thoussmd 
Prussians, under Blucher, occupied Flanders^ and 
iKcre united with ab/out eighty thousand troops, Bn* 
tish, or in British pay, under the Duke of Welling- 
toUi. There wecealsplobe reckonedtbe contingents of 
the diflferent princes of Giermany, so that the allied 

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442 LIFE OF 

forces were grossly compated to amount to upward? 
of one million of men. The reader must hot^ how- 
ever, suppose that such an immense force was, or 
could be^ brought forward at once. They were ne- 
cessarily disposed on various lines for the conveni- 
ence of subsistence, and were to be brought up 
successively in support of each other. 

To meet this inmiense array, Napoleon, with his 
usual talent and celerity, had brought forward means 
of suiprising extent. The regular army, diminished 
by the Bourbons, hadybeen, by calling out the reti- 
red officers, and disbanded sddiers, increased from 
something rather under 100,000 men, to double that 
number of experienced troops, of the first quality. 
But this was dust in the balance ; and the mode of 
conscription was so intimately connected withNapo- 
leon^s wars of conquest and disaster, that he dared 
not propose, nor would the Chamber of Representa- , 
tives haye agreed to have recourse to the old and 
odious resource of conscription, which, however, 
Buonaparte trusted he might still find effectual in 
the month of June, to the. number of 300,000. In 
the meantime, it was proposed to render moveable, 
for active service, two hundred battalions of the 
National Guard, choosing those most fit for duty, 
which would make a force of 112,000 men. It was 
also proposed to levy as many Federates, that is, vo- 

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limteers of the lower orders, as could be lHX>ught to- 
gether in the different departments. The levy of the 
National Guards was ordered by an Imperial decree 
of 5th April 1815, and commissioners ^ chiefly of the 
Jacobin faction, were sent down into the different 
departments, Buonaparte being well pleased at once 
to employ them in their own sphere, and to get rid 
of their presence at Paris. Their efforts were, how- 
ever, unable to excite the spirit of the country; for 
they had either survived their own energies, or the 
nation had been too long accustomed to their mode 
of oratory, to feel jAtkj responsive impulse. Liberty 
and fraternity was no longer a rallying sound, and 
the sunmions to arms, by decrees as peremptory 
as those relating to the conscription, though bear- 
ing another name, spread a general spirit of disgust 
through many departments of the north of France. 
There and in Brittany, the disaffection of the in- 
habitlUits appeared in a sullen, dogged stubbornness, 
rather than in the form of active resistance to Na- 
poleon's decrees. The National Guards refused to 
parade, ^nd, if compelled to do so, took every op- 
portunity to desert and return home ; so that it of- 
ten happened that a battalion, which had mustered 
six hundred men, dwindled down to a fifth before 
they had marched two leagues. 

In the departments of La Garde, of the M arne, 
and the Lower Loire, the white flag was displayed. 

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444 LIFK OF 

aqd the txiee of liberty, which b^ been replanted 
in i^any places after the political regeneration of 
Buonaparte was cat down. The public mind in 
many provinces displayed itself aa highly anfa.yoar- 
able to Napoleon. 

A report, drawn up by Fouche, stated in high- 
coloured lao^age the general disaffection* Napo* 
leon always considered this conmiunication as pub« 
lished with a view of prejudicing his affairs ; and as 
that versatile statesnjan was already in secret cor- 
respondence with the allies, it was probably intend- 
ed as much to encourage the Royalists, as to dis- 
may the adherents of Napoleon. Tiii3 arch-intriguer, 
whom, to use an expression of Junius, treachery it- 
self could not trust, was at one moment neiarly 
caught in his own toils ; and although he carried thfO 
matter with infinite address. Napoleon vyouU have 
made him a prisoner, or caused hijfx to he shoi:, but 
for the intimation of Cainot, thajt if h^e did so, bitf 
own reign would not last an hour hmgjer.* 

* The pMticiilan of this intrigue thow with what audacity, and 
at what rkk, Fonchtf waded^ ewam, or dired, araimg the tknohled 
waters which weoe hifl element. An agcmt of Fiinop Metteien|i|i k^ 
been diapatched to Paris, to open a communication with Foucbd on 
the part of the Austrian government. Falling under 8U8piclon,from 
some banking transaction, ibia ^eaan .waadenouaoed to B uo naperte 
as a suspicious person, and arrested, by his interior poMce, ^hich, as 
there cannot be too much precaution in a weH- managed state, watch- 
ed, and were spies upon^ the geiieral>polioetmder Fouoh^j The agent 

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Thus Buonaparte was already in a great measure 
reduced to the office of GenemUssimp of the State ; 

was brought before Buonaparte, who threatened to oaiue hhn be 
shot, to death on the very ^pot, unless he told him the whole truth. 
The man then confessed that Mettemich sent him to Foucii^, to 
reqaeit the latter to send a seeore agent to BtUe, to mejet with a 
confidential person on the part of the Austrian minister, whom 
Fouche*s envoy was to recogni^se by a peculiar sign, which the in- 
formier also made known. '* Have you fulfilled your conjmission so 
far 48 coQoems Foach^ ?*' sMd the 15mperor.— ^* I have^" mtmeV' 
ed the Austrian agent^-*' And has he dispatched any one to 

Bale ?'* <* That I cannot tell. "—.The agent was detained in a 

•ecrei prison. Baron Flenry de Ghaboulon, an au^Mr, was in- 
stantly dispatched to Bale, to represent the agent whom Fouchd 
should have sent thither, and fathom the depth and character of 
the intrigue betwixt the French and Austrian ministers. Fouch^ 
soon discovered that the f^;ent sent to him by Mettemlch was 
missing, conjectured his fate, and instantly went to seek an audi» 
enoe of the Emperor. Having mentioned other matters, he seem, 
ed to reeoHeet himsetf, and begged pardon, with affected uncon- 
oern, for not having previously: mentioned ui. affair of some conse- 
qoence, which, nevertheless, he had forgotten, amid the hurry of 
business. ^^ An agent had come to him from die Austrian govem- 
nient,'' he said, '^'requesting him to pend a-^nfideutial. person to 
BiUe, to a correspondent of Mettemlch, and. he now came to ask 
whether it would be his Mf^ty*s pleasure that he should avail him', 
self Axf the opening,, in cwiei^ to Seam th« secret purposes* of tlte eoe- 
my*** Napoleon was jaotc deceived by thif trick. There wereseve^' 
ral mirrors in the room, by which he could peroetve and enjOy hie 
perfidious mimsler^ ill.oonoeftled embarrMmenf.' /* Montieun 
Foach^'* he said, ^^ it a^y he daagefyms to treat me as a fool : I 
have your agent in safe custody, and penetrate your whole intrigue. 
flave you sent to BAle ?'*— " No, Sire.»'— " The hi^)^ for you : 
had yoii done so^' you should.have died.** — ^Fleutywaa unable to ex. 
traet anything of oonsequence from Werner, the confidant of Met- 
temlch, who met him at B^ The Austrian seemed td expect com- 

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446 Lirx OF 

aad there were not wanting many , who dared to en- 
treat him to heal the woands of the country by a 
second abdication in fiivonr of his son^— « measure 
which the popular party conceived might Avert the 
impending danger of invasion. 

In the meantime^ about the middle of May, a 
short insurrection broke out in La Vendee, under 
De Autechamp, Suzannet, Sapineau, and especially 
the brave La Hoche-Jacquelein. The war was net. 
ther long nor bloody^ for an overpowering force was 
directed against the insurgents, under Generals La- 
marque and Travot. The people were ill prepared 
for resistance, and the government menaced them 

nranications from Fouchi, without being prepared to make them. 
Fleary touched on the pUin of assaasinating Buonaparte, whidi 
Werner rejected with hwror, as a thing not to be thought of by 
Metternich or the alMes. They appointed a second meeting, but 
in the interim, Fonche made the Austrian aware of the dieooveiy, 
and Baion Fleury, on his second journey to Bale, found no Mr. 
Werner to meet him. 

Buonaparte gives afanost the same account of thds intrigue in his 
8t Helena Conrersations, as Fouoh^ in his Memoirs. But Napo- 
leon does not mention Garnot's interpositioa to prevent Fouch^ 
from being put to death without process of law. /' You may shoot 
Fonch^ to-dfty,** said the M Jacobin, ** but to-morrow- you will 
cease to reign. The people of the Revolution permit you to retain 
the throne only on condition you respect 'their liberties. ' They 
account Foudi^ one of their strongest guarantees. If he is guilty, 
he must be legally proceeded against." Buonaparte, therefore, 
gaining no proof against Fouch^ by the misaion of Fleury, was 
fain to shut his eyes on what he saw but too well. 


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with the greatest severities, the instructions of Car* 
not to the military having a strong tincture of his 
ancient edacatidn in the school of terror. Yet the 
Chamber of Deputies did not in all respects sanction 
the severities of the government. When a member, 
called Leguevel, made a motion for punishing with 
pains and penalties the royalists of the west, the as- 
sembly heard him with patience and approbation 
propose that the goods and estates of the ^volters 
(whom he qualified as brigands, priests, and royal- 
ists,) should be confiscated ; but when he added, 
that not only the insurgents themselves, but their 
relations in the direct line, whether ascendants or 
descendants, should be declared outlaws, a general 
exclamation of horror drove the orator from the 

After a battle near La Roche Serviere, which 
cost the brave La Koche-Jacquelein his life, the re- 
maining chiefs signed a capitulation, by which they 
disbanded their followers, and laid down their arms, 
at the very time when holding out a few days would 
have made them acquainted with the battle of Wa- 
terloo. Released* from actual civil war, Napoleon 
now had leisure to prepare for the external conflict* 

The means resorted to by the French government, 
which we have already alluded to, had enabled Car- 
not to represent the national means in a most re- 
spectable point of view. By his report to the two 

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448 LIFK OF 

Chambers^ he stated^ that on Ist April 1814, the 
army had consisted of 450,000 men, who had been 
reduced by the BourbonJB to 175,00ft Since the re- 
tain of Napoleon, the namber bad been inci^eased 
to 375,000 coinbatants of erery kind ; and before 
tb^ 1st of Atignst, was expected to amount to half 
a million. The Imperial Goaxds, u^bo were teiin- 
ed the country'^s brightest bmament in time of 
peace, and its best bulwark in time of War, were 
recruited to the namber of 40,0(X) men. 

Stupendous efforts hadrepaified, the report dtttted^ 
the losses of the ariillery daring the three disas- 
troua years of 1812, 1813, 1814. Store-s, ammani- 
tion, arms of every kind, were said to be provided 
in abnndiance. The remounting ot the cavalry had 
been accomplished in such a manner as to excite the 
ihirprise of every one. Finally, there Was, a« a body 
in reserve, the whole mass of Sedentary National 
Guards, so called, becanse they were not kmimg the 
chosen bands which had been declared moveable. 
But the bulk of these were either unfit for service, 
or unwilling to serve, and could only be relied on 
for securing the pobfic tranquillity. Corps of !^e- 
derates Had been formed in all the districes where 
materi^s could be'fooiid of which to eomp65e tH^. 

From these forces Nsipolei^ selected i giatid 
army ta act under his personal orders. TOSfey were 
choBci* with great care> and thepitepitatJofl'of their 

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iki&tietiel was of the ibo^ extensive and complete deu 
i(eripti(^. The numbers in gross might amount to 
IdO^OOO ; a» great a number of troops, perhaps, as 
lean cc>nvemently move upon one plan of operations, 
or be subjected to one Greneralissimo. A large de- 
duction is to'be made to attain the exact amount of 
Us eflSective force. 

Thus pr^red for action, no doubt was made that 
Buonaparte would open the campaign, by assuming 
oifeninve operations. To wait till the enemy had as- 
sembled their full force on his frontier, would have 
united neither the man nor the moment. It was moiEft 
agreeable to his system, his disposition, and his in- 
terest, to rush upon some separate army of the allies, 
surprise them, according to his own phrase, in delict, 
«nd, by its dispersion or annihilation, ^ve courage to 
France, animate her to fresh exertions in his cause, 
intimidate the confederated powers, and gain time for 
sowing in their league the seeds of disunion. Even 
the Royalists, whose interest was so immediately con- 
nected with the defeat of Buonaparte, were dismayed 
by^ witnessing his gigantic preparations, and sadly 
anticipated victories as the first result, though they 
trusted that, as in 1814, he would be at length worn 
out, by force of numbers and reiterated exertions. 

But though all guessed at the mode of tactics 
which Napoleon would employ, there was a difference 
<3i opinion respecting the point on which his first 

VOL. vni. 2 F 

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j£fi LIFV OF 

efllerlianf w^uld b^ toftde ; wad in fefeeml it yfu tUf- 
gur^ X\»i, triifltiog tp Uie 9tr0Qgih ni Lisl^ Vattn^ 
«ie]in«8» and other fortified pbofiB on the {ratiAtil% qf 
Flandera^ hi« fint leel attack, whatever diywiioa 
might he made elsewhere, would take pUco upon 
ManheifQ, with the view of breaking asunder the 
Austrian and Russian armies as tbejr w^e formings 
or rather of attacking them iiqiarately, to prevent 
their communication in line. If he shoidd tuepeed 
in tbu$ overwhelming the advance of the Austriim^ 
and Bussians^ hj dinectiog bis main force tp thia om 
point, before they were fully prepared, it waa 9iippo^ 
sed he might break up the plan of the allies for ibis 

But Buonaparte was desirous to aim a decisive bkm 
at the most enterprising and venturous of the invai- 
ding armies^ He knew Bliicfaer, and had heard of 
Wellington ( he therefore resolved to move a^nst 
those generals^ while be of^posed walls and fortified 
places to the more slow and cautious advance of the 
Austrian general, Schwartzeuberg, and trusted that 
distance might render inefiectual the progress of the 

According to this genel*al system, Paris, under 
the cUrectkm of General Haxo, was, on the nortbera 
side, pbced in a complete state of defence, by a 
double line of fortifications, so that, if the first were 
forced, the defenders might retire within the ae>- 
cond, instead of being compelled, as in the prece* 

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ding year, to quit the h^ighti^^ and fall baek upon 
the city. Mcmtinartre was very strdngly fortified* 
The soutbrara part of the city on the opposite dde of 
die Seine was only covered with a few field-works ; 
dme, and the open character of the ground, permit- 
ting no more. But the Seine itself was relied upon 
OS a barrier, having proved such in 1814. 

On the frontiers, similar precautions were observed. 
JBntrenchmentd were constructed in the five princi» 
pal passes of the VoSgesian mountains, and all the 
natural passes and strongholds of Lorrainie were put 
an the best possible state of defence. The posts on the 
inner Une were strengthened with the greatest care. 
The fine military position under the walls of Lyons 
was improved with great expense and labour. A 
tek-de^pont was erected at Brotteau ; a draw-bridge 
and barricade protected the suburb la Guillotiere; 
redoubts were erected between the Saonhe and Rhine, 
and upon the heights of Pierre Encise and the 
-Quarter of Saint John. Quijse, Vitri, Scdssons, 
Chateau-ThieiTy, Langres, and all the towns c&. 
paUe pf any defence, were rendered as strong as 
posts, palisades, redoubts, wd field-works, could 
make them. The Russian armies, though pressing 
last forward, were not as yet arrived upon the line erf 
i^perations; and Ncq)oleon doubtless trusted that 
tiiese impediments, in front df the Austrian line, 
would airre^t any hasty advance <>n Cheir part, since 

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the well-known tactic^s of that school declare against 
leaving in their rear fortresses or towns possessed by 
the enemy, however insignificant or slightly garrison- 
ed, or however completely they might be masked. 

About now to commence his operations. Napo- 
leon summoned round him his best and most ex- 
perienced generals. Soult^ late minister of war for 
Louis XVIII., was named major-general. He obey- 
ed, he says, not in any respect as an enemy of the 
king, but as a citizen and soldier, whose duty it was 
to obey whomsoever was at the head of the govern- 
ment, as that of the Vicar of Bray subjected him in 
ghostly submission to each head q£ the church pro 
tempore. Ney was ordered to repmr to the army at 
Lisle, " if he wished," so the command was express- 
ed, " to witness the first battle.** Macdonald was 
strongly solicited to accept a command, but declined 
it with disdain. Davoust, the minister at war, under- 
took to remore his scruples, and spoke to him of 
what his honour required. " It is not from you,** 
replied the Mareschal, ^* that I am to learn senti- 
ments of honour," and persisted in his refusal. D^r- 
lon, Reille, Vandamme, Gerard, and Mouton de 
Lobau, acted as lieutenant-generals. The cavalry 
was placed under the command of -Grouchy, (whom 
Napoleon had created a Mareschal.) Pajol, Excel- 
mans, Milhaud, and Eellerman, were ^ his seconds 
in command. Flahault, Dej^an, La Bedoyere, and 

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oJLher oflicers of distinction, acted as the Einpe- 
ror'*8 aide&4le-4;aQip. The artillery were three hun- 
dred pieces ; the cavalry approached to twenty-five 
thousand men ; the Guard to the same number ; and 
there is little doubt that the whole army amounted in 
effective force to nearly 130,000 soldiers, in the most 
complete state as to arms and equipment, who now 
marched to a war which they themselves had occa- 
sioned, under an emperor of their own making, and 
bore both in their hearts and on their tongues the 
sentiments of death or victory. 

For the protection of the rest of the frontier, du- 
ring Napoleon^s campaign in Flanders, Suchet was 
intrusted with the command on the frontiers of 
Switzerland, with directions to attack Montmellian 
as soon as possible after the 14th of June, which 
day Buonaparte had fixed for the commencement 
of hostilities. Massena was ordered to repair to 
Metz, to assume the government of that important 
fortress, and the command of the 3d and 4th divisions. 
All preparations being thus made. Napoleon at length 
announced what had longoccupied his secret thoughts. 
<< I go," he said, as he threw himself into his carriage 
to join his army, <* I go to measure myself with Wel- 

But although Napoleon^s expressions were those 
of confidence and defiance, his internal feelings were 
of a different complexion. *^ I no longer felt,^ as 

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454 LIVE OP 

be afterwards expressed himself in his exile, <' that 
complete confidence in final success, which aix»m« 
panied me on former undertakings. Whether it was 
that I was getting beyond the period of life when men 
are usually favoured by fortune, or whether the im- 
pulse of my career seemed impeded in my own eyes, 
and to my own imaginaticm, it is certain that I iAi a 
depression of spirit Fortune, which uted to fcJlow 
my steps to load me with her bounties, was tiow a se- 
vere deity, from whom I might snatch a few favours, 
but for which she exacted severe rettibutioti. I had 
no sooner gained an advantage than it was followed 
by a reverse.^ With such feelings, not certaltily 
unwarranted by the circumstances under which the 
campaign was undertaken, nor disproved by the 
event. Napoleon undertook his shOTtest and last 

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)JA1*0L£0K BUONAPAllTE. i55 


Armff of WeUingkm covert Brutsels — iluU of Biucher conceuttotcd 
on ihc SanUtrfi ^nd Memtc^^Napokon revkvt his Grand Army 

on lUh June.'^Jdvanees upon Charleroi His plan to separate 

the Armies of the two opposing Generals fails. — Interview of 
Wellington and Biucher at Brie. — British Army concentrated at 
atuatre Bras,^^lifapoleon^s plan of attack, — Battle of Ligny, and 
dejbai of Biueh&r on 16th June. — Action at Quatre Bras on the 
same day — the British retain possession of the JUld^^^Bhtcher 
eludes the French pursuit, — Napoleon joins Ney,^^Retreat of the 
British upon Waterloo^ where the Duke of Wellington resolves to 
make a stand, — Localities of that celebrated Field, 

The triple line of strong fortresses possessed by 
the French oti the borders of Belgium served Na- 
poleon as a curtain, behind which he could prepare 
his levies and unite his forces at pleasure, without 
any possibility of the allies or their generals being 
able to observe his motions, or prepare for the at- 
tack which such motions indicated. On the other 
hand^ the frontier of Belgium was open to his obser- 

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466 LIPK OF 

vatioD» and he knew perfectly the general dinpoiwl 
of the allied force. 

If the French had been prepared to make thar 
meditated attack upon Flanders in the month of 
May, they would have found no formidable force 
to oppose them, as at that time the armies of the 
Prussian general Kleist, and the hereditary Prince 
of Orange, did not, in all, exceed 50,000 men. But 
the return of Napoleon, which again awakened the 
war, was an event as totally unexpected in France 
as in Flanders, and, therefore, that nation, was as. 
much unprepared to make an attack as the allies to 
repel one. Thus it happened, that while Napoleon 
was exerting himself to collect a sufficient army by 
the means we have mentioned, the Duke of Welling- 
ton, who arrived at Bruss^s from Vienna in the 
beginning of April, had leisure to garrison and sup- 
ply the strong places of Oslend, Antwerp, and Nieu- 
port, which the French had not dismantled, and to 
fortify Yypres, Tournay, M ons, and Ath. He had 
also leisure to receive his reinforcements from Eng- 
land, and to collect the Crerman, Dutct^, and Be^ian 

Thus collected and reinforced, the Duke of Wel« 
lington's army might contain about thirty thousand 
English troops. They were not, ho wiever,. those ve- 
teran soldiers, who had served under him during the 
Peniiisular war; the flower of which had been.dis^ 

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ptetehed upon the American expedition. Most were 
second battalions, or regiments which had been lately 
filled up with new recruits. The fordgners were 
fifteen thousand Hanoverians, with the celebrated 
Grerman Le^on, eight thousand strongs whidi had so 
oikeii distinguished itself in Spain ; five thousand 
Brunswickers, under their gallant Duke; and about 
seventeen thousand Belgians, Dutch, and Nassau 
tioops, command^ by the Prince of Orange. 

.Great aild just reJiaiKe was placed upon the Ger- 
ifliins ; but some apprehensions were entertained for 
the steadiness of the Belgian troops. Discontents had 
prevailed among them, which, atone period, had bro. 
ken out in open mutiny, and was ndt subdued without 
Uoodshed. Most of them had served in the Frend^ 
ranks, and it was feared some of them might preserve 
inredilections and correspondencies dangerous tp the 
general cause. Buonaparte was. under the same be< 
lief. H^ brought in his train]several Belg^ officers, 
believing tfam*e would be a movement in his fisivour 
so soon as he entered the. Netherlands. But the 
Flelnings are a people of spundseilse and feeling. 
Whatever jealousies might have been instilled into 
them for their religion and privileges iinder the reign 
of a Protestant and a Dutch sovereign, diese were 
swallowed up in their apprehenMons for the return- 
ing tyranny of Napoleon. Some of these troops be- 
hav^ with distinguished valour ; and most of them 

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458 LIFS OF 

Mipported the ancient military character of the Wal- 
loonfl. The Dutch oor)9a wet« in general enthums- 
tically attached to the Prince of Orange, and the 
cause of independence. 

The Prussian army had been recruited to itg high- 
est irar-establishment, within ah incredibly short 
space of time af^er Buonaparte^* return had been 
made public, and was reinforced in a manner sUrprt^ 
sing to those who do not reflect, how much the re- 
sourceis of a state depend on the zeal «>f the iohabit- 
ilnts. Their enthusiastic hatred to Franc^ foun^M 
partly on the recollection of former injuries, partljr 
on that of recent siiooess, was animated at once by 
feelings of triumph hhd of revenge, and they tnarch- 
ed to this new war, as to a national crusade against 
an inveterate enemy, whom, when at their feet, they 
had treated with inj udidous clemency. Bludher was, 
h<^wever, deprived of a valuable part of his army 
by the discontent of the Saxon troops. A mutiny 
had broken out among thfem, when the Congress an- 
nounced their intention of transferring part of the 
Saxon dominions to P^ssia ; niuch blooddied had 
ensued, and it was judged most prudent that the 
troops of Saxdny should remain in gamaon in the 
German forti^esses. 

Prince Blueher arrived at Li^ge, with the Pms- 
siah army, which was concentrated on the Sambn^ and 
Meuse rivers, occujpying Charierd, Nutnur, Givet, 

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and liege. The Duke 6f W^Kiigteii eonrtrtd Btm^ 
dels, where he hid fixed his head-qaarters, eotniiiaiti<t 
lAtipg by his IdTt mth the right cS the Prnsiiaiw. 
Th^e was a general idto that Nitpolebii's thlreat(^iied 
advance would take plate on Namut, as he was Hkely 
to find lea^t opposition at that disBttmtled city. 

The Duke of Weltingtoti's first corps, undiel' Ib^ 
Prince oi Onuige, with Wo divisions of British, iwd 
of Hanoverians, and two of ]|^elgians, obcofiied Eti^ 
gfaien. Brain le Cotnte, atid Nivell^s, and serired asit 
unserve to the PrussiiEul division und^lr Ziefheiii 
which was at Charleroi. The second division, com- 
manded by Lotd Hill, included two British, two 
Hanoverian, and one Belgian divi&aons. It was can- 
toned at Halle, Oudenarde, and Grammont. The 
imerve, under Picton, who, at Lord Wellington's 
iqpecial request, had accepted of the situation of se^ 
co&d in command, condsted of the remaining tw6 
firUish divisions, with three of the Hanoveriiiiis, aild 
was stationed at Brussels and Ghent. The cavalry 
oocu{Hed Grammont and Nieve. 

The AngkvBelgic army was so disposed, theire^ 
fore, a$ m%ht enable the divisicms to combine with 
eadi other, and with the Prussians, upbti the earliest 
authentic intelligence of the enemy's being put hi 
TOiotion. At the same time, the various corps were 
Necessarily, to a certain degree, detached, both for 
the purpose of being mote easily maintained, (espe*' 

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400 LIFE OF 

datty the cav^bry,) and also because; from d^e im* 
pofisibility of fon^dg in jwhat direction' the FreD<i> 
Enpoor mif^t pnake his attack, it was necessary to 
maintapi such an extensile line of defence as to be 
prepared for his arrival upon any given point. This 
is the necessary inconvenience attached to a defensive 
position* where, if the rensting general should con- 
oeatrate his whole forces upon any one point of the 
line to be defended, the enemy would, of course^ 
choose to make their assault on some of the other 
pcunts, which such ccncentration must neoessariiy 
leave oomparatively open. 

In the meantime, Ni^ioleon in perion advanced 
to Vervins on ISth June, with his Guard, who had 
marched from Paris. The other divisions of his ^e« 
lected Grand Army had beoi assembled on the 
fipntier, and the whole, consisting of five divisiotis of 
infantry, and four of cavalry, were combined at Beau* 
nMHit on the 14th of the same month, with a d^;ree 
of secrecy and expedition which showed the usual 
genius of their commander. Napoleon reviewed the 
troopj^ in person, remiqded then^ that the day was the 
anniversary of the gre^ victories of Marengo and 
Friedland, and, called oq thep to rem^mbor that the 
enemies whom they had then defeated, were the same 
which were now arrayed against them. << Are they 
and we," he asked^ ** no longer the same men P'' The 
address produced the strongest effect on the min^ 

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cf the French soldiery, always sensititely aHre totoh- 
iftary and ilational glory. 
^ Upon the 15tfa June, the French army was in ockk 
tion in every direction. Their adiranced-gaard of 
light troops swept the western bank of the Sambre 
clear of all the allied corps of observation. They 
then aldvanced upon Cbarlercn^ whidi was well dtsk 
fended by the Prussians under General Ziethen, who 
Was at length compelled to retire on the large village 
of Gosselies. Here his retreat was cut off by the se- 
cond division of the French army, and Ziethen was 
compelled to take the route of Fleurus, by which he 
united himself with th^ Prusnan force, which lay 
about the villages of Ligny and St Amimd. The 
Prussian general had, however, obeyed his orders, 
by making such protrslcted resistance as gave time 
for the alarm being tiiken. In the attack and retreat, 
he lost four or five guns, and a considerable number 
in killed and wounded. *' 

By this movement the plan of Napoleon was made 
manifest. It was at once most scientific and adven^ 
turous. His numbers were unequal to sustain a oon* 
ffict with the armies of Blucher and Wellington uni. 
ted, but by forcing his way so as to separate the one 
enemy from tl^ other, he would gain the advantage 
of acting against either individually with the gross of 
his forces, while he could spare enough of detached 
^oops to keep the other in check. To accomplish 

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iki» HKHtfrly ip»»<iwiygef it was necessary w pusli ob- 
wards upcm a part of the Btidsh advance, wl|ieh oo- 
aiHPMid ihepatitkHi ci <^ialre Bras, and tb^ yet niore 
advanced post of Fnisnes, wWe some of tl^e Nassau 
tftoops wfne.staHioiied Biit tbe extrcnie nqpi£^ 
^ Nap<4eofi's fiwrnd loardies had in aoppe i&easure 
pseYenfted the .eseeittioa of bis plan» by diqiemug 
Ws fefqesso iniicb, that at a time when every boor 
was of eoD^equenoe, he was oompeUed to reniAin at 
Cbairkeoi luttU bis weari^ and pvas-marcfaed army 

In the meaitfipoe^ Ney wns 4etacfaed sgiaost Jfmh 
aas and Qu^re Bras, but the toopps ef Numttr k^ 
tbeir post on the evening of the ISdi. It is posiif 
Ue the Fn^nch Maif^ieb^ might have succeeded hud 
he attacked at Frasnes wifh hSEf whole force; bat 
hearing a cannonade ii| the direction of Flei|FU% 
<wbi(sb was ih^t oi S^ielbfin's action,) he detaphed $ 
division to support tbe French in that quarter. Fpf 
tbia exercise c^ h|s own judgment, iostsad i^ yield- 
ing prewe obedience to his orders, Ney was reprif 
mand^ ; a cir^u^atanise isuripfisly cc^otraated with 
tbe esse of Grqudiy, upc^ whom Napolepn luid the 
whole blame of the d^eat at Walerkie, because he 
did fcrf}ow bis orders predsetyt a)id piress the Pras*> 
nans at Warre, instead of being diverted from diet 
Dhyfiet by tbe cannonade pn bis Mt. 
. The manoeovre meditMed by Napokioa thus laijk> 

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dl, t)ioiigh it hmi neaiiy bee* 80€cesifiil. He cwil. 
mied, bo«r«iFer^ to entortaiik the same p^vpois^ of da^ 
viding^^if fnniblfe, tbe BritUU arjay fn^m the Ptii»- 

The British, genemil ivoeiVed intdligeoce of ifae 
mb9«octe of the French, at Bm^oels^ at six o'tflodc oil 
the evBiiiag of the l^th, but it waa «ot of siiffldetil 
oortainty to enable him to put his anaylnnaDtiDB, on 
aa oQiMsion when afUbeinoiieinestjaiighthlivfrbeen 
irrfsirierahle rniti. About eteven of the tadid ntgbl^ 
the certain aocbunts reached firusBats that theadi- 
vaace of the iErenehwaa upon theliae of the Saikibrd. 
Amnfof^eemeiito were haatily moved on Quatre Bms^ 
9id the Duke of WeUingloii arrived tba^ in peraao 
at an early hour on the 16th, and instantly rodfeijDBai 
that poflkbn to Brie, vfaere he had a meeting vith 
Bbioher. It appepved at t^is dme that the Yclmie 
Freneb foroe «aa about to be directed against the 

Bludier waa prepared to reoeive tben^. Three 
of his divisions, to the number of 80,000 men, had 
biaen got into portion on a chain of gentle heights, 
running from Brtc to Sombref ; in front of their Hne 
lay the villages of the Greater and Lesser St Amend, 
aA also that of ligny, all of which were strongly occu- 
pied. From the extrenuty of bis right, Blucher could 
oommunicate with the British at Quatre Bras, upon 
which the Duke of Wellington was, as fast as dis- 
tance would permit, concentrating his arbiy. The 

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464 Lnri ov 

4bufth Prusiian di?ifliaB, bebg that of BoIdw, it*. 
doDed between Li^e aad Hsifuiiilt, was at toogvcat 
A'dffltanoe to be brought up, though everj effbrt was 
made for the purpose. Blucher undertook, howcmr, 
notwithetanding the abaenee of Bnlow, to receive a , 
battle in this position, trusting to the support of At 
EngBsh anny, who, by a flank movement to theleft, 
were to marah to his assiatanoe. 

Nqpoleon had, in the meantinae, settled his own 
plan of battle. He determined to leave Ney wkh a 
diviskm of 46,000 men, with instructions to drive the 
Engliah firom Quatre Bras, eie their. amy wascoB- 
oentrated and reinforoed, and thus prevent their co- 
operating with Blucher, while he himself, with- the 
main body of his army, attacked the Prussian posi- 
tiott at Ligny. Ney being thus on the French left 
wii^ at Frasnes and Quatre Btaa, and Buonaparte 
on the right at Ligny, a division under DlBrion, 
amounting to 10,000 men, served as a cent^ of the 
army, and was placed near Marchiennes, from wfaidi 
it might march laterally either to support Ney or 
Napoleon, whichever might require assistance. As 
two battles thus took place on the 16tfa June, it is 
necessary to take distinct notice of both. 

That of Ligny was the princqwd action. The 
French Emperor was.unable to concentrate hi&foroe^ 
so as to commence the attack upon the- Prussians, 
until three o^dock in the afternoon, at which hour it 
began with uncommon fury all along the PrussiaD 

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line. After a continued attack of two hours^ the 
Fi^Qcbhad only obtained possession of a part of the 
village of St. Amand. The position of the Prussians, 
however, was thus far defective, that the main part 
of their army being drawn up on the heights, and the 
remainder occupying villages which lay at their foot, 
the reinforcements dispatched to the latter were ne- 
cessarily exposed during their descent to the fire 
firom the French artillery, placed on the meadows 
belowv Notwithstanding this disadvantage; by 
which the Prussians suffered much, Napoleon 
thought the issue of the contest so doubtful, that he 
sent for D'Erlon'^s division, which, as we have men- 
tioned, was stationed near Marchiennes, half-way 
betwixt Quatre Bras and JLiigny. In themeai^ 
while, observing that Blucher drew his reserves to- 
getber on St Amand, he changed his print of at- 
tack^ and directed all his force against' lagny, of 
which, after a desperate resistance, he at length 
obtained possession. The French Guards, sup- 
ported by their heavy cavalry, ascended the heij^s, 
and attacked the Prussian position in the rear of 
Ligny. The reserves of the Prussian infantry hav- 
ing been dispatched to St. Amand, Blocher had no 
means of repelling this attack, save by his cavalry. 
He placed ||imself at their head, and charged in 
the most determined manner, but without success. 
The cavalry of Blucher were forced back in dis- 

vol.. vin. 2 G 

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460 X'IFK ov 

The Prince Mareschal, as he directed the letreat, 
was inTolved in one of the charges of cayalry-, bis 
horse struck down by a cannon shot, and he faivEiseff 
prostrated on the ground. His aide-^e-camp threw 
himself beri^de the veteran, determined to share his 
fate, and had the precaution to fling a cloak over 
him to prevent his being recognised by the French. 
The enemy^s cuirassiers passed over him, and it was 
not until they were repulsed, and in their turn puir- 
sued by the Prussian cavalry, that the gallant veteran 
was raised and remounted. Blucher^s death, or cap- 
tivity, at that eventful moment,^ might have had 
most sinister effects on the event of the campaign, 
as it may be fairly doubted, whether anything sh(»t 
of his personal influence and* exertion oould, after 
this hard-fought and* unfortunate day, haVe again 
brought the Prussian army into action on the event- 
ful 18th of Jnne. When relieved, and again mount- 
ed| Blucher directed the retreat upon Tilly, and 
achieved it unmdested by the enemy, who did hot 
continue their pursuit beyond the heights which 
the Prussians had been ccmstrained to aband(m. - 
Such was the battle of t/igny, in which the Prus- 
sians^ as Blucher truly said, lost tfae^field, but not 
their honour. The victory was attended with n<»e 
of those decisive consequences which '^vere wont to 
mark the successes of Buonaparte. There were no 
corps cut oflpor dispersed, no regiments which fled or 

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tnng down their annd^ no line of defence forced, 
dnd tio permstiaent advantage gained; Abbve all^ 
ttere was not a man who lost heart or courage. 
The Pnissians are believed to have lost in this 
bloody action at least lO^OOOmen; the Monitenr. 
makei^ the nunpiber of the killed and woiinded 1S,00(>« 
add General Gonrgand^ disaatisfied with this libei^ 
alloiviBCnce^ rates them afterwarda at no less than 
05^000, while writing under Napoleon's dictation. 
The loss <cf the victors was, by the offieialadconnb, 
ustfinated ^t ^8000 uien, which ought to have been 
ifiroi« than tripled. Stilly the French Emperor 
Irad/struiGfk a great blow^^-^verpowered a stubboiii 
iind inveterate enemy, and opened the campaign 
with favourable atispices. The degree of advan- 
tage, hbweter, which Napoleon might have deriV'- 
ied from the Prufieian retreat, was gireatly limited 
by the ittctffferent success of Ney against the forces 
of Lord Wellington. Of this second action we have 
now to give some accouiit. 

Fifasnes had been evacuated l)y the British, who, 
on dfe morning of the l^h, wei^ in position at Qoi- 
tie Sras, a j^nt of imp0rtawe*,as four roads diverge 
ftssm it in diftreht dir^tions ; so that the British 
'general might communicate fc^m his left with the 
(Pmssian right at dt. Aniand^ besides having in .his 
i^ar a canseway open fbr his retreat. On the left of 
the causeway, leading from Charlerdi to Brussels, is 
a wood^ cidled B«ls de Bofeisli, whicb^ during the 

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468 LIFE OF 

early part of the day, was strongly contested by the 
sharp-shooters on both sides^ but at length carried 
by the French, and maintained for a time. About 
three o'clock in the afternoon, the main attack comt^ . 
menced, but was repulsed. The British infantry, 
however, and particularly the, 48d. Highlanders, suf. 
fered severely from an unexpected charge of lancers, 
whose approach was hid from them by the character 
of the ground, intersected with hedges, sod covex^ 
ed with heavy crops of rye. Two companies of the 
Highlanders were cut off, not having time to form 
the square ; the others succeeded in getting into or- 
der, and beating off the lancers. Ney then attempted 
a general charge of heavy cavalry. But they were 
received withsucb a galling fire from the British in- 
fantry, joined to a battery of tKo guns, that it could 
not be sustained ; the whole causeway was strewed 
with men and horses, and the fugitives, who escaped 
to the rear, announced the loss of an action which 
was far from being d^ided, consideiftg that the 
British had few infantry and artillery, though re- 
inforcements of both were coming fast forward. 

The French, as already noticed, had, about three 
o^cIock, obtained possession of the Bois de Bossn, 
and driven out the Belgians. They were in return 
themselves expelled by the British Guards, who 
successfully resisted every attempt made by the 
French to penetrate into the wood during the day. 

As the English reinforcements arrived in succes- 

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)sion^ Mareschal Ney became desirous of an addition 
of numbers, and sent to procure the assistance of 
'D^Erlon^s division, posted, as has been said, near 
Marchiennes. But these troops had been previously 
ordered to succour Buonaparte's own army. As the 
affair of Ligny was, however, over before they arri- 
ved, the division was again sent back towards Fras- 
nes to assist Ney; but his battle was also by this 
time over, and thus D^Erion's troops marched from 
one flank to the other, without firing a musket in 
the course of the day. The battle of Quatre Bras 
terminated with the light. The British retained 
possescfion of the field, which they had maintained 
* with so much obstinacy, because the Duke of Wel- 
lington conceived that Blucher would * be able to 
make his ground good at Ligny^ and was consequent- 
ly desirous that the armies should retain the line of 
communication which they had occupied in the morn- 

But the Russians, evacuating all the villages 
which they held in the neighbourhood of Ligny, had . 
concentrated their forces to retreat upon the river 
Dyle, in the vicinity of Wavre. By this retrograde 
movement, they were placed about six leagues to 
the rear of their former position, and had united 
themselves to Bulow's division, which had not been 
engi^ed in the afiair at Ligny. Blucher had efiect- 
ed this retreat,, not only without pursuit by the 

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430 LIVE OF 

Fnaieb, bnt without their knowing for some time 
in what dixectipn he had gone. 

Thi^ dopbt respecting Blucher's moreineiita, oc- 
ca^iooed an uncertainty and delay in those of the 
worst cdpseqniences^ ]!^apoleon, or General Goor- 
gaud in bis name^ doesi not hesitate to assert, that 
the cause of this delay rested with Mareschai Groi)- 
chy, on whom was d^rolired the duty of foUowiog 
up the Prussian retreat. 5< If IMbrescbal Grouchy,^ 
sMjTs the accusation^ ^^ had been at Wavre w tb^ 
17th, and in communication with my (Napoleon's) 
right, Blufher would not have dared to send any de- 
tachmoit of bis armiy against me on the 18th ; or* 
if he had, I would have destroyed them.^ Bui the 
Mareschal appears to make, a yictorious defence. 
Grouchy says, that he sought out the Emperor ou 
the night of the 16th, so soon as the Fmssian re- 
treat commenced, but that he could not see him till 
he returned to Fleurus ; nor did he obtain any an- 
swer to his request of obtaining some infantry tp as- 
sist his cavabry in following Blucher and his retreat, 
ing army, excepting an intimation that he would re* 
ceiye orders next day. He states, that he went again 
to head-quarters in the 'morning of the 17th, aware 
of the full importance of following the Prussians 
closely up, but that he could not see Buonaparte till 
half seven, and then was obliged to foUowhim to the 

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field of battle of the prece^iiig day, previous to re- 
ceiying his commands. Napoleon talked with va- 
rious persons on different subjects, without giving 
Grouchy any orders imtil near qowi, when he sud- 
denly xesolyed to send the Mareschal with<an army 
of 32,000 men, not upon Wavre, for he did not know 
that the Prussians had takeathat direction^ but to 
follow Blucher wherever he might have gone. 
Lartly, Grouchy affirms th^ the troops of Gixard 
and Vandamme^ who were placed under his com* 
niand,-were not ready to move until three oVlock. 
Thus, according to the Mareschal's very distinct 
narrative, the first orders for the pursuit were not 
given till ^ about noon on the 17tb> and the troops 
were not in a capacity to obey them until thr«e 
hour» after they were received. For this delay 
Grouchy blames Excelmans and Giiurd, who com- 
manded' under him. His corps, at any rate, was not 
in motion until three oVlock upon the 17th* 
, Neither oould his march, when begun, be direct4 
eJ with certainty on Wavre. The first traces of the 
Prussians which he couldreceive, seemed to intimate, 
on the contrary, that they were retiring towards Na- 
mur, which induced 'Grouchy to push the pursuit 
in the latter direction, and occasioned the loss of 
sqme hours. From alt these concurring reasons, the 
MareschaU shows distinctly that he could, not have 
attained Wavxe on the evening of the 17th June, b^- 

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cause he had no orders to go there till noon, nor 
troops ready to march till three oVlock ; nor had ei- 
ther Napoleon or his general any foreknowledge of 
the motions of Blucher, which might induce them to 
believe Wavre was the true point of liis retreat. It 
was not till he found the English resolved to make a 
stand at Waterloo, and the Prussians determined to 
c<«mmunicate with them, thatNapoleonbecameaware 
of the plan arranged betwixt Wellington and Bin- 
cher, to concentrate the Prussian and English armies 
at Waterloo. This was the enigma on which his 
filte depended, and he failed to solve it. But it was 
mote agreeable, and much more convenient, for Na- 
poleon to blame Grouchy, than to acknowledge that 
he himself had been surprised by the circumstances 
in which he unexpectedly found himself on the 18th. 

Meantime, having detached Grouchy to pursue 
the Prussians, Napoleon himself moved laterally 
towards Frasnes, and there united himself with the 
body commanded by M areschal Ney. His purpose 
was to attack the Duke of Wellington, whom he ex- 
pected still to find in the position of Qoatre Bras. 

But about seven in the morning, the Duke, ha- 
ving received intelligence of the Prince Mareschal 
^B|^m'''s retreat to Wavre, commenced a retreat on 
df^n^Ct towards Waterloo, in order to recover his 
communication with the Prussians, and resume the 
execution ^f the plan of co-operation, which had 

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been in some degree disconcerted by the sudden ir- 
rapticm of the French, and the loss of the battle of 
Ligny by the Prussians. The retreat was conduct- 
ed with the greatest regularity, though it was as * 
usual unpleasant to the feelings of the soldier. The 
news oi the battle of Ligny spread through the 
ranks, and even the most sanguine did not venture 
to hope that the Prussians would be soon able tore* 
new the engagement. The weather was dreadful, 
as the rain fell in torremts ; but this so far favoured 
the Britij&h, by rendering the ploughed fields im- 
practicable for horse, so that their march was co- 
vered from the attacks of the French cavalry on 
the flanks, and the operations of those by whom 
they were pursued were confined to the causeway. 

At Genappe, however, a small town, where a nar- 
row bridge over the river Dyle can only be approach- 
ed by a confined street, there wfts an attack on the 
British rear, which the English light cavalry were 
unitble to repel ; but the heavy cavalry being 
brought up, repulsed the French, who gave the rear 
of the army no farther disturbance for the day. 

At five in the evening, the Duke of Wellington 
arrived on the memorable field of Waterloo, which 
he had long before fixed. as the position in ^'h^^^MflB^^ 
had in certain events determined to make a itim ' jP 
' for covering Brussels. ^^.J 

The scene of this celebrated action must b«r£iftu- 

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474 LIFE OF 

liar to most r^ers, eitj^m firqm dcscriptioa or lecoU 
lection. The EogUyh anny <K^iipied a chain of 
heights^ extending from a ravine and yiUiige^ teraij$d 
Merke Braine, <m the tii^t, to a hamlet <$md Ter 
la Haye, on the left. Oxneflftonding to tli9 chain 
of heights theri) mns one somewhat i^rall^l tp^them> 
on which the Frem5h were posted. AsniaU yaHey 
winds between them of various to^Ch at difiei^nt 
points, but not generally exceeding .half a mile« 
The declivity on eith#r ade into die vidley h$s a 
variedi but on the whole a gentle ^ope, diversified 
by a number of undulating irregularities of grOmid. 
The field is crossed by two high-roads, or cause- 
ways, both leading to Brussels,— one from Charleroi 
though Qoat|;e Bhis and Genappe, by which th<e 
British army had just retreated, and another &dm 
Nivelles. These roads traverse the valley, and meet 
behind the village of Mont St Jean, which viras in 
the rear of the British army. The farm-chouse of 
Mont^t JeaUy which must be carefully distinguished 
from the hamlet, was much closer to the rear of the 
British than the latter* Oithe Chafleroi causeway^ 
in&ontof the line, there ifei another farm-house, called 
I^aHayeSainte, situated nearly at the foot of thode- 
clfvity leading into the talley. On the opposite chfun 
of eminences^ a village calledLa ^elle AlUance-gi ves 
name to the range of heights. It ^xaotly frobtsMont 
St Jean,' and ^hesb tw^o pointe bombd tbe^ resf^- 
tive centres of the French and English positions. 

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An old-»fashioned FlemiBh villa^ called Goumont, 
or Hougomont, stood in the midst of the valley, 
surrounded with gardens, offices, and a wood, about 
two acres in extent, of tall beech trees. Behind the 
heights of Mount St. Jean, the ground again sinks 
into a hoUow, which served to afford some sort of 
shelter to the second line of the British. In the 
rear of this second valley, is the great and exten- 
«ve forest of Soi^nes, through which runs the cause, 
way to Brussels. On that road, two miles in the 
rear of the British army, is placed the small town 
of Waterloo. 

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476 IIFE OF 


N€g9ole(m*i expectation thtU the AUiancetMmU be b^^ 
case ofhu defeating the English in Belgium, — The English 
army take up their ground on 17 th June, and the French 
next morning. -^Strength of the two armies. — Pkms of their 
Generah.^^tBE Battle of Watkmun) ctnmnenced on the 
forenoon of the 18M June. — French attach directed against 
the British centre — shifted to their right — charges of the 
Cuirassiers — and their reception. — Advance of the Prus- 
sians. — Neg*s charge at die head of the Guards — His re- 
pulse-'-and NapoUotCs orders for retreat. — The victorious 
Generals meet at la Belle Alliance, — Behaviour of Ntqto- 
leon during the engagement. — Blucher's pursuit of the 
French. — Loss of the British — of the French.^-N{ipoleon^8 
subsequent attempts to undervaJue the military skill of the 
Duke of Wellington answered. — His unjust censures of 
Grouchy. — The notion that the British were on the point of 
losing the battle when the Prussians came up shown to be 

There might be a difference of opinion^ in a mere 
military question, whether the English general ought 
to have hazarded a battle for the defence of Brussels, 
or whether, falling back on the strong city of Ant- 
werp, it might have been safer to wait the arrival of 
the reinforcements which were in expectation. Bat 
in a moral and political point of view, the protecting 
Brussels was of the last importance. Napoleon hai 
declared, that, had he gained the battle of Water- 
loo, he had the means of revolutionizing Belgium ; 

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and although he was doubtless too sanguine in this 
declaration, yet unquestionably the French had 
many partizans in a country which they had so long 
possessed. The gaining of the battle of Ligny had 
no marked results, still less had the indecisive ac- 
tion at Quatre-Bras ; but had these been followed 
by the retreat of the English army to Antwerp, 
and the capture of Brussels, the capital city of the 
Netherlands, they would then have attained the 
rank of great and decisive victories. 

Napoleon, indeed, pretended to look to still more 
triumphant results firom such a victory, and to ex-> 
pect nothing less than the dissolution of the Euro- 
pean Alliance as the reward of a decided defeat of 
the English in Belgium* So long as it was not men- 
tioned by what means this was to be accomplish- 
ed, those who had no less confidence in Napoleon's 
intrigues than his military talents, must have suppos- 
ed that, he had already in preparation among the fo- 
reign powers, some deep scheme, tending to sap the 
foundation of their alliance, and ready carried 
into action when he should attain a certain point of 
success. But when it is explained that these exten- 
sive expectations rested on Napoleon's belief that 
a single defeat of the Duke of Wellington would 
occasion a total change of government in England ; 
that the statesmen of the Opposition would enter into 
office as a thing of course, and instantly conclude a 
peace with him ; ^d that the coalition, thus depri- 

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478 ' ' Lt#r o» • 

Ted of BubMieSy most tbeiefore instantly withdnw 
the annies which were touching the French frontier 
on its whole northern and eastern line, — Napoleon^ 
extravag&nt specnlations can onlyserve to show how 
very little he must have known of the Englidi na- 
tion, with which he had been fighting so long. The 
war with France had been prosecuted more than 
twenty years, and though many of these were yeard 
of bad success and defeat, the nation had pergevered 
in a resistance which terminated at last in ^omplet^ 
triumph. The natiomd opinion of the gi^at (Seneral 
who led the British troops, was too strongly rooted 
to give way upon a single misfortune; and the ev^it 
of the campaign of- 1814, in which Napoleon, re? 
peatedly victorious, was at length totally defeated 
and dethroned, would have encouraged a more fickle 
people than the English to continue the war not witTi- 
standittg a single defttt, if such an event hlul lin^ 
happily occurred. The Duke had the almost iA" 
pregnable fortress and seiti-port of Antwerp in his 
rear,and might have waited there the reinforcements 
from America. Blucfaer had often shown how little 
he was disheartened by defeat $ iit worst, he would 
have fallen back on a Russian army at 180,0DC>meB, 
who were advancing on the Rhine. The hopes, 
therefore, that the battle of Waterloo, if ^^aiiM by 
the French, would have iinished the war, miist be 
abandoned as visionaiy, whether we regard tike ^m 
and manly character of the great pereionage at the 

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head^ the British monarehy, the state of parties 
in the .House of Oommons, where many distinguish- 
ed members of the Opposition had joined the mini- 
strj on the question of the war, or the genend feel- 
ing of the country, who saw with resentment the 
new irruptiiffi df Napoleon. It cannot^ however, be 
deiiied, that any success gained by N^tpoleon in 
thLi first campaign, would faav^ greatly added to 
kis in8oence both ia France and other countries, 
and might have endtogered the poissession cf^FIan^ 
deirs. The Duke of Wellmgton resoh^d, there- 
fore, to protect Brussels, if podsibl^, even by the 
risk of a general aotiotl. 

' By the march from Quatre^-Bras to Waterloo, 
the' Duke had restored hi« communication with 
Bluche'r, which had been dislocated by the retreat 
of the Prussians to Wavre. Wheli established there, 
Blucher ivas once more upon tbeaame line with the 
Bsitish, the distance between the Prussian right 
flank, and the British left, being about five leagues, 
or five leagues and a half. The ground which lay 
between the two extreme points^ called the heights - 
of St Lambert, was exceedingly rugged and wood^ 
ed ; and the cross-roads which traversed it, form^, 
ing the sole means of confmunication between the 
English and Prussiatts, were dreadfully broken up 
by the late tempestuous weather. . 

The Duke dispatched intelligence of his position 
in front of Waterloo to Friiace Blucher, acquainting 

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480 hin, or 

him at the mme time with his resoitttion to give Na^ 
poleoD the battle which be seemed to derire, provi- 
ding the Prince would aflbrd him the support dT t^o 
divisions of the Prussian army. The answer was 
worthy of the inde&tigable and indomitable old 
man, who was never so much disconcerted by de- 
feat as to prevent his being willing and ready for 
combat on the succeeding day. He sent for reply, 
that he would move to the Duke of WeUii^on^s 
support, not with two divisions only, but with his 
whole army i and that he asked no time to prepare 
for the movement, longer than was necessary to sap- 
ply food and serve out cartridges to his soldiers. 

It was three oVlock on the afternoon of the 17th, 
when the British came on the fields and took np their 
bivouac for the night in the order of battle in which 
they were to fight tbeCnext day* It was much later 
before Napoleon reached the heights of Belle AUi^ 
anoe in person, and his army did not come up in 
full force till the morning of the 18th. Great part 
of the French had passed .the night in the little vil- 
lage, of Grenappe, and Napdeon^s own quarters had 
been at the farm-house called CaiUou, about a mile 
in the rear of La Belle Alliance. . 

In the morning, when Napoleon had formed his 
line of battle, his bnHher Jerome, to whom he ascri- 
bed the possession of very considerable military ta- 
lents, commanded on the left— Counts Reille and 
D*£rlon the centre^-and Count Lobau on the right. 

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MaMMbda Seidt and Nnf atied as lieiit«daiit^!pK» 
nls te the Sii^eior* Th&FrQiMk toce^mtbt'^BU 
cMaistad pmhably of jJbout 76^000 md. T&t Bng^ 
hA an»7 did n^t excecdthat number^ ate the Jnghast 
cMBpuiatiop. Xiich army mi oaamanded by the 
Cbl^ utid«r vboaa theybadiofflHred to defy the woddi 
99t.&r t^e &roaa im^ve eqjfuaL Btitr Ae Exeiii^ had 
Ae Te|)B ||^at>adi7aiitagB (^bemg tmined and aape^ 
lisQCed Mldiinraofi the sftne natLeh^ vbereaalbe Bmg^ 
liah^iii the Duke ofWeUingtoii's army, didiutik ex^ 
mA,$6fi00ii lid alfchmigbdie GdexoMinLegiDiLwese 
T^leri^l traqWf tlie,«ther seldiefrB^iiiid«v:hia.oaniBiand 
wei^ tkos^ of the QeananoDDtiiij^ti^ hitelgrlfinnd^ 
mAO^toned to actxegetber, and in soipe inrt ia n i wyi 
wmipllPled to b&hikeararm liprtbaiMMiae in vbicklbey 
w0Mi^^ra^« 9a tibat^it wo«U bajr& been iapni^eiBil 
iKft t^iiil vMrie to tbeiir^^MlBneecandoeMipfpalMi 
tthm ewt^: upaaibly he avoidBd. In Wiionapaitefa 
HM)^ c^ qO^iilf tCBgy albKvvMq; we FjreBchmen. to 
BisofA mi^ijftid t^QM Rn^shwyin, and^onfe lingjliahi> 
919% op l^fmiSmm agawfe twofiof^aajn otfaet nation^ 
^ JmQliaUty of fiMseei on /die Baha< of Wellingtim^a 
side wa3 yei^ eonsideraUe* 

Tfa^' ^t^mny dnw Q9aifK>8i4» waadhiridfid into 
tiFj^ ]^^. Tl^i nebMthe&stUne dDnsistodoithfi 
80^99^^ Irt4 fenrt)! £n{^ dvriaien&9 the tfaiid and 
Afth He^imianib and' die fisa^ coiqpB of Belgians^ 
m^ Lpi4»liiU. . The eent^,ite coBApoaed of thia, 


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ootpt of the Prin4» of Orange, with the Brungwickew 
imdtnwpfl of Naasi^ having the Guards, under Ge- 
nenl Cooke, on the right; and thedmaion of Gene- 
ral Aken on the left The left TO«con««tedof4he 
UnmmB of Pkton, Lambert, and Kempt. Theae- 
.coiid line waa in most instances farmed of the 4zoeps 
deemed least worthy of confidence, €ft which hadsuf- 
frred too severely in the action of the 16th to be 
^j^it, eiposed until extremity. It was placed behind 
the declivity of the heights to the rear, in order to 
be dielteredfrom th^ cannonade, but sustained modi 
loss ftom shells during the action. The cavalry were 
stationed in the rear, distributed all along the Une, 
birtchiefiy posted on the leftof the centre, totheeast 
of the Charleroi causeway. The farm-house of La 
Haye Saint, in the front of the centre, was garrisim- 
ed, hot th^e was not time to prepare it effectual^ for 
^fence. The vOH gardens, and farm-yard of Hoo- 
gmnont, formed a Jitrong advanced post towarda the 
centre of the right. The whole British positi<mfMm- 
ed a sort of curve, the centre of whidi was nearest 
to the enemy, and the extremities, p vticularly on 
their right, drawn considerably backward. 
. The plansof thens two great generslswere extieme- 
lysinple. The olject of the Duke of WeUii^n 
was to maintain bis line of defence, until the F^rus- 
stans coming up, should give .him a decided supe- 
riority of force. They were ejq^ted idbout deven 

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or twelve oVIock; but the extreme tMidness of the 
roads, owing to the violence of the storm, detained 
them several hours later. 

Napoleon^s scheme was eijually plain and dedded. 
He trusted, by his usual rapidity of attack, to breaj^ 
and destroy the British army before the Prussiimfl 
should atrive in the field ; after which, he cdcalale4 
to have an opportunity of destroying the PrussiMis, 
by attacking them on their march through the broken 
ground interposed betwixt them and the British. In 
these expectations he was the more confident, that 
he beEeved Grouchy's force, detached on the 17lh 
iti pursuit of Blucher, was sufficient to retard, if not 
altogedier to check, the march of the Prussians. His 
grounds for entertaining this latter opinion, wer^,'aa 
we diall afterwards show, too hastily adopted* 

Commendng the action according to his uspal sys- 
tem. Napoleon kept his Guard in reserve, in order 
to take opportunity of charging with theni, when re- 
peated attacks of column after cplumni and squadron^ 
after squadron, should induce bis wearied en^emy to 
show some symptoms of irresolution. . But Napo- 
leon^s movements were not very rapid. His army 
had suffered by the storm even-more than the E^- 
Kish; who wpre in bivouac at three in the afternoon 
of the ITth June; wh& ^eFr^ch were still under 
march, and could not get into line fin the hdgfatsof 
JatBt Selle ^^I^Uifiioe until ten or eleven o^doek of tlu| 

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mil Xlie "Ea^A anay had this some Imuie to 
idkefeo^Mi' to fifipare their arms before the action; 
and Ni^leon lost seyeral hours ere he oouldoomr 
Mft^ tft^.attadi. Time wu, iodeed^^ iaestimkfy 
p$mm ftr both partiMb and hoivs, nay, aunutes, 
viNf rfipq^aaop. But of diis Njydeoii was less 
anmtft than was the Duke of Wellingtmi. 

The tempest, which had xa^Dd with tropical vio- 
kiiie iU w|^» abated in themomuig; buit.the wea- 
llitor a6|Mivned fivK^ and stonny dunng the whole 
inf^. Sflfiliel^enaQd.twelYe, before Booxi) on thf 
iMnKif^ 19th June, this dseadfiil and dedsiye 
9tffiim apipenoad^ with a cannoiiade on the gart of 
Ikt Fifip^ »8i(i«i% fidlowed bj aa attach, com- 
Viaii^ed 1^ JeN$me| on die adranced post of Hou- 
gomon^ The tseops of Na^saut which occupied the 
lifM)d aproipBd the chatwi) were driyen out by ib^ 
Fifl^l^ but tl|e utaoaost eflbrts of the assailants were 
unaUe ^^lee the hoimffffi^f and farm-offioes^ 

ddu^esa reiohitl^ii* T^ French redouble^ th^ 
dbM^ mi precipitated th^njBelves in numbers on 
i^^tmi^X k^iltffh fhich 4e;re^9i the gardieii wall^ 
iw^rf^hiilf9.^Tf§a^ defen^ affloided by 

tlpi^]#^fir. Th^jr feU% gpeat nw^hers xm tbi{B,|xwt 
bjr ^ tep of ^e d^^piid^, to irUdti they frei^e ex- 
{|^f# in evfqy diij^fltioi^ The if^ber of their 
^"WRWf lipwejr/Br,, ejMfbled theuK^ by.p oBa aa pofi of the 

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wQod, to iboidi Hougomont Ibr a time, and to piuli 
on wHh thdr cavahy and artJIlery agftinsis tbe Bri- 
tish ligbt, which foi»ied in iquares to receiye thovi: 
The fire was inoesgant, but without apparent advan- 
tage OB ekher .ai«b. The attack was at lengtib i:epdyi« 
ed to &Tf that the British again opened their com- 
municiyion with Hougomont, and 1^ iaq»oi^t 
ganison waa ceinforced hy Colonel Hepburn and'H 
body of the Guards. 

Meantinie, the fire of artilleiyliavii^ become ge- 
neral along ihe Hne, the ferce of the French attaok 
was transfesred to the British centre. It was made 
with the meet desperate lury^ sad received mA t&e 
moststubbomresohition. The assault was here made 
viipon the fiuan-house of Saint Jean hy finer cdlomos 
of infimtry, and a hvge mass of OuiKattters, who took 
the advance. The cubassiers came with the utmost 
intrepidity along the Gomppe causeway, whese thqr 
were encountered and charged by the English heai^ 
xavalry ; and a combat was maintained at dieaword^ 
point, till the French were driv^n^Mick on their own 
positim, where diey ware protected by their attiHeiy. 
Xhe four columns of French infantiy, engaged in the 
Baine attack, forced their way finrward b^ond die 
fiirm of La Haye Saii^, and, diqietsiiig a Belgian 
ipe^ment^ were in the act of establiddng themsdves 
in the centre of the British position, when they weie 
attadked by the brigade of General Pack, brought v^ 

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from the second line by General Picton, while, at the 
same time, a brigade of British heavy cavalry wheeU 
ed ronnd their own infantry, and attacked the Fi^idh 
charging coltimns in flank, at the moment when they 
were chedcedbythe fire of the musketry. The results 
were decisive. The French columns were brdien 
with great slaughter, and two eagles, with more than 
2000 men, were made prisoners. The latter were sent 
instantly ofl^for Brussels. 

The British cavalry, however, followed their siic^ 
cess too far. They got involved amongst the French 
infantry, and some hostile cavalry which were de« 
tached to support them, and were obliged to retire 
with considerable loss. In this part of the action^ . 
the gallant Greneral Picton, so distinguished fiir en^* 
terprise and bravery, met his death, as did General 
Ponsonby, who commanded the cavalry. 

About this period the French made themsdves 
masters of the farm of La Haye Sainte, cutting to 
juecesabout two hundred Hanoverian sharpshooters^^ 
by whom it was most gallantly defended. The French 
retaihed this post for some time, till they Were at last 
driven out of it by shells. 

Shortly aft^rthis event, the scene of conflict again 
shifted to the right, Where a general attock of French 
cavalry was made on the squares, chiefly towards 
tlHS cMitre of the British right, or between that and 
the causeway* They came up with th^nnrnt ^litaaU 

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less resolution) in despite of the continaed fire of ' 
thirty pieces of artillery, placed in front of the line, 
aad compelled thejartillerymen, by whom they were 
served, to retreat within the squares. The enemy had 
no m'eanS) however, to secure the guns, or even to' 
i^ike them, and at every favourable moment the Bri- 
tish ai^tillerymen sallied from their place of rdbge, 
again manned dieir ]tteces,and fired on tlie assailants, 
— ^a manoeuvre which seems peculiar to the l^ntish 
service.^ The cuirassiers, however, continued their 
dreadful onset, and rode up to the squares in the 
fuU confidence, iqpparently, of sweeping them before 
the impetuosity of their charge. Their onset and re- 
c^tion was like a furious ocean pouring itself against 
a dhain of inidulated rocks. The British squares stood 
wmoved, and never gave fire until the cavalry were 
within ten yards, when men rolled one way, horses 
g^llopped another, and the cuirassiers were in every 
instance driven badc# 

The French authors have pretended, that squares 
wmre broken, and colours taken j but this assertion. 

* Baron Muffling, speaking of this peculiarity, says,--.^^ The 
English artillery have a rule not to remove their guns, whenal- 
tacked by cayalry in a defensive position. The field .pieces are 
worked till the last moment, and the men then throw themselves 
into the nearest square, bearing off the implements they use for ser*. 
ving the guns. If the attack is repulsed, the artillerymen hurry befik 
to ^eir pieces, to fire on the retreating enemy. This is an ex- 
tremely laudable practice, If the infantry be property arrangiai to 
correspond with it." 

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4W tiiTB or 

vftOk .Aenmted Iwluno]^ of ef«ir Britnh affificr^- 

t|»4ftiib; -of fliie mmssiMi, nbo dUpbjed ap almoifc 
tetfio vtiom* Tbcgr niUM ogiin and Mgainy jboA 
wutmneA ito llie ome^ liU the fidtMb ponU iie* 
oigiite enrm 4be ifilots of ^inATidUBlB amosg dwr 
I iifpiiiii Some lede close \tp to^e iatfioMmf £mi 
thtir »piatabi and eat isth dMr tmiocb «sdi rak- 
liM attfl uftelegs mlonr. 6one itbod at fne^ Aid 
«»«deBftroy«d tyr^Ae Miiiretwy aaod griSHery. Smiie 
■IttiidroBs^ ffninif thtopgh Uie inttnrids ef <he fittt 
Ine^idluBgddithejqiiafas i^ dBo^paas poMd theie^ 
ivsA.aftlMe raoedss Al^tnj^die^DlgitMtWfii^idt 
ftral'BD 4m«r9^ M'^evofy liaad,ilbflk iUy w«ii(K«li|ii- 
idM^^OiHbdcn tbe«tt^mp», <nUA>4^ lid ««d6 
vitb audi/iiitf^id ^«tid xlespe^nte >eotfr«!^ In Mk 
«ldieihl-^«mig^9 Ae gi^a««r fan Hf iiKe fo^ndh 
heaty ca^ahy i^fe ulteohatfely ieitttrfM. >Bwmhi^ 
parte hints at it in his bulletin ^^im Ali&tikpt'4tilSb 
lothom ord^vs, and eontittMd <»iy by the des^cfHite 
couraga^ef the ifotdief s and iAmw tlSa^r^ h is tie^- 
tain, that in the destruction of this noble body ef 
CiMrassiers, he lost the jcqrps which migb^ have {{Men 
BM>9t i»ffeetusl in covering his retreat. Af«^ 'die %l^ 
ken remains of this fine ciavalry were drawn off, the 
Freaeb confined tbemsdves fbr a tin^ to a hexff 
cattwdnade, from which the Britiish i^h^tered th^- 
sekes in part Iqr lyii^ do^n on the grOBsd, wMte 

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th^i&amif fs^fMtAJm jm Jiltack tn aiiollatr ^owt. 
ll ^W JQiiw dboHliskc o'docjcy jiadidoHiig tiinrloH|f 

8I|Q998»01l of )th« 'J008t;fimOIIB.AttidBi^)«be fteiMdi 

kftd pin^ no vfiiKote «iiYe mmpjii:^ Sir s tiia^ 
thi^ wMd jKtpiInd ili^ittfliit»ifom iMiicb ,ikf dndt 

adl^r handf;hftiiWiffei*ed Yeijr aemfel^ bqt jijil adt 
Ipil »0 iwh ;<)f ig^omAjf amt tlie tiRPOfmlK aowriiL 

ai^A wQunditd;; /seme of the icsmga mggimmitB rl^ad 
ffimfi mmify Atiiug^ .irfiiefis liad sbdwa ii^emmtAm^ 
f9m^ ^uf . A^ the catiks w«ite tthinnfld lurib bgf 
ifce )^!]a} ifiigifi?e3% b^ by die idbseofle ^ ondivi- 
40ldi9» (wh0 W% dfie UpiKly fi^K for the fmifote of 
QMrt^ii^ o£P lib^ wonnddd, %uid Mme ttf nisto nuglft 
iHlHurilily b^ an ao liiitry ito reMrn 'to so/firtui a 

Bl^ tjl^ Frenph, bmdeslofliii^ahidt ISyOOftiow^ 
t^oldvirlHtb » cdlmnn i^pmcoAenmokeiimM'SMb 
mmmlmTfU^nMrn to 1^ distntbed hy<4iiB.<aptmi^ 
t^ms ji^itlte f fosdiajiB op /dtsir nght imk^s slid the* . 
Ifiorel of i A« Xh^ i>f U^HingtoB ^vas ^jUidoiiligf il*. 
9ti£ klf its ctti^iiqpieiiees. ^Um^her, ftiAlial to fate 
ei}ff(|rQnlieiaf had, etiAy ih ithe aiortin%, ptst & 
n^OB Bi4(mP« idbdaioD^ ichicdi had <Bot bcMi ga^ 
glgefl ii; iigi^rvlD oo|imi}Bio8te wiA fingKA 
anosTf und apfeHi|)e;a divmioii onithe'tq^Jwrlk ani 

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4t0 tiwmot 

Mff of the t^rendi. Bat alduNif^ time veA ( 
about twelve or ftmrteeii miles between Vftiwre aad 
ilie iidd €t Waterloo, yet the maida was, by ixu^ 
voidable circunsstaoces, rnneh ddsyed. Hie rin- 
ged faee of the comitry, togedier with the sUte of 
the roads, so often referred to, ofiSsfed the most se- 
lioos obstacles to the progrsss of the PnissiaBs, es- 
pecially M they moved with an unusiiaHy laige tnon 
of artilleiy. A fire, also, which brdke out in WavM, 
on the morning of the 18th, prevented Bulow^s corps 
fipom mardmig through ihat town, and obliged them 
to puisue a circuitous and inconvenient route. Af-* 
ter traversing, with great diffeuhy, the cross-ieads 
by Chapelle Lambert, Bulow, .with the 4th Prus- 
sian corps, who had been expected by the Duke of 
Wdlington about* 11 o^dock, announced his arrival 
by a distant fire, about half-past four. The first 
Prussian corps, following the same route with Bu- 
low, was yet later in coming up. The second divi- 
non made a lateral movement in the same dkec- 
ti<m as the fourth and first, but by the hamlet of 
Ohain, nearer to the Eng^iidi flank* The Emperor 
instandy oj^posed to Bulow, who appeared long be* 
f<rire the others, the 6th French corps, which he had 
kept in rte^rve for that sarvice ; and, as only d»e ad- 
vanced guard was come up, they succeeded in keep- 
ing die Prussians in dieck fiw the moment* The first 
and second Prussian corps appeared on the field still 
later than the fourth* The third corps had put them- 

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selves in modon to follow in the same direolioii^ 
when they were fiiriously attacked by the Freneh 
und^ Mareschal Grouchy , who, as alreiidy stated^ 
was detached to engnge thd alfention' of Bliiic1ier» 
whose whole force he believed he had bdbre hitai. 

Instead of being surprised, as an ordinary gene* ' 
ral might have been, with this attack upon> his rear,' 
BUeher contented himself with sendii^ bade orders 
to Thielman who commanded the third corps/ to 
defend himself as well as he could upon the Hue of 
the Dylei In the mean time, without weakening the 
army undear his own command, by detaching any 
part of it to support Thielman, the veteran rather 
hastened than suspended his march towards thefield 
of battle,' where he was aware that the wakr was likely; 
to be decided in i& manner so complete, as would 
leave victory or defeat en every other point a matter 
of subordinate consideration. 
. At half-past six, or thereabouts, the sc^cond grand 
^vision of the Prussian army began to enter into 
communication with the British left, by the village of 
Ohain, while Bulow .pressed forwnrd from Chi^Ile 
Lambert on the French right and rear^ by.a faoHow 
or valley called Frischemont. It became now evi- 
dent that the Prussians were to enter seriously into 
the battle, and with great force. Napoleon 4iad still 
the means of opposing them, and of achieving a re- 
treat, at the certainty, however, of being attacked 
npoa the ensuing day by the combined anni%6 of Bri« 

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tafaiMdAmns. His ceMbnted Guard liAdaotyiet 
tidreii ray fitrt in dte odnflvit, and wonld nnr have 
been c^wUe of affin dtn g fafan protection after a bat- 
lOe wUcb, Utheito, he hnd ftngfat at disafaanfiige, 
but iiMiddt1)mngdeftated. But iJw ctreimiatanocs 
by wfaidi be wan eunounded must bave praaaed on 
Ida mind At cMio^. He bad no anccouvs to lorik ibr ; 
a re-onidn iri A Oioak^y wib die oidy reabnxce wfaaeb 
could strengthen his ftrccfs ; the Russians vise ad- 
Vandng upon the Rhine widi forced nufri^es ; Ae 
Republicans at Paris were agitating scbemes against 
I& authdrirjr. It seemed as if all nMt be decided 
on that day, and on that teld. Surrounded by diese 
ifl-omened circumstances^ « desperate eflbri fisr no- 
tary, ere the Prussians could act effectually, might 
peAaps yet driye the English from their position ; 
and he determined to venture on this dating experi- 

About seven o'clock, Napbteon^s Ouaid were form- 
ed In tiro columns,nnder his o#n e]re,near the bottom 
of the declivity of La BeHe Alliance. Hey were put 
ittider command of the dauntleas Ney. Buonaparte 
tbld the soldiers, afid, indeed, imposed ib^ same fic- 
tion on ^bdr commander, that the Prussiaite irhbm 
Hhey saw on the right were retreating before Groudiy. 
Perhaps he might himseif believe that this was true. 
The &t£ard answered, for the last time, with shouts 
trffTfee VWiwjpeTeu^y and moved resolutety forward, 
having, for dieir support, four battdUons of the DM 

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If APOLEQK «Q9VAPAftT£. 4§fi 

Qm^ in ras^rye, who sippd piwpaied to pi0km^ 
adyance of their eomrndes. A gr»dHa) cM^^^liirt 
taken plaiie iit the £i«liab linct of liMid^ iH. opmI^ 
jipittUMoftheoQteitedrepidiiedrdli^FYMKdl*. 4A^ 
TBoomg I7 slow d^greet, ihft njglM^ whidkr «t thf 
bq^uig of tk« coofltct^ praiiHitcda t^B^fsum «f;» 
ceviei: oncle,. mm imtmbMt cmt Aot «m f^^ 
fiflTO, tfad extreme sigfati which hml hem Ats>w» 
buck, being now rmihor brought £xrwax^ to Afltthtir 
fire both of jnrtOIery ondinfimtry Mi iipon Ae iiidk 
of Ae Fronch^ wh^ hodako toouat^w that iR^chiw 
fmnd on tiioar Jifonl fixm the h^^bto. The Brj^ 
.Miib mffe anoiged ^i^a lino ofl^fonmoft doep^ to moot 
the advaiidiig eobnons o£ (he Frefe^^b Guards 9^ 
pomed upon jboHi a 8to«m>of nuiaketigr wdiieh novat 
ceaaed an instant. ¥be aoldions ioo4 ■idopEtodfiitli;^ 
as it k dfled; oadi niaai It^odinigand diaebaiyb^ipbia 
Tfiece m fitsl as he odidd. Atskfigtii the BritiA 
moted ibrwaid, aa if to dose Nnmd.Ae hendo of 
ihe e0lumnS| aiid lit tbe Mno tiaio i^sAtimt^^otfrnt 
tbehr shot upon the ononis flttdai, The Froncb 
g^Ikmtly itttaeopted to d^y, for the^iypfpoae of isbk 
tumiligihefiscbarge. Ritinllioil^tfiMaMdoso^'tnv 
der so dt^adftf a tire, Aey stopt, Mi|ig«i«d> bOoMq» 
disonlei^, w^ft^U^ided itito^^^e>itfaiiiyaada$loi^ 
gate Way, ififtiriiif^, or raftet.iytttgy in die ilQOoat eo»« 
fusibtt. Tins w#ii the liif efibit ^ 4bt enedifr-P^ 
iiic pcAtm give oidetti for Jbt rotwat ; to ^nMai 
i^ch, he faad-^BO^ no tttk>pa lahf, sa^ th^ liMPf^ 

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494 ur% OF 

battalktfis of the (Md Guaidt whidi had been sta^ 
iMmed in the re«r of the atfcting colunuts. These 
threw themaelTes into aquaies, and stood firm. But 
at this moment the Dnke of Wellington commanded 
the whok Mtish line to adranee, so that whaterer 
the bMYery end skill of these gallant yeteians, 
they also were thrown into disorder, and swept aw^ 
in the gmeral lout, in spite of the effinrts ofHej, 
whO) haying had his horse killed^ fimgfat sword in 
hand, and on foot, in the finnt of the battle, till the 
yery last. That Mareschal, whose military yirtues 
at least cannot be diallenged, boce personal eyidence * 
against two drcnrastancesy industriously drculaled 
by the firiends of Napoleon. One of these fictions 
occurs in his own bulletin, which charges the loss of 
the battle to a panic fear, brought about by the trea- 
diery of some unknown persons, who raised the cry 
of *^ Saum qui petU.** Another figment, greedily 
credited at Paris, bore, that the four battalions of Old 
Gtturds, the last who maintained the semblance of 
<^er, Miswereda summons (p mmead^Tf by the mag- 
nanimous reply, *' The Gpard can die, but cannot 
yieU*^ And (me edition oftb^stojry adds, that there- 
upon the battaiion^^ made i| h^lf wh^el inwards, and 
discharged their muskets into each others bosoms, to 
save themselyfes bom dying by the hands of the 
E^BigUsh* Neither the original reply, nor the pre- 
tended; self-saerifi^ of the Guard, haye the slights 
esjt foundation, Qambrone, in whose mopth ^e 

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speech was placed, gave up his own sword, and re- 
mained prisoner ; and the military conduct of the 
French Guard is better eulogised by the undisputed 
truth, that they fought to extremity, with * the most 
unyielding constancy; than by imputing to them an 
act of regimental suicide upon the lost field of battle. 
£very attribute of brave men they have a just right 
to claim. It is no compliment to ascribe to them 
that of madmen. Whether the words were used by 
Cambrone or no, the Guard well deserved to luive 
them inscribed on their monument. 

Whilst this decisive movement took place, Bulow, 
who had concentrated his troops, and was at length 
qualified to act in force, carried the village of Plan- 
chenoit in the French tear* and was now firing so 
dose on their right wing, that the cannonade annoyed 
the British who were in pursuit, and was suspended 
in consequence* Moving in oblique lines, the Bri- 
tish and Prussian armies came into contact with each 
other on the heights so lately occupied by the French, 
and celebrated the victory with loud shouts of mu- 
tual congratulation. ^ 
' The French army was now in total and inextri- 
cable confusion and rout ; and when the victorious 
generals met at the fbrm-house of La Belle Alliance, 
it was agreed that the Prussians, who were fresh in 
comparison, should follow up the chase, a duty for 
which the British, exhausted by the fatigues of 4 
battle of eight hours, were totally inadequate. 

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4Qfi UFK OF 

llviiig tbe whole nctiaD^ Ni^lem maintiiiped 
tl^e utmoti aereiuty. He remained on the hei|{ht9 
of l4iB^ AlUaiice^ keq^((.pr^ peaitnii 

Inm ^^ be W s fiill Tiew of tbefielc^,, y^^ 
doe» not exoecifi « xujb end a.helf m leng^/ He 
ec[ig|raie|^ no aolioitqd® o^ the &te 'of the ban|e &r 
a long time*^ noticed the behaviour of jp^culai: »- 
gpnientst aiid praised the English seyend timea, ^L 
W^JB9 boweyer, talkin|f of thepn as an aaaiire^ ppq» 
When fiinning hia Guard f^r the Uat &tal effort^ 
^ deao^ded near then»» half down* %kp cawaewar|f 
from La Belle AlUanoet to. be^fiow upon them what 
groyed his {Mirting e^artation. He watehe4 in? 
^tij their |«x)groas with a vfyf^fl^, and refused tp 
liaten la one or two aides-de-ounp^ who at that mp- 
mspt came from the vii^t- to inform him of the a^ 
jjaanmce of the Pruasians^ Ajt. lengitb* on aeein|B; 
th^ .attackini^ eolumna stagger .and become confiiaed^ 
bia connteiumce^ said our informer, became ^e hi 
that of a corpa^ a,nd muttering to himsetfi <* Thf^ 
aise mingled tqgetheiv" he said to his attendants, 
<< All is lost for the present,"" and; rode off the fi^d ; 
not etqpfing or Ndng refroahment till he reaped 
Chaorleroi^ where be pauaed for » moment in a mea- 
dow, and occng^ed a tent which bad be^ pitched 
for his acysimunpdation.* 

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Meahtifne the pursuit o^ bi^ <fiscoinflted amy^viia 
followed up by Bluchet^ witb the most ^el«miMd 
peneverauce. He accelerated tbemtt^^ oftbe Tf^nJM^ 
fSaxx advanced-guard, tod dbpatdbed^^^ry iuaii'W)! 
horse of bis ciivalrj upon the pursuit ^the ^git^tf 
JPrencfa. At Grenai^ they alteftlpti^ 'iM>metlftiig 
ttke defence, by bfuricading thehMge mid HfF^tsI 
but the Prussians fbrced then bk « imbfnln^,' mA 
although the French were suiBmenlly nunierduailRff 
rcEistance, thdr disorder was so inremedMde; lUld 
^ir moral courage was so absolutely ^iielled fer^^ili 
nioment, that in many cases they were slaugfatei^^ 
like sheep^ They were driven from bivouac to 1^^ 
vbuac, without exhibiting even the shadow of fheir 
usual courage. One hundred and fifty gung weirel^ 
in the hands of the Engliisb, and a &&etnfikb(»^ 
taken by the Prussians in course of i^epursuii ^Ffci 
latter obtained possession also of all Napcdeon^s^ bo^^ 
gage, and of his carriage, where, amongst many ar- 
ticles of curiosity^ was found ' a proclamotioilf intend- 
ed to be made public at Brussels the next^^y. 

The loss on the British sid6 during thi£^d»»adfU 
battle^ was, as the Duke of Wellington, no «ser of e«i 

during the whole action, and accompnnted him to Gkarleroi. He 
■eenKd a shrewd sensible man in hi^ waj, |U)# t^ld h^jtMy, y^l^ 
jthe utmost simplicity* The author saw him, and heard his natra* 
live very shortly after the action. 

VOL. VIII. . 2 I 

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498 LI>'£ OF 


Hggeratad expreauons, truly tenned it, immense. One 
buadxed officers slun, five hundred, wounded, many 
of them to dealb^ fifteeyi thousand men killed and 
^oundod, (inde]pendsiit of the Prussian loss at Wa- 
wxtf) threw half Britain into n^ourniiig. M^ny oiGU 
cem of distifietion fell. It reared all the glQfy» and 
lil the solid advantages, oS this in^nortal day^ to re^ 
O0i|cile the nund to the high price at which it W9fi 
pmr^llised. Th^ Commander-in-chief, ompelled to 
be on er&y point of danger, was repeatedly in the 
greatest jeopardy. Onjy ^he Duke .himself, and one 
glBBtlemanpf hisnumer^itts staff, esci^ed unif ound^^ 
ed in iM^se andperson. 

• It w^uld be difficult to form a gu^ss at the extent 
of $he French loss. Besides diose who fell in the 
battle and ffight, great numbers deserted. We do 
not b^eve, that of 75,000 men^ the half were ey^r 
again c^lkcted imdeor airms« 

. Haying finisfaed our aqcount of this memoraye 
action^-we ave led to notice the.communication&f and 
Criticisms of Napoleon himself on the snlgect, .partly 
as illustrative of the narrative, but iQuch .more as 
indicatii^ his own character. 

The account of the battle of Waterloo, dictated by 
Kapcdeon to Goui{pau4» so severely exposed by Gene^ 
ral Grouchy as a mere military roma]ace, full of gnn 
tuitous suppositions, misrepresentations^ and absolute 

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fWIsehoods, accuses the subordinate generics who 
•fought under Buonaparte of having greatly degene- 
rated from their orgiiial character, Ney and Grouchy 
.4re particularly aimed at ; the f<H*mef by name, the 
latter by obvious implicatioQ. It is s&id they had 
lost that energy arid enterprising genius by which 
they had formerly been distinguished, aifd to wUch 
France owed her triumphs. They had become ttmc^ 
fous and circumspect in all their operations ; and air 
tto<]{^ their personal bravery remains, their greav 
est object was to compromise themselves as little as 
possible. This general remark, intended^ of course, 
to pave the way for transferring ftpm the Emperoir 
to his lieutenants the blame of the miscarriage of the 
campaign, is both unjust and ungrateful. Had they 
lost energy, Tvho. struggled to the very last in the field 
of Waterloo^ long aft^the Emperor had left thefield? 
Was Grouchy undecided in his operations, who 
brought his own division safe to Paris, in spite of alj 
theobstacles opposed to him by avictoriousarroy, three 
times the amount of his own in numbers ? Both these 
officers had given up, for the sake of Napoleon, the 
rank and appointmeats which they might have peace- 
fully borne under the Bourbons. Did it indicate the 
reluctance to commit themselves, with which they 
are charged, that they ventured on the decided step 
of joining hi& desperate career, not only abandoning 
all Teasmdi to their interest and their safety, but corn- 

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pMnuing dieir charader as men of loyalty iii tte 
fkee pf ali Emqpe, a«d expoaiiig tfaemsdyes to ser- 
Vun deaths if the Boutbons should be successftd? 
"Thoee who fight with the cosd aiDund their nedc, 
•which was deddedly the case with Gioudiy and 
•'Ney, must ha^^ h^ed the forlorn hope ; and is it 
Consistent with human nature, in sueh.oivcunrataimS) 
-to beHeire ihat ^hi0y, whose fertane and saCbtj&.dt- 
-pei^edfon th^ notary, pet^sonatly braye as they an^ 
-admitted to be, should have loitered in the rear, 
^en thek fate was in the balance P 
•' He who was unjust to his own followeist can 
scaree be eiq>ected to be candid towaids A eskcmy. 
The Duke of Wellington has,upon i^ occasions, be^ 
wiffing to render the milit^ ^raeter of Ni^p^daiw 
that justice which a generous wind is scrtqpidonsljf 
accurate an adversary /and has readily 
^^dmibted that the conduct of Buonaparte and hisarmy 
t>n this memorable occaision, was fiilly adeqiiate to th^ 
support of their high reputation. It may be said, that 
the victor can affi>rd to bestow praise on the vanquish- 
ed, but that it requires a superior degree of candour .in 
the vanquished to do justice to the conquaror. Napa- 
leon, at any rate, does not seem to have attained^in 
this particular, to the pitch of a great or exalted mind, 
since both he and the various .persons whom he em- 
ployed as the means of circulating his statemeiita, 
concur in a very futile attempt to excuse the defeat 

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% 1826 .§■ 

at Walerloo, by a sel of apologies founded in a gre«( 
degree upon mitsrepresentaCioD. The reader will fiad 
these sdei^tifically discussed in a vaiuable article ia 
the Appendix.* But it may be necessary^ at Am 
risk of some repetition^ to take some notice <^ them 
here in a popular &rm. The allegiitions, which are 
designed to fNtrre the ineapadty of the British ^6o» 
nsmlf and to.shdw that tlie Battle of W^dierloo wa» 
6nly ket by a combination of extraordinary fiitaM^j: 
may be coasidj^rod in their drder* 
r The fifsjtV.and most fre^ehtly repeated^ is dm 
charge^ that the Duke of Wdlington^ oa Ate I6ih$i 
viis surprised in his cantonments, and coidd tfot edk; 
li^lhk artoy fist enough at Quatre Brab. In thb Ua^ 
, Grace would faaVefoeen doubtless highly censurdUe^lf 
Napoleon had^ by express information^ or any distincti 
nioyement indicative of his purpose^ shown upon 
which point he meant to advance. But the chivalrous 
practice of fixing a field of combat has been long out . ' 
of date ; and Napoleon beyond all generals, possesseil 
t^e art of masking his own movements, and mislead- ; 
ing bis enemy concerning the aptual point on which ' 
he meditated ah attack. The Duke and Prince BIu* 
eber were, therefore, obliged tq provide for the con- 

f Vide an itooount of .the action oC Waterloo, equally iotelligiUb i 
and JicientiBc, drawn up by Captain Pringle of the Artillery, which 
will amply supply the deficiencies of our narrative. . . i 

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508 LIFE OF 

eentratioii of their fences upon different potpts, ae^ 
oording as Bnonaparte^s sdection sfaonid be jnanifest^ 
ed ; and in order to be ready to assemble their forces 
upon any one position, they must by spreading th^r 
eaatonments, in some degree delay the movemait 
upiNi dL The Duke oould not stir from Broasela, or 
eoneentrate his forees, until he had certain infiMnm^onr 
«f those of the enemy; and it is said that a Fimdi 
statesman, who had promised to send him a eopy of 
the plan of Buonaparte^ campaign, oontnTed by a 
trick ef policy to evade keeping his word.* We do 
not mean to deny the talent and aedvi^ display* 
ed by Buonaparte, who, if he could have bvonghl' 
fbrwacd his whole array upon the e?eimig of lli» Ifith 
of June, might probably have succeeded in prevent- 
ing the meditated junction of Bludier and WeUing- 

* This was Fouch^, who seems to have been engaged in ae- 
CMt oomspondmioe with all and smidry of the belUgerent powers, 
wliilo ho was Minister of Polios under Ni^^oleon. In hi» JUjd- 
moirs, he is made to boast that he contrived to keep his ward to 
the Duke of Wellington, by sending the plan of BoonaparteV 
cmpaign by ^ female, a Flemish postmistBess, whom he b^ wait 
for on the frontier, and oaused to be arrested. Thus he . 

— -. kept the word of promise to the ear. 
And broke it to the sense. 

This story, we have some reason to bdieve, is true. One of ths 
Danrels of our times is how Fooeh^ after having beea the main- 
spring of sudi a oonqilioation of plots and oounteqpliits, revolu- 
tionary and oouoter.anevolutionary intrigues, contrived after all to 

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ton. But' the cdebraled prayer for aDaihilatton c£ 
isme and space, would be as litde reasopable in the 
noKfth of a general as of a lover, and, fettored by the 
liinitations against which that modest petition is di- 
rected, Buonaparte lailed in bringing forward in dtie 
time a raffieient body of forces to carry all belbre him 
at Quatre Bras ; while^ on the other, faand^ the Didce 
ef Wellington, from the same obstacles of time ai^ 
space, could not assemble a force sufficient to diiTe 
Ney before hhn, and esdAr Um to advimoe fq tibfi 
support of Btneher during the action of ligtty.* 

The choice of l^ field of Waterloo is tiko dmrged 
a^nsl'die Duke of Wdlington as an acfrof Weidt 
judgment; because, although posaesaed of aQ the re«' 
qubiCes fer maintaiBing batde or pursuing nctory; 
aad above idl, of thefiidlities fiyr communicating wi^ 

' ^ Smne people have been sflly enough to oontider the Duke of 
Vff^JingMn'n hemg surpriied m a thing indiqwitiiUe^ beoaiue the 

S)f the French advance first reached him in a ball-room. It 
t)0 supposed that these good men's idea of war is, that a gene* 
wild sit emtinel with his truncheon in his haind, like a statue 
midst of a city market«place, until thft tidings eome whid^ 
call K|m to the. field. 

. Free is his heart who fpr his country fights ; 
He on the eve of battle may resign 
Himself 'to sooiai pleasure-^sweetest then, ^ -' 

^hen danger to the soldier's toul endears - ' : * 

Thv human j<iy that never may return. . ■ . 

Homers DoughL$> 

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MM Lirs OF 

die Frtugnaa 9xmf, it bad vqt, acc^^g t0 tbe Im^ 
penal critic, tbe means of affordu^- securUy in case 
of ft Tftreaty ainpe thex« wa» ooly one commnwiftitwii 
to the reai^bat bj,;the cmsewit; of BriiMda^ the 
mt of ^tbe poaitioa heiag acreraed by tbe forest of 
8a|gne% jp firpot pf widely the Bnuak nxmjw^ 
fiirmed^ apd through wfaieb^ it is assumed^ ^^^f^ 
was iji^ssible. . . .: , 

.. Takj^g the prmdple of t^B criticism as 1^^ 
it m^ be answere4, that fttgeneral wQuId sever bait 
or fight 8t ril^ if be w^ fco iduse eombut pa ever^ 
othei save a field of b^de which po^se^^ aU the 
iwotts^ext^UenaoB wbich p^^catfd 4af one 

iQ theorj. The conpow^^r mm^ oeasUev «betb«r 
the ground suits his present exigencies, wijtl^Ht look* 
11^ at other cucumfiAan^ whidi may be kss i»e89B|t 
at the time. Generals have been known to dboose 
by preference the ground from which there could be 
no retiring ; like invaders who bum their sbipi, as a 
pledge that th^ will follow tl^ enterprise to the last- 
And ^though provision for a safe retreat is certain- 
ly in iDoiBt cases a. desirable circmns|;ance» has 
been dispensed with by good generals, and by none 
more frequently than by Napoleon himself. Was not 
the battle of Essling fought without any possible 
mode of retreat save the frail bridges oyer the Da- 
nube ? — WwB not that of Wa^am debated under 
similar circumstances? — And, to complete tbe whole. 

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d^A mi Niipilieoii, while oeiitaritig the Duke of 
WeUii^toil for fighting in firont of a forest faimseif^' 
eHI^ upon c^flict with a defile in his rear, &rinec| 
b}r the narrow streets and narrower bridge of 6e« 
nvppffa hy which idone, if de&ated, he could cross 
the DylerP — It nt%ht, theref<»e, Jbe presumed^that 
if the Duke of Wellington chosfe a posiUon fisDm 
w]»idb i»trea( was difficulty he must have consideisd 
thenecessity of retreoii; us imlik^, and reckoned widi 
c^nfidoace on-being ablete mtios good In'tfbindvstil 
the Prussians shouldroome up to join Min. 
' Even this does not exhaust the question ; for the 
JE^1^gl]$(fa g^eral-offioers unite in cohsidc^g die *fo- 
real ^ Soignes as a very advantageous feature in thji 
field ; and, far from apprehending the leaist iilcoUr 
vj^ienee from its e&tstence, the Duke of W'^Qibgtbif 
regarded it as afibrding a position, which, ifliis firsf 
and ^ctod line had been unhappily forced, he in%hf 
have ..nevertheless made good against the who/^ 
Fiench army« The hamlet of Mont Saint 3e&n, in 
front, affords an excellent key to the position of ail 
army compelled to occupy the forest. The wood it- 
self is everywhere passable for meh and borees, the 
tcces being tall, and without either low boughs or 
miderwdod ; and, singuhir as tbe discrepancy be-* 
two^ the opinions of distinguished soldiers may 
seem, we have never met an English officer who ditl 

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806 LIFE OF 

not look ott the forest of Soigaes as affordliDg an adU 
mirafale position for making a final stand* In supw 
port of thcb (qpinion they refer to die defence of the 
Bois de Boesu, near Qaatre-Braay against the vdte- 
rated attacks of Marescbal Nej. This impeadunent 
of the Dyke of Wellington maj therefeBo be set 
aside, as inconsistent with the principles c^ British 
warfiure^ AIL that can be added is, that there «re 
cases in which national habits and mann»s may ren- 
der « position adnuttj^eous to soldiers of one coun-*. 
try, which ia perilous or destrocdve to thoee of an- 

The next subject of invidious cridciflm U q£ ik 
nature so singdar^ that, did it not originate with Jk 
great xoan^ in peculiar circumstances of adTersity, k 
might be almost, termed ludicrous Napoleon ex*^ 
pressea himself as dissuisfied, because he was defil^t-. 
ed in the common and vulgar proceeding of down- 
right fi^^btiog, and by no special manonivrea or pe-' 
cnliar display of military art on. the part of the vic« 
tor. But if it can afford my consolation to. those 
who. cherish hi& fame, it is easy to show, diat Napo* 
leon fisll ^ victiju to a scheme of tactics early conceiv* 
ed^ and piersevcred iu under drcumstances whidv in 
the case fji ordinary men, would have occa^pned its 
being abandoned ; resumed after events which seem* 
e4 8o adverse, that nothing. save dauntless couri^ 
and unlimited confidence cpuld have enabled the 

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obieft to proceed in their purpose ; and carried into 
execution, without Napoleon'^s being able to penetrate 
the purpose of the allied generals, until it was im- 
possible to prevent the annihilation of his army ;-^ 
that he fell^ in short, by a grand plan of strategic, 
worthy of being compared to that of any of his own 
admirable campaigns. 

To prove what we have said, it is only necessary 
to remark, that the natural bases and points of re« 
treat of the Prussian and English armies were* dif- 
ferent; the former bdng directed on Maestricht, the 
other on Antwerp, where each expected their rein- 
forcemj^nts; Begardless of tins, and with full confi- 
dence in each other, the Prince Mar^chal Bhi- 
cher, and the Duke of Wellington, agreed to act 
in conjunction against the French army. The union 
of their forces, for which both were prepared, was 
destined to have taken place at Ligiiy, where the 
Duke designed to have supported the Prussians, and 
where Blucher hazarded an action in expectation of 
his ally^s assistance. The active movements of Na* 
poleon, and the impoissibility of the English force 
being suffidently concentrated at Quatre-Bras to af- 
ford the means of overpowering Ney and the force in 
their front, prevented their making a lateral march 
to relieve Blucher at that critical period. Otherwise, 
the parts of the bloody drama, as afterwards acted, 
lieould have been reversed, and thp British army would 

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509 LIFE qw 

liave moved to support the Prussians at Ligny, as 
the Prussians came to the aid of the British at Wa- 

' Najpoleon had the merit of disconcerting this plaii 
for the time ; but he did not, and could not, discover 
that the allied genends retained, after the loss of the 
battle of Ligny, the same purpose which they had- 
adopted on thctcdmm^cement'of the campaign. He 
imagined, as did all around him, that Blucher must 
retreat on Namur, or in siich a direction as would- 
effectually accompli^ a aeparatioh betwixt faim and 
the Enj^sfa, lis it wais natural to think a defeated 
army should approach towards Hs own resources, in- 
stead of attempting further offensive operations^ At 
all events. Napoleon was in this respect so much 
mistaken, as to believe that if Blucher did retire on 
the same line with the English, the means which the 
Prussian retained for co-operating with his allies^ 
Were so limited, aiid (perhaps he might thinl) the 
spirit of the general so subdued, that Mareschal 
.Grouchy, with .32,000 men, woidd hd sufficient to' 
keep the whole PfuEsian force in check. . The Mares-^ 
chal was accordingly, as we have seen, dispatched 
much too late, without any other instructions than to 
follow and engage the attention of the Prussians^ 
Misled by the demonstration of Blucher^ he at first 
took the road to Namur, and thus, without any fault 

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'4m liis patt, lost time, which was inconceivably pre- 

Buonaparte^i subsequent accounts of this actioii 
blame Mareschal Grroucby for not discovering Bill- > 
cherts real direction, whiph he had no means of ascer* 
taining, and for not obeying orders which Were nfev^r 
given to hiim/ and which could not %ie given, becau^ 
Napoleon was as ignorant as the Mareschal, that Blil^ 
cher had formed the determination, at all events, ib 
tinite himself with Wellington. Thispiurpose of act- 
ing in co-operation, formed and persevered in, was to 
the French Emperor the riddleof the Sphinx, and he 
>pi^s destroyed because he could not discover it. Iii- 
4deed he ridiculed even the idea of such an event. One 
of .his oflicers, according to Baron Muffling, having 
hinted at the mere possibility of a junction between 
' tlie Prussian army and that of Wellington, he smiled 
contemptuouslyatthethought. ** The Prussian army/* 
he siaid, " is defeated — it oannot rally for three days 
—I have 76,000 men, the English only ^0,000. The 
town of Brussels awaits me with open arms. The 
English Opposition waits but for my success to raise 
their heads. Then adieu subsidies, and farewell co- 
alition r In UKe manner. Napoleon frankly adknow-. 
l€%ed, while on board the North^mWland, that he 
had no idea that the Duke of Wellington meant lo 
'ifight, and therefore omitted to reconnoitre the^raondl 

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.with ftufficienl accuracy* It k wril laio«ni» that when 
he observed them 8l31 m theirposition <m the.inom- 
.iagotihd 18th, he exclaimed, '* I have theniy Aea, 
these English r 

It was half past ^eveo,^ just about die time tbait 
the battle of Waterloo ceaimeiiced, that Grouchy, 
as aheady hinted, overtook the rear of the Pru»> 
.aians* A strong force, appearing to be the whole of 
the Pnuaian army, lay before the French Marei^- 
chal, who, from the ^aracter of the ground, had no 
means of ascertainbg their numbers, or of disoover- 
ing the fact, that three divisions of Blucher'a army 
were ahready on the march to their right, through 
the passes of Saint Lambert ; and that it was ody 
l]1iirtman''s division which reapained upon the Uyle. 
Still less could he know, what could only be. known 
to the Duke and Blucher, that. the English were 
determined to give battle in the position at Wat^- 
loo. He heard, indeed, a heavy cannonade. in. that 
direction, but that might have proceeded .firoai m 
attack on the British rear-rguard, the Duke betng, 
in the general opinion of the-French araty, in ftdl 
retreat upon Antwerp. At any rate, the Mares* 
. chalV orders were to attack die en^y which 1^ 
'found bsfare him. He could not but xemmbef^ 
that" Ney had been reprimanded for detachipg a;part 
of his force on the 16tb, in consequoice of a dia- 

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tani can&Qiukle ; and fae was naturally desiroiw to 
amid ^oensore for the self-same cause. E^A if Na- 
IKdeon was seriously engaged with tlie Eoglisht it 
seemed the business of Grouchy to occupy the large 
fiysce which he obaeived at^ Wavxe, and disppsed 
alon^ the D]^ to|NRfv«Bt their attemptbg^anyihing 
•gainst N«]Kileo!i$ if, con^ary to probahility^ the £». 
peior should be engaged jm a goMvallMilde. La^^ 
^mGtmxchyjw^ to fonnlw sesolntion under ihe idea 
of haying the whole Prasaiaa force before him, which 
was eBtinuitcd at 90,000 men^ it would baire been 
iaipoanUe &t him to.detaoh &om an armyof 38,000 
ittU^eonsiderable body, to the assistance of Napoleon; 
and in attaddj^rwith such inadequate nusdtiors,. fae 
ahbwed his deTofion, at4he risk of being totally ^do^ 

He esgag^d^ however, in battle without any hesi^ 
tatton, and attacked the line ct the Prussians, along 
<ihe Dyleoo e?ery accessible point ; to wit« at V/ayre» 
•«t tile mill of Bielge, and at the villag^e of Ximale. 
The points of attackweie desperately'defended by the 
• Prussians' under Thiefanan, so that Grouchy could 
only oecapi^ that partof Wavre which was on his own 
side of the Djle! About four o'clock^ and consequent* 
iy when the fate of the battleof Waterloo was nearly 
deeded, 6r^<^y received from Mareschal Soult 
rike only older which reached him during, the day. 

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teqifiriiig hitti to laaaoMifTe to jut to vnite hiuelf to 
tlie right flank of the Empetoty bat at tte same 
lime acquaiiitiag him with the (fiUse) istdl^^oc^ 
that the bM9e wM gained upon ^ Kiie of Wator^ 
loo. A postatript informed Groadiy, that Bulow wai 
appearing upon Napoleon*« right flaiA, and that if 
lie oould come up ytkh apeed> he would take the 
Brossian^/lfl^aflfe deiicio. 

These orders were qmte intelMgibie. B«t tw0 
Uiihgs Were necessary to their being cameii into 
execution. First, that Grouchy should get dear of 
Thiehnim,. t^e enemy with whom he was cfesdjr en^ 
gagedy and who would not fail to pursue the Pvend 
Itf aresciiid if be retreated or moved to his 1^ flatikv 
WitUout'faaiing repined him. •Seconl^, it was in- 
dispensable he sbodid pass the small river DylOj d& 
fended by Thielman's division, since the road lead- 
ing through the Woods of Chapefle Lasibert, was that 
hj which he could b^t execute his mardi tpwaidis 
Wateiioo. Grouchy redoubled his eferts to force 
tbe Dyle, biit he oeuld not succeed tin night, and 
then but partially ; fbr the l^ussians continued to 
Irold Ae mill of Bielge, and reniaiued in fonse within 
a cannoh-shot of Grouchy^s positioli. 

In tlie morning, the Mareschal, anxious to karn 
with certainty the fate of Napoleon, though bc&vu 
ing, aconrdittg le Soult^s letter, diet he wm vio- 

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torioiui, sent out reconnoitring parties. When he 
learned, the truth, he commenced a retreat, which 
he^ciHidttcted .with such talent, that though close- 
ly pursued by th^ Prussians^ then in all^ the animar 
tion.of triumph, and though sustaining considerj^ 
bJO; Ipss^.he.was enabled to bring his corpisf unbror 
ken.upder the walls of Paris.. Weighing, all these, 
drcumstances, it appears that Buonaparte bad no 
right 4o count upon the assistanee of 6roi|^chy, far 
less to throw censure on that general for not coning 
to his assis^noe, since he scrupuloi;|sly obeyed the 
Qfders be received ^ and wl^en at foifr 9'Qlfjdky that 
of ajytacking ^d presring, the. Prussian. rear ivjiifqv^ 
Ufied l^ the dire^ions of Sou^t, to close 19 to Buo- 
BaparteV right ^wingyGrpu^chy was engaged in an 
obs^ate engH(emen)rw\th Thielmjan, whom hftmui^ 
tii9(^ssiynly defeat befinre he could ckobs the Dyle^ to 
aeQopigUsh the junction proposed. 
. The movement of Blttdber, th^rfore, ^m a mas- 
terpiece of courage and juc^ent^ since die Prince 
Mareschal left c^ division of his army to maintain 
a doubtfiil onset against Gr^Hic^y, and involved him- 
sdf wjiih the otihfr three in .that flank movement 
through the. woo|)8 oC Saint Lambert, by which he 
pud with interest ihei debt which he ofwedNapo* 
leon.for « similar movement,, previous, to the af*- 
fairfr of Champeaubert and Montmirailyiia 1AI4. 
voii. VIII. 2 k 

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514 LIFE OF 

The same system which placed Bhicher in motion, 
required that the Duke of Wellington should main- 
tain his position, by confining himself to a strictly de- 
fensive contest. The British, as they were to keep 
their place at all ririn, soonnotemptalioii of partial 
success were they to be induced to advanoe. 'Every 
step whidi they might have driven the -French ba^«- 
wnAy before the coming up of the Prassiane, would 
have been a disadvantage as ftr as it went, sisee the 
dbgectwasnottobeat the enemy by the eflbvis of Ae 
English only, which, in the state of the two annSes^ 
might only have amounted to a repulse, btrt lo dflh 
tain diem hi the positf<m of La Bdle AlfisBMe, imtB 
the anny of Bhicher should come up. When Napo- 
leon, therefbre, objects to die conduct of the Dcdeeef 
Wellington on the 18th, ifhat he Xd Hot mmaturte 
in the time of action, he olgects to the very eirenaa- 
stance which rendered the victory of die day ao diMi> 
sive. He was himseff deeoyed into, and detained in 
a position, until Ids destruction was rendered inevi^ 

It has been a favourite assertion with dmoet kH 
the French, and some English writers, tilat the £^g« 
fish were on the point of being deleatsfd, when Ae 
Phissian force come up. The contrary ia ^e trntii. 
The French had attacked, and the British' had re- 
sisted, from past eleven until near seven b%Io<^ ; isA 

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though the battle was most bloody, the former had 
gained no adTantage save at the wood of Hougomont, 
and the farm-house of J^ Haye Sainte ; both th^ 
gained, but speedily lost. Baron Muffling has given 
the most explicit testimony, ^^ that the batlje could 
have afforded no . fiivouvable result to the enemy^ 
ey«n if the Prussians had never come up«^ He was 
an eye-witness, and an unquestionable judge, ai^ 
willing, doubtless, to carry the Immediate glory ac- 
quired by his countrymen on this memorable occa- 
sion, and in which he had a large personal stake, 
as high as truth- and honour will permit. At die 
time when Napoleon made the last effort, Bulow's 
tro<^ were indeed upon the field, but had not 
made any jdiysical impression by their weapons, or 
excited any moral dread by their i^pearance. Napo- 
leon announced to all his Ghiard, whom he collected 
and formed for that final exertion, that the Prussians 
whom theyvaw were dosely pursued by the French 
of Grouchy^sarmy. He himself, perhaps,had thatper- 
suasion ; for the fire of Grouchy's artillery, supposed 
to be a league and a half, but in reality nearly three 
leagues distant, was distinctly heard ; and some one 
of Napoleon's suite saw the smoke from the heights 
above Wavre. " The battle,'* he said, ** is won ; 
we must fi^ce the English position, and throw them 

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516 LIFE OF 

upon the defiles.— ^tfo9w / La Crardeen aoani /^ 
Aocoidixigly> they then made the attack in tSie-even- 
ing, when they were totally tepulsed, and chased back 
upon, and beyond, their own position. Thus, befine 
the PrussilHis caobue into serious action. Napoleon 
had done his utmost, and had not a corps remain- 
ing in order, excepting four battalions of the* Old 
Chiard. It cannot be therefore said that our alHes 
afforded the British army proteitNfn from any enemy 
that was' totally disorgahiseci ; bnt that fbr whidi the 
Prussians po deserve the gratitude 6f Britain and of 
^hirope, is the generous and courageous Confidence 
with whidt they marched At so many risks to asidst 
in the acti(tti, and the activity and 2eal with which 
^ey completed the victory. It is universally ac- 
knowledged, that the British army, eriiausted by so 
long a conflict, could not have availed theiliselves of 
the disorder of their enemy at its conclusion ; while, 
on the contrary, nothing could exceed the dexterity 
~and rapidity widi which the Prussians conducted 
the pursuit. The laurels of Waterloo mustbedivi- 

* He gave the ssmeezplaiiatioii when on boftrd of theNorChumr 
berUind. General Oourgaud had inaccurately stated that the £m- 
-peror had mistaken the corps of Bulow for that of Grouchy. Na- 
|K)leon explained that this was not the case, but that he had oppo- 
sed a sufficient force to those Prussians whom he saw in the field, 
and concluded that Grouchy was closing up t>n their flank and 

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ded,^tfae British won ^ the bftttle^ the Prussians 
achieved and rendered available the victory #* 

^ Baixm MvlBii^fl abbount of the BritiBli army snust interest oar 
readers :-£^^' There is not, perhaps, in all Europe, an army superior 
to the English in the actual field of battle. That is to say, an army 
in which military instruction is entirely directed to that point, as its 
exdusiye object. The English soldier is strongly formed and weBi. 
fed, and nature has endowed him with much courage and intrepi- 
dity. He is accustomed te severe discipline, and is Very well arm- 
ed* The iniantry opposes with confidence Ihe attack of cavalry, Aiiil 
shows more inditfiereace than a&y other European army when at- 
Aicked in thovflank or rear. These qualities ^plain why the Ehg- 
glish have never been defeated in a |ntched field since tliey were 
conffiuinded by the Duke of "Weltingtoh. 

^' On the other hand, theife are no troops in Europe less eoqperi. 
enoed than the English in tbb light service and in skirmishes ; ac- 
cordingly, they do not practise that service themselves. The Eng* 
lish army in Spain formed the standing force round which the 
Spaniards and Portuguese rallied. The Duke of Wellington acted 
wisely in iMerviag his English troops for regular battles, and in 
keeping up that idea in his army. 

'^ If, on the one hand, a country is worthy of envy wliich pos- 
sesses an army consisting entirely of grenadiers, that army might, ^ 
on the other hand, experience great disadvantage if forced to combat 
unassisted against an able general, who understands their peculiaii- 
ties, and can avoid giving them battle excepting on advantage- 
ous ground. However, it is to be supposed that the English will 
seldom make war on the continent without allies, and it appears 
their system is established on that principle. Besides, such an army 
as the English is most precious for those they may act with, as the 
most difficult task of the modem art of war is to form an army for 
pitched battles." The Baron adds, in a note upon the last sen- 
tence,—^' The people who inhabit other quarters of the world, an<l 
are not come to the same state of civilization with us, aiford a proof 
of this. Most of them know better than Europeans how to fight 

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M8 LlFll or irArOI.EON BVOV^I^AIiTE. 

saaio aiMiy Imt can naqv altaia tbe point of giiiaing A battte oTtf 
ofl. DiwipUne, in the full eztent'of the word, is tbs fruit of moral 
and rellgioiu Inatniction.**— iTiffoifV d9 Is Campagne dg VArmU 
JngUbBy fe. «0«ff Iw onirw cia Z>ti0 d$ W^lington^ et de PArmee 
PfUitSemne mui iei mkwi du Pfkue Bkteher de WMtkuU^ 1816, 
Par. 6. de 10. ShOgaHet TMngu^, 1817* 



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